Object Alone

Obj. ID: 2191
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible, Wuerzburg, 1232/33

© Bayerische Staatsbibliothek , Photographer: Unknown, 2008
Summary and Remarks

Cod. hebr. 5, originally produced as a sumptuous single volume, was divided into two around 1549 after its acquisition by Johann-Jakob Fugger (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Each volume was bound by the Fugger Binder (see Binding). The lost first leaf of vol. I, as well as its last leaf were replaced, copied anew (I:1v, I:218r) by Yishai ben Yehiel and decorated by Meir. Both scribes worked for Fugger in Venice during 1549 and 1552 (see Illuminated Documents of vol. I:1v and vol. II:1r). Before the manuscript was acquired by Fugger in 1549, it was sold in Venice in 1526 by Rabbi Hiya Meir ben David to Yekutiel ben David (cf. inscription below the colophon, II:256). Rabbi Hiya Meir worked with the Venetian printer Daniel Bomberg (Amram 1909:169; Raz-Krakotzkin 2007:105), with whom Fugger had some relations (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Thus it is possible that Fugger acquired this manuscript through Bomberg's printing house. It should be noted that in 1516-17 and 1524-26 Bomberg printed in Venice the first two editions of the Great Scriptures ((מקראות גדולות with Rashi's commentary, from which Yishai could have copied that for Genesis (vol. I:1v). The Style Despite the small illustrated panels, the composition is fairly spacious, even when there is a conflation of scenes, such as Abraham leaving Haran and the destruction of Sodom, Isaac blessing Esau while Jacob leaves the house, Joseph being thrown into the pit and sold to the Ishmaelites, Job with his four friends and his wife, and Nebuchadnezzar and the three Hebrews (I:9v, 21v, 34; II:183, 209). At times our artist used similar compositions where a group of people stands before an authoritative figure, either seated or standing (I:39, 44v, 63a). He also used similar postures and gestures in three other scenes where, in a group of three figures standing in a row, the first is looking ahead while the second turns to the third, all making hand gestures. The style and motifs of our manuscript show close affinities with Latin book illumination produced in Würzburg in the 13th century. This was first mentioned by H. Swarzenski (1936) and reiterated by Narkiss (1967), Engelhart (1987), Suckale (1988) and Klemm (1998, Nos. 194-195).

Fig. 3: Evangelistary Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11) Indeed, there are many stylistic elements which appear in our manuscript and are common to a Latin Evangelistary of c.1250 (clm 23256) and a Psalter of 1260-1265 (clm 3900), which suggest these manuscripts were produced in the same workshop. Compare for example the sitting Joseph with Augustus ordering the census (clm 23256:2; see Illuminated Document of I:39) with one hand outstretched in command and the other resting on his thigh (see also clm 3900:2v, 63; Engelhart 1987, figs. 91, 107); or the seated Moses (see Illuminated Document Documentat of I:63a) with the seated Evangelists (clm 23256:1v - fig. 3), especially Luke in the bottom right medallion (fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Luke Evangelistary Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11)

The faces are similarly rendered in light yellow ochre, with round eyes, arched eyebrows, a straight mouth and concave lower lip at times tinged with red (see Illuminated Documents of I:29v, I:47v; cf. clm 23256:1v - fig. 3). Another example is the profile of Jacob (see Illuminated Document of I:47v – fig. 5a) and that of the soldier (see Illuminated Document of II:209) which resemble that of Matthew in the bottom left medallion (clm 23256:1v - figs. 3, 5b): note the articulation of the hair and the upturned curl which also appear in the left-hand figure of the Psalter (clm 3900:2v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 91).


Fig. 5a: Jacob


Fig. 5b: Matthew Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Evangelistary Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:47v Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11)

As noted above, there are also similar motifs. The giants supporting the decorated bands in our manuscript (see Illuminated Document of I:168v) are similar to that supporting the letter P in the Evangelistary (clm 23256:3v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 167); the angel's wings are similarly rendered in both manuscripts (see Illuminated Document of I:9v; clm 23256:4; Engelhart 1987, fig. 172) and articulated in ink; and the lion at the end of Genesis (I:44) is comparable to those in the Evangelistary (clm 23256:7) and the Psalter (clm 3900:4v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 95). Despite the resemblance of both manuscripts especially in stylistic motifs, there is a difference in composition when compared with the calendar scenes of the Psalter (see Illuminated Documents of I:39 and I:63a for clm 3900:3; Engelhart 1987, figs. 89-100; chm 5, Engelhart 1987, figs. 173-174): in our manuscript the composition is more compact, the figures are mostly turning and gesturing, and the flying scrolls contribute to the movement. The colours used in our manuscript resemble those in the Evangelistary (clm 23256 – fig. 1). However, the latter's colour gradation is finer for highlights and shadows. To sum up, if a development in the style of the workshop could be sketched, it seems that the early stages are reflected in our manuscript, intermediate ones in the Evangelistary of c.1250, and still later ones in the Psalter of 1250-65 (Klemm 1998, Cat.195, p. 202). This suggestion is reinforced when the relationship between the Christian artist and the Jewish main scribe is considered. The Christian Artist and the Jewish Scribe A The iconography of most illustrated panels can be traced to Mosan art in north France and south Germany, sometimes with Byzantine antecedents such as Monreale, Palermo and St. Mark's, e.g. Noah's ark, the sacrifice of Isaac, Isaac blessing Jacob and Esau, Jacob's dream, the selling of Joseph, Pharaoh's first dream, and Job (I:6, 18v, 21v, 25v, 34, 37; II:183; Turner 1970, pp. 133-168; Frazer 1970, pp. 185-189). Exemplars with similar iconography apparently existed in the Würzburg workshop which decorated our manuscript. All the illuminated quires with panels and ends of books which were executed by the artist of the workshop were written by Scribe A: In vol. I, quires I-VI of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus (fols. 1-48v), quires IX of Exodus (fols. 63a-70v) and XXII, end of the Pentateuch and beginning of Joshua (fols. 165-172v). In vol. II the scribe had to hand two quires over to the artist: XXIV (fols. 183 Job -190; fol. 182 is an attached single leaf), and XXVII (fols. 207-212, end of Job and Daniel). All in all, the artist received from Scribe A ten of the 61 quires; the rest were partly illustrated and decorated in ink and red colour by Scribe A whenever he wrote the text. Scribe B did not decorate the text he copied, except three ends of books in ink (vol. II:121v-122; 148v-149a; 226v). In several cases the artist of the Würzburg workshop illustrated the Rashi commentary rather than the biblical text: Abraham leaving Haran and the destruction of Sodom, Jacob's dream, Jacob and Esau meeting, God reaffirms his covenant with the patriarchs, and lastly the seven-branched menorah (I:9v, 25v, 29v, 47v, 65). In two cases the panel heading one parashah illustrates Rashi's succinct reference to a story told in the previous one: the sacrifice of Isaac and Joseph meeting his father and brothers (I:18v, 44v); and in Haran and Sodom, the stories of two consecutive parashot are combined in one illustration (I:9v). It is significant to note that next to eight illustrated panels (I:9v, 13v, 21v, 29v, 34, 37; II:183, 209) there are still barely discernible inscriptions in Latin written in plummet by a 13th-century hand. There are no such inscriptions in the unpainted spaces allocated by Scribe A. Apparently these inscriptions are by the artist. Since these consist of short biblical captions and do not elaborate on the intricate iconography which was painted, it seems that Scribe A verbally explained the Rashi commentary to the painter, who noted general captions in Latin without specific iconographical details. Such co-operation, apparently in the Würzburg workshop, means that the illumination was done at the time of writing, namely in 1233, and not in the mid-13th century as suggested by scholars, when the style of the Evangelistary and Psalter reached its developed stage. It seems that our scribe did not give specific instructions about details which are common in Christian iconography, though they are also found at times in Hebrew books. One such example is Abraham and the three angels, where Michael raises his right hand in the Christian two-fingered blessing (see Illuminated Document of I:13v). Another example is God's covenant with the patriarchs, where the radical erasure of the piece of sky suggests that it included his image (see Illuminated Document I:47v). It is surprising that for the image of the seven-branched menorah (I:65) Rashi's commentary was followed for the flames bending towards the centre and the three-legged base, motifs prevalent in Jewish and Christian iconography. However, in contrast to Rashi's branches of equal height, likewise a common motif, our artist used an unusual exemplar with pairs of branches diminishing in size outwards from the central shaft, not as described in the commentary (see Illuminated Document of I:65). Later hands, presumably of owners, have scratched out the facial features of most images (Metzger 1974, pp. 549-551). Next to twelve illustrated panels (I:9v, 13v, 18v, 21v, 25v, 29v, 34, 37, 39, 40v, 63a; II:183) one hand has written in Hebrew square script the opening word of the parashot. Since the panels' original letters were distorted by the gold laid on by an artist who knew no Hebrew, and since the inscriptions were written only next to painted panels, it stands to reason that the later hand has deciphered the Hebrew opening words and rendered them legible. The patron of our manuscript, R. Joseph son of R. Moshe, commissioned another manuscript a few years after our commentary was completed, the Ambrosian Bible of 1236-1238 (see Illuminated Document of I:18v), perhaps from Würzburg. It is interesting to note that neither the iconography nor the style is comparable.

See: Additional Remarks, below

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Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
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Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
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The gold leaf is laid on a yellow ground which is revealed wherever the leaf has flaked off (e.g. I:13v, 29v, 39, 65). All exposed body parts such as faces, hands, legs and necks, as well as blank scrolls, seem to have been of a diluted yellowish-ochre colour which has turned grey (e.g. I:37, 47v; cf. clm 23256:1v). Despite the deliberate damage to faces (I:34, 37, 39), the underdrawing of features in light brown ink in many scenes is discernible (I:39, 40v, 44v, 47v, 63a; II:183, 209); or in dark brown ink over the colour (I:18v, 29v, 40v; II:183, 209). The segment of sky in I:47v is completely scraped off; it probably enclosed the head of Christ. The faces on I:18v were not damaged.
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Commentaries on the Bible (without Proverbs) by Rashi and others: Joseph Kara: Major Prophets (Isaiah and Jeremiah; Ezekiel by a disciple of Kara) and Hagiography (Lamentations); Benjamin ben Yehudah of Rome (בנימין בן יהודה מרומה): Ezra and Nehemiah; the commentaries on Job by Rashi (1-40:25) and Jacob Nazir alternating with Rashbam (Job 40:26-end); Rashbam on Genesis 1; the commentary on Chronicles is anonymous. The text mentions many other commentators, for example Elazar ben Meshulam, Dosa ben Elazar, Isaac ben Asher Halevy (Riva,( Shlomo ben Itzhak of Montil, Yaakov ben Menahem, Shemaiah Hashoshani; Menahem bar Halabo, Meir Shliah Tzibur, Baruch of Mainz, Meshulam Rofe, Saadia Gaon, Shmuel ben Meir (Rashbam(, and Yaakov ben Shabetai (see Buber 1898, pp. IV-V, note (ו); Steinschneider 1895, p. 2). Contents in detail: Vol. I: commentary on the Pentateuch and the Former Prophets: 1. Pentateuch (I:2-170) by Scribe A: Genesis (I:1v-44), Exodus (fols. 44v-83v), Leviticus (I:84-110), Numbers (I:110v-141), Deuteronomy (I:141v-170). I:1, a single leaf with the beginning of Genesis, was supplied by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549; the initial word decorated with a folded ribbon motif is by Meir. Both scribes belong to Hans-Jacob Fugger's team in Venice. 2. Former Prophets (I:170v-217v; II:1r) by Scribe A, except for I:216-217 by B: Joshua (I:170v-177), Judges (I:177v-184v), I and II Samuel (I:185-201), I and II Kings (I:201 - the abrupt end on 217v). I:218, a single leaf at the end of the volume, the last page of II Kings was copied by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549. The original page had a title page by Meir pasted on to it and was transferred with two other leaves to the beginning of the second volume starting with Isaiah (II:1v). This was done in order to divide the pandect into two volumes. Vol. II: commentary on Latter Prophets and Hagiography: 1. Major Prophets (II:1v-92) by Scribe B, except for II:1r, a 16th-century title page: Isaiah (II:1v-43), Jeremiah (II:43, 3rd column-62v), Ezekiel (II:62v, 3rd column-92). 2. Minor Prophets (II:92v-122) by Scribe A, except for II:120v, 3rd column-122 by B: Hosea (II:92v-98v), Joel (II:99-100), Amos (II:100-103v), Obadiah (II:104-104v), Jonah (II:105-105v), Micah (II:106-108v), Nahum (II:109-110v), Habakkuk (II:110v-112v), Zephaniah (II:112v-113v), Haggai (II:113v-114v), Zechariah (II:114v-120), Malachi (II:120v-122). 3. Five Scrolls (II:122v-158) by Scribe A, except for II:145r, 2nd column-149a and 152-158 by B: Ruth (II:122v-124v), Song of Songs (II:125-141v), Ecclesiastes (II:142-149a), Esther (II:149a verso-152v), Lamentations (II:153-158). 4. Hagiography (II:158v-256) by Scribe A, except for II:158v-182v, 221-226v by B: Psalms (II:158v- 182v), Job (II:183-208v), Daniel (II:209-220), Ezra (II:220v-226v), Chronicles (II:226a-255v). II:252v-255v; the running colophon is written in roundels in the corners of the text space. 5. Fol. 256: Colophon repeated twice. 6. Fol. 257v (a single leaf at the end of volume II): The beginning of a commentary by Rashbam on the Pentateuch, by Scribe A.
Material Sheepskin (e.g. II:116, 117v, 118, 119v, 120, 121v). Originally the manuscript was one pandect; today it is separated into two volumes, each with a new numeration starting on the verso of the page, in the first volume in the bottom left corner and in the second at top left. Vol. I: 1 + 220 (mistakenly foliated 218 - fols. 56 and 63 numbered twice) + 1 leaves. Fol. 218 is a 1549 addition (end of II Kings) by Yishai ben Yehiel. Vol. II: 1 + 263 (mistakenly foliated 257 - fols. 131, 143, 144, 149, 226, 242 numbered twice) + 1 leaves. Fol. 1 is a 1549 title page by Meir stuck on the original text which ends II Kings of vol. I. Both sides of the parchment are treated similarly. The quires are arranged according to Gregory's rule, each starting with the yellowish hair side. Measurements Full page: Vol. I: (394-400) x (289-295) mm. Vol. II: (390-393) x (291-294) mm. Text space: Vol. I: Shlomo: (275-283) x 190 mm. Joseph (?): (285-286) x (185-190) mm. Vol. II: Shlomo: (274-278) x (191-194) mm. Joseph (?): (272-285) x (193-194) mm. Scribes I. The text is copied by two scribes: the main Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel, and Scribe B, probably Joseph (II: 4, 30v), who copied 15 full quires and shared 4 other quires with the main scribe: Scribe A: I:2-215v; II:92v-120v, 1st and middle columns; II:122v-145, 1st column; II:149a verso-151v; II:183-220v; II:226a recto-256; II:257v Genesis 1, commentary by Rashbam. Scribe B: I:216-217v; II:1 with the 1549 title page stuck on top -92; II:120v, 3rd column-22; II:182v; II:221- 226v. II. 14th-century hands inserted book and section titles in the blank spaces allocated by Scribes A and B: 1. Book titles in display script: Leviticus (I:84), Numbers (I:110v), Deuteronomy (I:141v), I Kings (I:201); Isaiah (II:1v), Hosea (II:92v), Joel (II:99), Ruth (II:122v), Esther (II:149v), Chronicles (II:226a). 2. Parashot in built-up letters: Exodus (I:50, 53, 56a, 59, 72, 75v, 81v, 82). 3. Parashot and haftarot by another hand in semi-cursive script: Exodus (I:96, 133v), Isaiah (II:25v, 33). III. Two scribes of the Fugger team writing in Venice in 1549: 1. Yishai ben Yehiel supplied the first lost leaf of the commentary to Genesis and the last leaf of II Kings (I:1v, 218), the original of which was transferred to the second volume (II:1). This was done when the manuscript, originally a single volume, was divided into two for Fugger's Library. 2. Meir decorated the initial word of Genesis (I:1v) with a folded ribbon motif and executed the title page of the Latter Prophets in the second volume (II:1r) with drawings of a deer and a hound. Script The text is written in a semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. Columns Vols. I and II: three columns (width of one: 50 mm.), except for leaves with shaped text at the ends of books, and II:257v in two columns (a final single leaf with Rashbam's commentary on Genesis). Number of lines Vols. I and II: the main text is written in 43-44 lines per column by both scribes, except for II:257v in 70 lines per column by Scribe A. Ruling Vols. I and II: by stylus on hair side, 45 horizontal (last line blank) and 2+2+2+2 vertical lines, for both scribes. The two top and bottom lines are ruled across the entire page. Pricking Pricking is noticeable for both scribes in the upper, lower and outer margins (e.g. I:13, 71-72; II:44-46, 68-89). Pricking in the inner margin is discernible wherever Scribe A writes: in all of vol. I (e.g. I:95-102, 172-185) and in vol. II (e.g. II:1-92, 158-182). However, no inner margin pricking is discernible (II:92-121) where Scribe A follows Scribe B (II:92v-120v); but there is inner margin pricking (II:122-157) where Scribe B follows Scribe A (II:120v-122, 145-149a, 152-157). It can thus be assumed that each scribe did his own pricking and ruling, including some extra leaves which were copied by the following scribe. Quires Vol. I: 28 quires of 8 leaves each except for I(8-1)+1 (original first folio with text lost, supplied by a 16th-century hand (fol. 1); XVIII6 (no text is missing); XXVIII(8-3)+1 (three final written leaves were cut off and transferred to vol. II (quire I3+8, beginning of Isaiah); thus fols. 213-215 are single leaves with stubs. The last original folio with text, 218, was moved to the second volume (now II:1) and a new single leaf was added by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549, recopying the end of II Kings. Quires structhure: I(8-1)+1 (1-8v, fol.1 is an added single leaf of 1549 replacing a lost one); II8 (9-16v); III8 (17-24v); IV8 (25-32v); V8 (33-40v); VI8 (41-48v); VII8 (49-56v); VIII8 (56a-63v, fol. 56 numbered twice: 56, 56a); IX8 (63a-70v, fol. 63 numbered twice: 63, 63a); X8 (71-78v); XI8 (79-86v); XII8 (87-94v); XIII8 (95-102v); XIV8 (103-110v); XV8 (111-118v); XVI8 (119-126v); XVII8 (127-134v); XVIII6 (135-140v); XIX8 (141-148v); XX8 (149-156v); XXI8 (157 164v); XXII8 (165-172v); XXIII8 (173-180v); XXIV8 (181-188v); XXV8 (189-196v); XXVI8 (197-204v); XXVII8 (205-212v); XXVIII(8-3)+1 (213-218v, II Kings ends abruptly on fol. 217v; fol. 218, an added leaf with the end of II Kings, was copied by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549; the original leaf (with Isaiah on the verso) and two other leaves were transferred to the beginning of the second volume). Vol. II: 33 quires of 8 leaves each except for I3+8 (the first three, fols. 1-3, are single leaves transferred from vol. I, last quire XXVIII(8-3)+1. The original text of fol. II:1r - end of II Kings, is covered by a single title page executed by Meir in 1549); XV6 (no text missing); XXIV1+8 (the first leaf with stub); XXVII6 (no text missing); XXIX6 (no text missing); XXXIII8+1 (the single leaf contains the beginning Rashbam's commentary on the Pentateuch, Genesis 1, copied by Scribe A). Quires structhure: I3+8 (1-11v, beginning of Major Prophets; beginning of Isaiah fol. 1v; fol. 1r is a title page of 1549 by Meir, stuck onto the original recto of fol. 1v); II8 (12-19v); III8 (20-27v); IV8 (28-35v); V8 (36-43v); VI8 (44-51v); VII8 (52-59v); VIII8 (60-67v); IX8 (68-75v); X8 (76-83v); XI8 (84-91v); XII8 (92-99v); XIII8 (100-107v); XIV8 (108-115v); XV6 (116-121v, no text missing); XVI8 (122-129v); XVII8 (130-136v, fol. 131 numbered twice: 131, 131a); XVIII8 (137-143a verso, fol. 143 numbered twice: 143, 143a); XIX8 (144-149a verso, fols. 144 and 149 numbered twice: 144, 144a and 149, 149a); XX8 (150-157v); XXI8 (158-165v); XXII8 (166-173v); XXIII8 (174-181v); XXIV1+8 (182-190v, fol. 182, single first leaf added to end the Psalms, fol. 182v, beginning of Job fol. 183). According to Klemm (1998, Nos. 194-195), Proverbs was written between fol. 182 (end of Psalms by Scribe B) and fol. 183 (beginning of Job by Scribe A) as one quire; XXV8 (191-198v); XXVI8 (199-206v); XXVII6 (207-212v); XXVIII8 (213-220v); XXIX6 (221-226v); XXX8 (226a-233v, fol. 226 numbered twice: 226, 226a); XXXI8 (234-241v); XXXII8 (242-248v, fol. 242 numbered twice: 242, 242a); XXIII8+1 (249-257v; fol. 256v is blank; fol. 257 is a single leaf attached to the last quire: the recto is blank, the verso has Rashbam's commentary on Genesis 1). Catchwords For both scribes in the bottom left-hand corner of the last page of quires, decorated with lines, dots and spirals. Blank leaves Vol. I: fol. 218v (16th-century addition). Vol. II: fols. 256v, 257.
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Two colophons of the main Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel: 1. Vol. II:252v-255v, in the corners of the text space are twenty-eight roundels, four to a page, each enclosing one word on a black ink ground: אני שלמה ברבי שמואל (fol. 252v)/ כתבתי אילו פירושי עשרים (fol. 253)/ וארבעה ספרים לרבי יוסף (fol. 253v)/ ברבי משה בשנת ארבעת (fol. 254)/ אלפים ותשע מאות ותשעים (fol. 254v)/ ושלשה לבריאת עולם וזה (fol. 255)/ יהיה זכרי בשובי לעפרי (fol. 255v). I, Solomon son of R. Samuel, wrote these commentaries on the twenty-four books [of the Bible] for R. Joseph son of R. Moses in the year four thousand nine hundred and ninety-three from the creation of the world (1232/3). And this will be my memorial when I return to dust. 2. Vol. II:256, last leaf: אני שלמה ברבי שמואל ממדינת וירצבורק כתבתי/ אילו פירושים של עשרים וארבעה ספרים לרבי יוסף/ בר' משה בשנת ארבעת אלפים ותשע מאות ותשעים/ ושלשה לבריאת עולם והמקום יזכהו להגות בהם/ ולהורישם לבניו ולבני בניו עד סוף כל הדורות אמן./ ורוח ממרום יערה עלינו. ובתורתו יאיר עינינו./ ויביא משיח צדקינו. ויבנה בית מקדשינו./ ושם תצמיח קרן אלינו. אמן במהרה בימינו I, Solomon son of R. Samuel from the city of Würzburg have written these commentaries on the twenty-four books for R. Joseph son of R. Moses in the year four thousand nine hundred and ninety- three from the creation of the world (1232/3). The Lord will let him consult them and bequeath them to his sons and sons' sons to the end of generations. Amen. And may the heavenly spirit be poured out upon us (paraphrase of Is. 32:15). And His Law will enlighten our eyes and bring the Messiah of justice. And will build our Temple. And there you will make the horn [of David] sprout up for us (paraphrase of Psalm 132:17). Amen, speedily in our own days.
Scribal Notes
Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel: The scribe marked his name, Shlomo, with spirals or flowers (I:13v, 24, 25v, 33v, 69v, 163v, 201v, 202v; II:125v, 127v, 133, 136v, 143, 228v, 233v, 243, 250v). Vol. I:75v, the name Shlomo (שלמה) is written in acrostic. Vol. II:243, the words בר שמואל (son of Shmuel) are added in the cartouche which decorates the name Shlomo. Vol. I:170, at the end of the Pentateuch, above the word strength (חזק), an inscription reads: אילו פירושי חומש יסוד המאור הגדול רבינו שלמה ברבי יצחק ויש בתוכן טעמים ומדרשים שאינן מיסודו ונוספים על פתרונו ועין לא ראתה זולתם ואזן לא שמעה דוגמתן והמשכיל בהם יזהיר כזוהר הרקיע (דניאל יב:3) ואורו לא ישקיע, וברוך הנותן ליעף כח (ישעיהו מ:29), א'ס' (=אמן סלה). These are the commentaries on the Pentateuch from the source of our great light, Rabbi Solomon ben Rabbi Isaac, and among them are commentaries (טעמים) and midrashim not by him but additions to his interpretation which no eye has seen and no ear has heard; and "the wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmanent" (Daniel 12:3) and its light will not set, and blessed be "He [who] giveth power to the faint" (Is. 40:29), Amen. Selah. The scribe writes elaborate rhymed verses at the ends and beginnings of books (e.g. I:170-170v; I:98v-99, 103v-106). Scribe B: Joseph (?): The name Joseph is discreetly marked by Scribe B with dots in vol. II only (e.g. II:4, 30v). Although it could be the scribe's name, the colophon mentions Joseph as the owner of the manuscript (II:256).
Trade Mark

Fig. 1:

Front cover Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, vol. I

Fig. 2: Back cover Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, vol. I Both volumes have a similar binding (vol. I: 395 x 285 mm.; vol. II: 399 x 275 mm,): green morocco faded to brown on wooden boards, gold-tooled similarly on front and back with a central roundel in an undulating floral rhomboid within a large rectangle. The latter is decorated with foliate motifs at the corners and with a flower at the centre of each side of the frame (figs. 1-2). The central front roundel is inscribed פירושים (Commentaries). Above and below it is Fugger's shelf mark in Hebrew and Latin respectively: ת and Y for volume I (fig. 1), and ש (sic) and Z for volume II. The roundel on the back encloses a shield-like motif. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching has five hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands: two on the fore-edge and one each at top and bottom, corresponding to holes from four missing nails on the edges of the back cover (see e.g. Cod. hebr. 301). The edges of leaves are goffered. The binding was done by the Fugger Binder (also called Venetian Apple Binder) in Venice in 1549 (Le Bars 2004, pp. 56-59; Hobson 1999, p. 119 and n. 65, 120-129, 255-259; Schunke 1964, pp. 173-176; figs. XVII-XIX; Tiftixoglu 2004, pp. 63, 94 and figs. 5-8; Wagner 2006, pp. 84-85). See also Introduction to Fugger manuscripts. Flyleaves: the bindings of both volumes have flyleaves torn from 13th-century German Latin manuscripts: 1. Text from a Passional: vols. I and II front pastedown and flyleaves; 2. Texts from two different Homiliary manuscripts: vol. I and II back pastedowns and flyleaves, one Homiliary for each (cf. Cod. hebr. 80, which previously belonged to Cardinal Domenico Grimani, has flyleaves similar to the back of vol. II. Indeed, its position in Fugger's Library followed our two volumes). See also History.

Decoration Program
The painted decoration of the two-volume commentary on the Bible was done by a single unknown artist, who illustrated the text of the main Scribe A at the beginnings of books (Genesis, Exodus, Joshua, Job, Daniel) and parashot (Genesis, Exodus), and decorated the ends of books with bands (Genesis, Pentateuch and Job). The two scribes decorated the text they wrote with pen drawings: Scribe A at the beginnings of haftarot (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Minor Prophets); some text illustrations (Exodus and I Kings); mid-book divisions; headings and ends of sections; floral decorations to ascenders and stems of other letters, and a decorated colophon; Scribe B sparingly decorated the word haftarah (Ezekiel), and decorated ends of books (Malachi, Ecclesiastes and Ezra). However, for most books, parashot and haftarot empty spaces were allocated for initial words and text illustrations which were not executed. Some initial words were added in the blank spaces by a 14th-century hand. In 1549 Meir of the Fugger team decorated a title page to vol. II and the first initial word of vol. I on additional leaves. The colours are white, green, red, deep blue, magenta, yellow ochre, light brown and gold leaf on a yellow ground (e.g. I:9v, 13v). Some motifs were left uncoloured showing the parchment (e.g. a horse on I:29v), and scrolls were not inscribed. Decoration Program in detail: I. Painted text illustrations and decorations by the artist: 1. Four panels each across two columns at the beginning of books (height: 11-14 lines): Exodus, Joshua, Job, Daniel, three illustrated: Exodus (I:44v, ואלה: Joseph with Jacob and his brothers), Job (II:183, איש: Job lamenting before his four friends and his wife), Daniel (II:209, :בשנת Daniel and the three Hebrews). The Joshua panel (I:170v, (ויהי is written in gold. 2. Thirteen small illustrated panels at the beginnings of parashot within the text columns (height: 7-8 lines, width of one text column) placed directly below the explicit of the previous one: a. Eleven for Genesis: I:6 ( ,תיבהNoah's ark); I:9v (לך לך, Abraham leaving Haran; the destruction of Sodom); I:13v (,וירא Abraham greeting the angels); I:18v (ויהיו, the sacrifice of Isaac); I:21v (ואלה, Isaac blessing Jacob and Esau); I:25v (וייצא, Jacob's dream); I:29v (וישלח, Jacob meeting Esau); I:34 (וישב, the selling of Joseph); I:37 (,ויהי Pharaoh's first dream); I:39 (ויגש, Joseph and his brothers); I:40v (ויהי, Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh). b. Two for Exodus: I:47v (,וידבר God establishes his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob); I:63a (ויקחו, bringing donation to the Tabernacle). 3. One full-page text illustration of the seven-branched menorah next to the relevant text (Ex. 25:31-40; I:65). 4. Three decorated ends of books with X or V-shaped bands framing text: Genesis (I:43v-44: end medallions with a lion flanked by two lionesses (fol. 44); Pentateuch (I:168v-169v: their two bases are prostrate giants (fol. 168v), lion masks (fol. 169), or dormant lions (fol. 169v); as well as Job (II:207v-208v). II. Illustrations and decorations in brown ink and red colour by Scribe A: 1. Nine pen drawings illustrating Exodus, Numbers and I Kings: a. Three inscribed diagrammatic maps, two representing the Land of Canaan (Numb. 34:1-12) with north (I:139v) and east (I:140) at the top. The third (I:184v) shows the town of Shiloh in relation to Bethel, Lebonah and Shechem (Judg. 21:19). b. Two small pen drawings illustrating the movement of a finger or hand coating a wafer with oil or anointing a king are inserted within the text and decorated with acanthus scrolls in red or spared-ground technique (Ex. 29:2, I:74; I Kings, 1:33-34, I:201v). c. Four drawings refer to the building of Solomon's Temple. An inverted V denoting a lintel is decorated with spared-ground scrolls (I Kings, 6:31, I:204v); three drawings illustrating various componentes which form the capitals of the columns Jachin and Boaz (I Kings, 7:15-23, I:205v), one resembles a palm branch and two are decorated with spared-ground acanthus scrolls. 2. Thirty-one decorated beginnings of haftarot (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Minor Prophets; 7-8 lines high, the width of one text column): the first words in built-up ink letters are placed within double outlined roundels (d.50 mm.) decorated with acanthus scrolls (e.g. I:171v), chequered patterning (e.g. I:213), hatching (e.g. I:206v, 210, 212v, 214v; II:107v), at times on a black and red ground (e.g. I:171v, 182, 190, 203), with additional fleurs-de-lis (I:179, 182) or enclosed in red arches (e.g. I:171v, 182v). 3. Mid-book (חצי) divisions, headings and ends of sections: a. Large display script decorated with scrolls in spared-ground technique: mid-book across two text columns for Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Job and Daniel (II:123v, 134v, 144a, 196, 213); the initial word Vayelech (וילך in Parashat Nizavim) in similar large display script (Deut. 31:1; I:161v); the word strength (חזק), though smaller, marks the end of the Pentateuch (I:170). b. Small framed built-up letters in brown ink (height: 3 lines): Names of books in the space between two columns (e.g. Judges (שפטים), Samuel (שמואל), Kings (מלכים) (I:177v, 185, 201) and the Minor Prophets (תרי עשר) (II:92v); section headings (I:56a verso-61 passim), as well as explicits and incipits (I:184v-185; II:226a). Some headings are built-up in vermilion (I:171, 186v; II:124v-125v). c. Explicits and incipits: names of books are mentioned in florid rhymed verses from the end of Exodus on (e.g. I:170v, 84, 201; II:122v, 208v, 209v. 4. Shaped and accentuated texts: a. At the ends of books in triangular, diamond, conical and trapezoidal forms, framed by X or V- shaped bands. Some were coloured and decorated by the artist (see above): Genesis (I:43v-44), Pentateuch (I:168v-169v), Job (II:207v-208v). Other similar shapes with uncoloured bands: Exodus (I:82v-83v); Leviticus (I:109v-110); Numbers (I:140v-141); Joshua (I:176v-177v); Judges (I:184v, roundel); Samuel (I:200v-201, roundels flanking an hour-glass shape); Minor Prophets (II:98v, 100, 103v, 104v, 105v, 108v, 110v, 112v, 113v, 114v, 119v-120), Ruth (II:124v), Song of Songs (II:140v-141v), Daniel (II:218v-220), Chronicles (II:252v-255v, decorated in the apexes with fleurs-de-lis). b. Certain text passages or references to some Rabbis are marked by flanking scroll bands in spared-ground technique (II:193, 199 - אלעזר הקליר, 209v, 242v-244, 250v), have similarly decorated frames (II:252), in the form of fleurs-de-lis (I:135; II:247 - ודוד זקן ושבע ימים; ודוד זקן, 248-248v). 5. Floral decoration to the ascender of lamed (ל) and to stems of other letters: (II:236v, 238v, 240, 241v-242v). 6. Emphasizing the name of Scribe A: a. Floral decoration of the name Shlomo in the text (I:201v; II:136, 233v, 240, 241v-242v, 250v); b. Colophon of Shlomo ben Shmuel within a decorated cartouche (II:243); c. Colophon of Shlomo ben Shmuel within 28 roundels: the end of Chronicles (II:252v-255v) is written in triangular shapes framed by uncoloured bands decorated with fleurs-de-lis in the apexes. In the corners between the triangles of text are twenty eight roundels, four to a page, each enclosing one word of Scribe A's colophon on a black ground. On the last leaf (II:256) the scribe repeats the colophon, adding further information. III. Decoration in ink by Scribe B: 1. Ends of books in shaped text: Ezekiel (II:92, triangles), Malachi (II:121v-122, roundels, scalloped frame and an arch), Ecclesiastes (II:148v-149, 149a, scalloped frames) and Ezra (II:226v, roundels). The frames are uncoloured. 2. The word haftarah is sparingly decorated in Ezekiel (II:88v, 89v). IV. 14th-century hands inserted book and section titles in the blank spaces allocated by Scribes A and B: 1. Book titles in display script for some books, written across two text columns filled in with ink, at times crudely decorated: Leviticus (I:84, ויקרא), Numbers (I:110v, וידבר), Deuteronomy (I:141v, אלה), I Kings (I:201, והמלך), Isaiah (II:1v, חזון), Hosea (II:92v, דבר), Joel (II:99, דבר), Ruth (II:122v, ויהי), Esther (II:149a verso, ויהי), Chronicles (II:226a, אדם). Leviticus (I:84, ויקרא ) is decorated with wriggle work and foliate extensions, with a hunting scene above. A similar hunt is depicted above the opening word of Ruth (II:122v, ויהי) and within the letters in spared-ground technique. The opening word of Numbers (I:110v,וידבר ) is surrounded by wriggle work and some foliate extensions; and that of Chronicles (II:226a, אדם) has an incomplete chequer pattern decoration. The other opening words are plain, one incomplete (I:141v). 2. For parashot, in built-up ink letters, the width of one text column: I:50 (ויאמר), 53 (ויהי), 56a (וישמע), 59 (ואלה), 72 (ואתה), 75v (כי תשא), 81v (ויקהל), 82 (אלה); 3. By other hands in semi-cursive script for parashot: (I:96 (וידבר), 133v (פנחס); and haftarot in spaces allocated by Scribe B: II:25v (הפטרה ואלה שמות), II:33 (הפטרה לך לך). V. Decoration of an initial word (I:1v) and title page (II:1r) by Meir, in 1549: three leaves were added when the manuscript was divided into two volumes in Venice for Fugger's Library: two text pages written by Yishai ben Yehiel (I:1v, 218); and one initial word בראשית (I:1v) and a title page נביאים אחרונים decorated by Meir (II:1r, stuck onto an original leaf).
Suggested Reconsdivuction
Annotations: Latin inscriptions and Hebrew parashot names next to some illustrated panels in faint plummet: 1. A 13th-century hand wrote Latin captions next to some parashot panels in Genesis (I:9v, 13v, 18v, 21v, 25v – illegible, 29v, 34, 37, 39, 40v – illegible), as well as in Job and Daniel (II:183, 209). 2. A later hand (14th century?) added names to some parashot in Genesis in square Hebrew script. 3. Several later hands have added, in the margins and intercolumnar space, various versions of Rashi's commentary (e.g. I:6, 9v, 22v, 23, 25v) drawn from other manuscripts or printed books. Signatures: 1. At the top of the back cover in black ink, vols. I and II: Stat I. n. 9 and Stat I. n. 10 respectively (second signature of Fugger's Library). 2. At the bottom of the front cover in black ink, vols. I and II: I. n. 65 and I. n. 66 (Duke's Library, Prommer's signature). 3. Front flyleaf in red ink, vols. I and II: I. 55 and I. 56 (Duke's Library, Prommer's revision in 1583). 4. On the ex-libris stuck on the front pastedown of each volume, written in pencil on the right: Cod. hebr. 5; and on the left the book's contents in Latin: Shlomo Ben Isaac (Raschi)/ Vol. I compendium in/ Pentateuchum et propheteas priores. Vol. II Compendium in Prophetas Posteriores/ et Hagiographos Würceburg scriptor 4993 (1233)/ a R. Salomone/ B. Samuel. 5. Stickers on the back pastedown of each volume: Cod. hebr. 5; and on the spine: Cod. hebr. 5/I and Cod. hebr. 5/II respectively. 6. On the front pastedown of vols. I and II: an ex-libris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x 155 mm.) with the coat-of-arms of Elector Maximilian I from 1639 (Dressler 1972:B3ab). It is stuck on the earlier ex-libris of 1618, which is that of Duke Maximilian I before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f). 7. Oval stamp of the library, Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis, on front and back fly-leaves of both volumes, and vol. II:1, 257. 8. Vols. I and II restored in 1957 (IBR Nos. 1832, 1833). Inscriptions: Vol. I, fol. 1 in brown ink: 1. Librarian 1 in square script (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts): פירושים של רבינו שלמָה וקצת תלמוד קצר/ על חמשה חומשי תורה ועל ההפטרות/ מכל השנה./ חלק ראשון Commentaries of Rabbi Shlomo and abbreviated Talmud/ on the five books of Moses and haftarot for the entire year. Part One. 2. Samuel Quichelberg (librarian of Fugger and Duke Albrecht V): In quinque libros Mosis commentarij/ Rabbi Solomonis nemque in Prophetas/ priores ut Iosuam, Iudices, Samuelem et/ libros Regum. distinctis Sabbathorum lectioni/ bus. Vol. II, fol.1 in brown ink: 1. Librarian 1 in square script: נביאים אחרונים/ עם פירוש רְבִי שלמָה וגם רְבִי דוד קמחי/ המְפורשים וקצת תרגום יונתן על/ ההפטרות מכל השנה./ חלק שני Latter Prophets with commentaries by Rabbi Shlomo and Rabbi David Kimchi and some Targum Jonathan on haftarot for the entire year. Part Two. 2. Samuel Quichelberg: Aliorum prophetarum seu secondorum / commetarij tantum, sine ipso contextu / Rabbi David Kimhj. 3. On verso of front flyleaf by a shaky hand in square script: נביאים אחרונים / עם פירוש רְבִי שלמָה וגם רבי דוד קמחי / המָפורֻשים וק [צת] Latter Prophets with commentaries by Rabbi Shlomo and Rabbi David Kimchi. Owners' inscriptions: Vol. I:2, in Ashkenazi semi-cursive script of the 15th century (?): נפל לחלקי נאם גר אברם ויך בך (?), Fell unto my lot, says the convert (גר) Avram Weich Bach (?). This inscription was written after the loss of the first leaf and before its replacement in 1549 (I:1). Vol. II:256, in Ashkenazi semi-cursive script, below the colophon, a signed inscription from Venice in the year 1526, in Ashkenazi cursive script: זה הפירוש מכ"ד ספרים [נמ]כר לכמ"ר (לכבוד מעלת רבינו) יקותיאל בכמ"ר דוד ז"ל בהכרזת ב"ד (בית דין) היום יום ה' י"ג טבת רפ"ו לפ"ק פה ווניזייה. נאם הקטן שב[תלמי]דים חיא מאיר בכהר"ר דוד זצ"ל This commentary on the twenty-four books was sold to Rabbi Yekutiel son of the late David in a court declaration today Thursday, 13th of Tevet 5286 (29.12.1526) here in Venice, so says the smallest (i.e. humblest) amongst scholars Hiya Meir ben David of blessed memory (see Remarks).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Abbreviations BAV Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica BL London, British Library BM London, British Museum BNE Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional BnF Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France Bodl. Lib. Oxford, Bodleian Library BSB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek CJA Jerusalem, Center for Jewish Art, The Hebrew University: • Narkiss Archive • Schubert Archive • Sed-Rajna Archive • CJA Documentation HUC Cincinnati, Hebrew Union Collage ICA Princeton, Index of Christian Art IMHM Jerusalem, Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts at the National Library of Israel IM Jerusalem, Israel Museum JTS New York, Theological Seminary of America MMT Paris, Musée Marmottan Monet MTAK Budapest, Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences NLI (olim JNUL) Jerusalem, National Library of Israel PML New York, Pierpont Morgan Library ÖNB Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek VadSlg St. Gall, Kantonsbibliothek Vadianische Sammlung Wroclaw Univ. Lib. Wroclaw, University Library Bibliography Amram 1909 D. W. Amram, The Makers of Hebrew Books in Italy, Philadelphia 1909. Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985 M. Beit-Arié, ed. The Worms Mahzor: MS Jewish National and University Library Heb. 4°781, Vaduz 1985. Beit-Arié 2006 M. Beit-Arié, "How Scribes Disclosed their Names in Hebrew Manuscripts", Studia Rosenthaliana, 38/39 (2006), pp. 144-157. Bloch 1974 P. Bloch, "Seven-Branched Candelabra in Christian Churches", Journal of Jewish Art 1 (1974), pp. 44- 49. Bloy אל מול פני המנורה פ' א' בלוי, "אל מול פני המנורה", ירושלים (P. A. Bloy, "In front the Menorah", (n.d.). http://ns2.shturem.net/images/blogs/1218736257.pdf?lang=hebrew Buber 1898 ש' באבער, פירוש רבי יוסף קרא, ברסלב תרנ"ח. Buschhausen 1980 H. Buschhausen, Der Verduner Altar: das Emailwerk des Nikolaus von Verdun im Stift Klosterneuburg, Vienna 1980. Cahn 1982 W. Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination, Ithaca 1982. Chapman 1980 G. Chapman, "Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph: A Mosan Enamel in the Walters Art Gallery", The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, vol. 38 (1980), pp. 34-59. Chiat 1980 M. J. Chiat, "Synagogue and Churches in Byzantine Beit She'an", Journal of Jewish Art, Jerusalem, 7 (1980). D’Emilio 1999 J. D’Emilio, "Looking Eastward: The Story of Noe at Monreale Cathedral", C. Hourihane (ed.), Image and Belief. Studies in Celebration of the Eighteenth Anniversary of the Index of Christian Art, Occasional Paper 3 (Princeton, N. J. 1999), pp. 135-150. Demus 1984 O. Demus, The Mosaics of San Marco in Venice: the Thirteenth Century, Part 2, Chicago and London 1984. Deuchler 1967 F. Deuchler, Der Ingeborgpsalter, Berlin 1967. Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Engelhart 1987 H. 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Original Manuscript
Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Ilona Steimann | 2008; 2008
Author of description
Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Dr. Andreina Contessa; Ilona Steimann; Michal Sternthal ;Yaffa Levy | 2008-2013; 2010; 2011; 2011-2012; 2011-2013
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal. Project head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin |
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2013
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |