Object Alone

Obj. ID: 21103
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger's First Venetian Commentaries on the Bible, Venice, 1549

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,
Summary and Remarks

Yaakov ben Yosef appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 10, 12, 15, 17, 22, 24, 27, 31, 32, 40, 43, 48, 49, 57, 58, 62, 73; Scribe4 inBSB Cod.hebr. 10, 24, and 62; David ben Moshe in BSB Cod.hebr. 11, 40, and 54; Yishai ben Yehiel in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 10, 19, 26, 28, 30, 31, 33, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, 56, 58, 62, 64, 68; and Scribe5 inBSB Cod.hebr. 30 and 63. 


6 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Fugger's First Venetian Commentaries on the Bible | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Active dates
Reconstruction dates
Unknown |
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 52 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 52)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Paper, 2 + 301 + 5 leaves.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (339-340) x (244-246) mm.
Text space: Scribe 4: (237-238) x (138-141) mm.
David ben Moshe: (238-240) x (136-139) mm.
Yishai ben Yehiel: (238-240) x (241-242) mm.
Scribe 5: (238-239) x (135-136) mm.
Panel Measurements
Well preserved. Apparently the manuscript was not used.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
1. Commentary on the Pentateuch by Joseph Bekhor Shor (fols. 1-208v): beginsבראשית ברא הקב"ה כלומ(ר) בראשית בתחילת בריותיו (Jellinek 1856; Halevi 1924:97-129, 209-268; Joel 1936-37:515 no. 7; Schwab 1964:2; Nevo 2001:209-268). 2. Commentary on the Five Scrolls by Levi ben Gershom (fols. 209-293v): beginsאמר לוי בן גרשום ראינו לבאר המגלה הזאת והיא מגלת שיר השירים. This commentary cover only four scrolls: Song of Songs, Ruth, Ecclesiastes and Esther. 1st ed. Riva di Trento 1560. The fifth scroll, Lamentations, is dealt with by the following commentator: 3. Commentary on Lamentations by Joseph ben Simeon Kara (fols. 294-297v): beginsאיכה ישבה בדד העיר רבתי עם . 1st ed. Naples 1487.
Yaakov ben Yosef (title page): fol. 1' in brown ink. Scribe 4* (Scribe A**): fols. 1-208v in brown ink. David ben Moshe (Scribe B): fols. 209-242v in brown ink. Yishai ben Yehiel (Scribe C): fols. 243-294 (lines 1-2: ...לכן) in brown ink. Scribe 5 (Scribe D): fols. 294 (lines 3: רבת ...-30)-297v in brown ink. The text by Scribe 4 and David ben Moshe was proofread by the corrector of the Fugger group, e.g. fols. 2, 224v. * Running numbers (Scribe 1, 2, etc.) denote the anonymous main scribes and interpolators throughout the entire group of Fugger’s Venetian manuscripts. Scribes identified by name are not numbered. ** The letters A, B, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes and interpolators in this manuscript.
The main text is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script.
Number of Lines
The text is written in 30 lines per page, mainly in one column.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines (e.g. fol. 208a). On fol. 1 the scribe duplicated some of the ruling in plummet in order to write the title.
26 quires of 12 leaves each, except for XVIII6, XX10, and XXVI8. Quire structure: I12 (1'-12); II12 (13-24); III12 (25-36); IV12 (37-48); V12 (49-60); VI12 (61-72); VII12 (73-84); VIII12 (85-96); IX12 (97-108); X12 (109-120); XI12 (121-132); XII12 (133-144); XIII12 (145-156); XIV12 (157-168); XV12 (169-180); XVI12 (181-192); XVII12 (193-204); XVIII6 (205-208, 208a, 208b); XIX12 (209-220); XX10 (221-230); XXI12 (231-242); XXII12 (243-254); XXIII12 (255-266); XXIV12 (267-278); XXV12 (279-290); XXVI8 (incorrect foliation: 292-293v; 294-297, 297a, 297b).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally at the left below the text in semi-cursive script by the text scribe.
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 1'v, 208a, 208a verso, 208b, 208b verso, 209v, 297a, 297a verso, 297b, 297b verso.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Fol. 152: The colophon ending the text is written by Yishai ben Yehiel in semi-cursive script: נשלם זה הביאור והיתה השלמתו בסוף אדר הראשון שנת ש"ט לפרט האלף הששי (This commentary was completed at the end of I Adar in the year 5309 [1549]).
Scribal Notes
Fol. 230v: There is a crown above the name David.
Watermarks: Trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; e.g. fols. 3, 40, 57, 96, 121, 140, 172, 209, 220, 224, D: 244, 254, 261): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80: Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550); cross between '3' and 'M' in the outer corner of the folio (28 mm; e.g. fol. 217): unidentified.
Trade Mark

Green leather turned brown on wooden boards (340 x238 mm); gold-tooled similarly on front and back with a central roundel within an undulating lozenge in a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The front roundel is inscribed CŌMENTARII IN PENTATEVCHVM, and the letter D below. The back roundel is inscribed על התורה/פירושים, and below the letter ד. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has four hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the edges of the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two on the side and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails on the edges of the back cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring intended to hook over the nails in the opposite cover. The leaves are gilt-edged.


This binding was made for Fugger by Andrea di Lorenzo inVenice(Hobson 1999:111-112). Similar bindings in BSB: Cod.hebr. 11, 17, 22, 24, 40, 54 and Cod.gr. 21, 39.


Watermarks on flyleaves: At the center of the folio an anchor within a circle and a star above it (65 mm; former front pastedown); trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; front cover first and second and back cover fifth flyleaves) similar to Harlfinger 1974-80: Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550).


Decoration Program

The decoration is executed by Yaakov ben Yosef, David ben Moshe, and Yishai ben Yehiel:

  1. Yaakov ben Yosef: The title on fol. 1' is written in decorated display script. For similar titles, captions and initial words see BSB Cod.hebr. 10, fol. 1; Cod.hebr. 15, fol. 245; Cod.hebr. 17, fol. 169; Cod.hebr. 22, fols. 1, 70, 181; Cod.hebr. 24, fols. 165, 213; Cod.hebr. 32, fol. 1; Cod.hebr. 40, fols. 160, 161, 219, 219v; Cod.hebr. 48, fol. 1; Cod.hebr. 62, fols. 1, 183.
    1. Yishai ben Yehiel: A crown above various words (e.g. fol. 245v).
    2. David ben Moshe: Decoration of the first letter on the first line of the leaf (e.g. fol. 241).
Suggested Reconsdivuction
Owners' inscriptions: None. Inscriptions of librarians and researchers: The numbering of the texts by Fugger’s librarians does not always correspond to the actual number of texts in the manuscript: N0 1: fols. 1-208v; N0 2: fols. 209-297v. Third front flyleaf, verso: contents in Hebrew in brown ink by Librarian 1a: חמשה חומשי תורה/ ופירושו עליהן הנקר'(א)/ בכור שור/ גם חמש מגילת עם/ פירוש מפואר/ הרלב"ג. Contents in Latin in light brown ink by Librarian 3: Bechor zor super pentateuchum\ Hamaz meghiloth de ralbag. Contents in Latin characters in brown ink by Librarian 2: Hamischah humschei tora\ up(h)eiruscho aleihoen hanikra\ bechor schor\ Gam hames megilos im\ p(h)eirusch mephoar\ haralbag. Contents in Latin in brown ink by Librarian 6: i. Rabi Leui ben Gamaliel, and below it: Commentarium in Pentateuchu tuius titulus est Bechor schor\ i. Bos primus.\ Rabi Leui filij Gerson aut Gamalielis commentarius\ super quinq Megillos. On both exlibris on the inside of the front wooden board there are the contents in Latin by two different librarians. Exlibris and stamps: Inside of the front wooden board: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (230 x 155 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972:B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (175 x 135 mm) of 1618, before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f). אין חותמת של הספרייה ? Old Signatures: Front cover in black ink: Sta. 8 n0 14 (second signature of Fugger's library). Front cover in black ink: 2.(?) 26 (Duke's library, Prommer's signature). Spine, on sticker in black ink: Cod.hebr. 52 (current signature). Inside of the front wooden board, on the exlibris in plummet: Cod.hebr. 52 (current signature).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Halevi 1924 מ' הלוי, "פרוש רבי יוסף בכור שור על ספר ויקרא", הצופה לחכמת ישראל ח (תרפ"ה) (M. Halevi, "R. Joseph Bekhor Shor's Commentary on Leviticus", Ha-Zofe le-Hochmat Israel 8 (1924)). Harlfinger 1974-80 D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin 1974-1980. Hobson 1999 A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings, Cambridge 1999. Jellinek 1856 A. Jellinek, Commentar zum Pentateuch von R. Joseph Bechor-Schor (nach einer Handschrift der königl. Hofbibliothek in München), Leipzig 1856. Joel 1936/37 י' יואל, "אוסף כתבי יד מבית דפוס ראם," קרית ספר יג (תרצ״ו-תרצ״ז):513-523 (Y. Joel, "Collection of Manuscripts from Ram's Printing House", Kyriat Sefer 13 (1936-37):513-523). Nevo 2001 י' נבו, פרוש רבי יוסף בכור שור על התורה, ירושלים תשס"א (Y. Nevo, R. Joseph Bekhor Shor's Commentary on the Pentateuch, Jerusalem 2001). Schwab 1964 M. Schwab, Les incunables orientaux et les impressions orientales au commencement du XVIe siècle: rapport à M. le ministre de l'instruction publique sur une mission en Bavière et en Wurtemberg, Nieuwkoop 1964. Sirat and Dukan, unpublished C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux"sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, München 1895.
Ilona Steimann | 2008, 2015
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008, 2015; 2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 05-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |