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Obj. ID: 8378
Jewish Architecture
  Synagogue at 32 Izmailskaia St. in Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi, Ukraine

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Ukrzakhidprojectrestavratsiia, 2001

Name of the place: BELGOROD-DNESTROVSKII

Name of the synagogue: Synagogue at 32 Izmailskaia St. in Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi (Akkerman).

Location: Odessa region, BELGOROD-DNESTROVSKII, 32 Izmail`skaya Street.

In 1998 architect L. Dmitrovich, with the assistance of V.M. Krichevskii (the director of Belgorod-Dnestrovskii Jewish society), completed the field documentation and the measurements.

1. History of the place: Belgorod-Dnestrovskii is a town in the Odessa region of Ukraine located in the center of Belgorod-Dnestrovskii district. The town is also a port on Dniester Estuary, settled about 18 km from the Black sea.

1.1. The first written record of the town: In the 6th century B.C.E. Belgorod-Dnestrovskii was known as the Greek polis Tira. In the 9th century C.E. where the town of Tira stood, the Slavic tribes Tyvertsy and Ulichi founded their political, economic, and commercial center of Belgorog. In the 13th century, Belgorog became a part of the Galich-Volyn` princedom. Then, in the 14th century the Genovese conquered the town and gave it the new name of Monkastro (Mavrokastro). In the 15th century the town, at that time called Cetatea Alba (meaning White fortress), became a part of Moldova principality. In 1484 Turkey acquired Cetatea Alba and in 1503 named it Akkerman (meaning White stone). Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the town was the center of Belgorod Horde. According to Bucharest Peace Treaty in 1812, Akkerman then passed to Russia. At the beginning of 1918 Akkerman (at that time was a part of Bessarabia) was conquered by Romania. In 1940 it was returned to USSR. In the beginning of the World War II, on the 5th of July, 1941, the fascists occupied Belgorod. On August 23rd of the same year, it was liberated by forces of the 3rd Ukrainian Front. In 1944, the town received the name Belgorod-Dnestrovskii.

1.4.2. Founding of synagogues, batei-midrash, yeshibot, orphanages, retirement homes, heders, craft schools, cemeteries, hospitals, mikvaot, burial societies, social organizations, sport clubs, publishing houses, etc.: Until WWII, the town had a significant Jewish population. There were several synagogues, schools, banks, and old-age homes.

1.4.5. Jewish life today (1998): There are three preserved synagogue buildings in Belgorod-Dnestrovskii. One of the buildings houses the Belgorod-Dnestrovskii Jewish Society as well as an active synagogue.

2. Topography: The synagogue is situated among other town buildings and is not far from either of the other synagogues.

3. General state of preservation: The building has been preserved with very few changes.

4. History of the building:

4.2. When it was built: The synagogue may have been built around the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century.

4.5. Periods of reconstructions, their chronology: The western volume was added later on.

5. General description of the exterior of the building:

5.1. Division into the volumes: The synagogue is compact. The interior concludes two main parts: the main hall and the vestibule.

5.2. The main and side entrances, their situation relatively to the cardinal points: The building has two entrances: on the north and on the south.

5.3. Surrounding buildings, attached or functionally connected (either historically or today) with the synagogue: The synagogue is a separately situated building.

5.4. The later extensions and/or reconstructed parts of the building: A big volume was added to the synagogue building on the western side.

5.5. The walls: The walls are brick and plastered over.  The width of the walls in the main hall is .91 m and the width in the western volume is .75 m.

5.7. The roof: The roof is three-sloped, semi-gabled, and covered by slate. Over the apse the roof is covered by metal. The inner constructions of the roof are wood. The entrance to the garret is through the hole in the ceiling of the second tier.

5.8. The general impression of the synagogue and its attachments: The building looks like a monumental worship building with simple decor and planning.

5.9. Architectural style of the building in each of its constructive periods: The building has no clear-cut style signs.

6. General description of the ground plan:

6.1. The shape of the plan outline: The building is based on a rectangular plan. The later addition made to the synagogue on the western side is a volume with rooms and a staircase up to the second tier. On the eastern end there is a semicircular apse. 

6.2. General exterior measurements: The northern wall is 27.68 m, the western wall is 14.2 m, the southern wall is 27.68 m, and the eastern wall is 14.2 m. The length of the apse is 4.6 m and the width of the apse is 2.15 m.

6.3. Orientation of the ground plan: Traditional orientation (facing the east).

7. Description of the facades:

7.1. The Western Facade:

7.1.1. General measurements of the façade: The length of the western façade is 14.2 m. The height from the conditional zero up to the top of the wall is 6.8 m and the height from the conditional zero up to the finial of the roof is about 13.7 m.

7.1.2. Number of tiers of the façade: The facade has two tiers.

7.1.2.1.1. Door / window openings: location and number of openings: The ground floor has two windows and a door. The upper floor has 5 windows.

7.1.2.1.2. Outlines of the openings: All the openings are rectangular.

7.1.2.1.3. Frames of the openings: Two windows on the ground floor and three windows on the upper floor are filled with glass blocks. The frames of the two windows on the upper floor are wooden, simply designed, 3-sashed, and with fortochki (small opening window panes). The doors are wooden, 2-sashed, and with transoms.

7.1.2.1.4. The exterior decorative framings of the openings: There are no framings.

7.1.2.2. Decorative elements of the tier: Between the pilasters and over the windows and the entrance of the ground floor there are decorative, slated, flat-formed elements.

7.1.2.3. Finishing of the façade: The facade is made of plastered brick. The plaster is in satisfactory condition.

7.1.2.4. Vertical division of the tier: The whole surface of the facade is divided with 6 pilasters.

7.1.3. Crowning element of the façade: The facade is finished by a simple cornice.

7.2. The Eastern Facade:

7.2.1. General measurements of the façade: The length of the eastern façade is 14.8 m. The height of the brick part of the wall is 72.5 m. The height from the conditional zero up to the finial of the roof is about 13.7 m. The length of the apse is 4.6 m, the width of the apse is 2.15 m, and the height of the apse is 9.2 m.

7.2.2. Number of tiers of the facade. The facade is one-tiered.

7.2.2.1.1. Door / window openings: The facade has 2 windows on both sides of the apse.

7.2.2.1.2. Outlines of the openings: The windows are big and rectangular.

7.2.2.1.3. Frames of the openings: The frames of the windows are simply designed, 2-sashed, and with fortochkas (small opening window panes).

7.2.2.1.4. The exterior decorative framings of the openings: The openings have no decorative framings.

7.2.2.3. Finishing: The brick part of the facade is plastered. The gable (upper part of the façade) is planked with wood.

7.2.2.4. Vertical division of the tier: On either edge of the façade as well as where the apse meets the face of the wall there are pilasters. They span the height of the plastered wall.

7.2.3. Crowning element of the façade: The brick part of the wall of the main hall is finished by a shelf-like cornice. The wall of the apse is finished by a simple, wide cornice.

7.3. The Northern Facade:

7.3.1. General measurements of the façade: The length of the northern façade is 2.77 m. The height from the conditional zero up to the top of the wall is 6.8 m and the height from the conditional zero up to the finial of the roof is about 13.7 m.

7.3.2. Number of tiers of the facade. The part of the façade that belongs to the main hall is one-tiered. The western part of the facade is two-tiered.

7.3.2.1.1. Door / window openings: Five windows lead from the main hall to the facade. On the western part of the facade there are 3 windows that were made later on.

7.3.2.1.2. Outlines of the openings: All the openings are rectangular.

7.3.2.1.3. Frames of the openings: The frames of the windows of the main hall are simple, 2-sashed, and with fortochkas (small opening window panes). The windows of the western part are filled with glass blocks.

7.3.2.3. Finishing: The facade is plastered. The plaster is in satisfactory condition.

7.3.2.4. Vertical division of the tier: The facade is decorated up to the cornice with 10 pilasters.

7.3.3. Crowning element of the façade: The facade is finished by a simple brick-plastered cornice.

7.4. The Southern Facade:

7.4.1. General measurements of the façade: The length of the southern façade is 27.68 m. The height from the conditional zero up to the top of the wall is 6.8 m, and the height from the conditional zero up to the finial of the roof is about 13.7 m.

7.4.2. Number of tiers of the facade. The part of the façade that belongs to the main hall is one-tiered. The western part of the facade is two-tiered.

7.4.2.1.1. Door / window openings: Five windows and a door lead from the main hall to the facade.

7.4.2.1.2. Outlines of the openings: All the openings are rectangular.

7.4.2.1.3. Frames of the openings: The frames of the windows are simple, 2-sashed, and with fortochkas (small opening window panes).

7.4.2.4. Vertical division of the tier: The facade is decorated up to the cornice with 10 pilasters.

7.4.2.3. Finishing: The facade is plastered. The plaster is in satisfactory condition.

7.4.3. Crowning element of the façade: The facade is finished by a brick plastered simple cornice.

8. Description of the interior space, room by room:

8.1. The Main Hall:

81.1. Layout of the room: 12.96 m x 19.36 m.

8.1.1.2. Original/actual function: The current function of the main hall is the same as the original function. The second tier houses the women’s gallery.

8.1.1.3. Pavement: The floors are made of wooden planks.

8.1.1.4. Walls: The walls are plastered and painted white.

8.1.1.4.1. Location and number of the door/window openings: The openings on the external walls correspond to the descriptions of the facades. The western wall (corresponding to the later addition) has two doors. They were once entrances to the main hall from outside.

8.1.1.4.3. Frames of the openings: The door frames of the western wall of the main hall are wooden and two-sashed. The bulkhead over the central entrance is lancet-shaped and the side opening is rectangular.

8.1.4.5. Decorative elements of the wall: There is no decor.

8.1.1.5.1. Decorative elements of the ceiling: There is no décor.

8.1.1.5. Floor of the room: The floor is smooth.

8.2. The Western Volume:

8.2.1. Description of the interior space: The volume is two-tiered. The first tier includes the vestibule room, stairs up to the second floor, and 6 rooms for household functions. The second tier includes 2 offices of the Jewish society administration, a library, a lavatory and a women’s gallery.

8.2.1.3. Pavement: The floors are made of wooden planks.

8.2.1.4. Walls: The walls are plastered, painted white.

8.2.1.4.1. Location and number of the door/window openings: The wall shared by the main hall and the women’s gallery has a door linking the two rooms. The side opening is bricked up.

8.2.1.4.2. Outlines of the openings: The openings are rectangular.

8.2.1.4.3. Frames of the openings: The doors to the women’s gallery are wooden and two-sashed.

8.2.4.5. Decorative elements of the wall: Decorative elements repeating the same decorative elements of the exterior facades have been preserved on the interior wall. This wall is next to the main volume and was originally an outer wall.

9. Torah ark: The semicircular niche, which appears on the outer facade, is situated on the western wall.

9.2. Location of a niche or niches: The niche of Torah ark is situated on the apse. The measurements of the niche: the bottom of the niche is on the floor level, the width of the niche is 1.2 m, the height of the niche is 3.4 m, and the depth of the niche is 7 m.

10. Bimah: The design of the prayer hall is modern.

11. Other decorative elements: A round decorative element that looks like a disk is situated on the northern and southern facades. It is located between the second and the third pilasters from the west on the upper floor. These disks replaced what were originally Stars of David. On the southern façade, between the first and second pilasters of the western side, there is a rectangular plank (2.3 m x 1.5 m) that juts .08 m out from the wall.

24 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Name/Title
Synagogue at 32 Izmailskaia St. in Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Unknown
Date
1900?
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Historical Origin
Community type
Congregation
Unknown
Location
Ukraine | Odes'ka obl. | Bilhorod Dnistrovskyi
| 32 Izmail'skaia St.
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period Detail
Collection
Unknown |
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding
Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
|
Author of description
|
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconstruction
|
Section Head
|
Language Editor
Carmen Echevarria | 2016
Donor
|
Negative/Photo. No.