Home
    Under Reconstruction!
Object Alone

Obj. ID: 441
Jewish Architecture
  Tempel Synagogue in Kraków, Poland

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Khaimovich, Boris, 1995

The Tempel Synagogue is situated in the Kraków district of Kazimierz at 24 Miodowa Street. Behind the synagogue, to the east, there is a property with former outbuildings, which is surrounded with walls to Miodowa and Podbrzezie Streets. The reform synagogue is one of the four active synagogues in the city, athough it is largely used as a venue for cultural events that are held as part of the Festival of Jewish Culture in Kazimierz, which takes place on a periodic basis.

The Synagogue’s architectural description

The stone synagogue, which was erected on a rectangular floor plan, was done in both the Moorish and Renaissance Revival styles, splendidly furnished, and had its elevation decorative elements designed and done in the Renaissance Revival style as well. On the elevation and on the sidewalls are double casement arcaded windows adorned with 36 unique colourful stained glasses dating from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, which were donated by the congregation's members. Tablets with the Ten Commandments, made of black marble, were placed under the triangular pediment over the main entrance. A passage from the psalm 100, reading "Enter into His gates with thanksgiving / And into His courts with praise".

The interior of the main prayer hall is decorated with stucco work, which contains stylized patterns covering the ceiling and the walls in the women’s gallery (which is supported by double iron decorative pillars). A bimah, which was installed there shortly after the war ended, stands in the middle of the main hall. To the right of the Aron ha-Kodesh there is a cantor’s lectern, which, prior to the war, stood directly before the ark. Special attention should be paid to the Moorish polychrome paintings on the plafond and on the concave cornices that run along the plafond over the central part of the prayer hall, as well as to the balustrades in the women’s gallery, whose sill is decorated with palm leaves made in coloured stucco and the pillars that support them. The ornamentations were probably borrowed from Islamic art, and the ceiling polychrome paintings were probably fashioned after the decoration of a minbar which is to be found in the Cairo Ibn-Tulun mosque.

The murals were made in 1894, which was when the synagogue was extended. They bear oriental motifs comprising mostly of geometrical and stylized plant elements. They cover the ceiling over the main nave and they run in stripes on the ceilings over the women’s gallery and the hallway. There is a painting in the apse which imitates a starry sky.

Stained glass is to be found in all the ground and first floor windows. It was probably made towards the end of the 19th century in the workshop owned by J. Zajdzikowski, as well as at the beginning of the 20th century by a company that belonged to the Żeleński family. In the years 1986–1989, they were conserved and partly reconstructed by the Office for the Conservation of Historic Monuments and Sites under the supervision of Leszek Hein. The stained glass has mostly geometric patterns. In the south aisle there are stained glass windows that had been funded by Jeruchem and Rachel Bazes, the Hirsch family, Ludwik and Paulina Baumgarten, Wilhelm and Amalia Korngold, the Kamslers, and Leon and Rozalia Hochstim. On the other hand, stained glass windows that are in the north aisle were donated by the foundations run by Roman and Letti Sliberbach, Bernard and Berta Reiner, the Schönfeld family, Wilhelm and Maria Fraenkel, the Proppers, Zygmunt and Amalia Klein, Ferdynand and Flora Epstein, and Izaak and Amalia Potok (the one representing two lions supporting a menorah). The stained glass windows upstairs were provided by the foundations owned by Zygmunt and Wiktoria Gleitzman, Salomon and Cecylia Lieblinz, the Pilzer family, the Rozenblatt family, the Proppers, Markus and Regiina Schönfeld, the Stinberg family, Dawid and Fanna Mendel, Emilia Abelsowa, and the Hochstim, Seinfeld, Goldwasser families.

For interior see:

See also:

34 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Name/Title
Tempel Synagogue in Kraków | Unknown
Object
Object Detail
Date
1860-1862
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
1894; 1986–1989
Artist/ Maker
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community
Location
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Unknown |
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Brick
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Synagogue
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
A (Good)
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Part of Jewish quarter
Significance Rating
4 (International)
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding
Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Bergman, Eleonora and Jan Jagelski, Zachowane synagogi i domy modlitwy w Polsce. Katalog. (Warsaw, 1996), p. 65 with ill.; Maria and Kazimierz Piechotka, "Polish Synagogues in the 19th Century" in Antony Polonski (ed.), From Shtetl to Socialism: Studies from Polin (London-Washington, 1993), pp. 212-231 (first published in Polin, vol. 2), p. 223, ill. 12-13; Maria and Kazimierz Piechotka, Bramy Nieba: Bóżnice murowane na ziemiach dawnej Rzeczypospolitej (Warsaw, 1999), ill. 624-25; Izabella Rejduch-Samkowa & Jan Samek (eds.), Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, tom IV: Miasto Kraków, część VI: Kazimierz i Stradom - Judaica: Bóżnice, budowle publiczne i cmentarze (Warszawa, 1995), pp. 27-31, ills. 19, 65-75, 104, 113, 132-135; Eugeniusz Duda, Krakowskie judiaca (Warszawa, 1991), p. 102-104; Eleonora Bergman, Nurt mauretański w architekturze synagog Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w XIX i na początku XX wieku (Warszawa, 2004), p. 191-193, ills. 206-210; http://www.sztetl.org.pl/en/article/krakow/11,synagogues-prayer-houses-and-others/3745,tempel-synagogue-in-krakow-24-miodowa-street-/; “Hercok Ignacy,” in Polski Słownik Biograficzny, vol 9 (Kraków, 1935), p. 455.; Barbara Zbroja, Miasto umarłych: Architektura publiczna Żydowskiej Gminy Wyznaniowej w Krakowie w latach 1868–1939 (Kraków, 2005), p. 25, fig. 10.
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
|
Researcher
|
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconsdivuction
|
Section Head
|
Language Editor
|
Donor
|
Negative/Photo. No.