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Obj. ID: 13446
Jewish Funerary Art
  Jewish Cemetery in Góra Kalwaria, Poland

© Vladimir Levin, Photographer: Levin, Vladimir, 2004

According to ESJF European Jewish Cemeteries Initiative, the cemetery is located approximately 1.6 km west of the city centre, between Zakalwaria, Budowlanych, and Wiejska Streets, and covers an irregularly shaped plot with an area of approximately 1.23 hectares. The cemetery was established at the beginning of the 19th century. The first mention of the cemetery’s existence was in the city’s budget for 1827–1832. The cemetery’s land was gradually expanded. It was fenced and there was a funeral house at the entrance. In 1866, Rabbi Yitzhak Meir Rothenberg Alter, the founder of the local Hasidic dynasty, first Gerrer Rebbe, and the author of the book “Chidusze ha-Rim,” was buried at the cemetery. An ohel covered with a hipped roof was erected over his grave. In 1905, Rabbi Yehuda Arie Lejb—the third Gerrer Rebbe and author of the book “Sfas Emes”—was buried in the ohel.

During World War II, the Germans shot Jews and Poles at the cemetery and buried their bodies there. The degradation of the cemetery began around this time. By order of the Germans, some tombstones were used to pave the square in the camp for Soviet prisoners. Some inhabitants of Góra Kalwaria and the surrounding villages also took part in the destruction of the cemetery. After 1945, thanks to the efforts of the Jewish Committee in Góra Kalwaria, a concrete pseudo-sarcophagus was built over the graves of the great rabbis, about 150 tombstones were placed in the cemetery, and the area was fenced. In 1989, the Nissenbaum Family Foundation constructed a concrete driveway to the cemetery and a new fence. A new ohel was built at the end of the 20th century. The owner of the cemetery is the Jewish Community in Warsaw and the facility is listed in the Register of Immovable Monuments of the Masovian Voivodeship (entry No. 1408, 09/02/1990).

ESJF field team discovered 360 tombstones standing in situ, 80 lying and 100 fragments, placed on wooden panels on the ground.

Date of oldest tombstone: 1840
Date of newest tombstone: 1985

Summary and Remarks

45 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Name/Title
Jewish Cemetery in Góra Kalwaria | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Unknown
Date
established 1827
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
enlarged 1861
Artist/ Maker
Unknown
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Unknown |
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Shape / Form
Unknown
Material / Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding
Decoration Program
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Main Surveys & Excavations
Sources
Eleonora Bergman, “Góra Kalwaria: The Impact of a Hasidic Cult on the Urban Landscape of a Small Polish Town,” Polin 5 (1990): 16.
Type
Documenter
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Author of description
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Architectural Drawings
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Computer Reconstruction
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Section Head
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Language Editor
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Donor
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Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |