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Obj. ID: 36940  Torah finials, Amsterdam, 1732

© Gross Family Collection, Photographer: Bar Hama, Ardon, -

3 image(s)

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Name/Title
Torah finials | Unknown
Object
Object Detail
Date
1732
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community
Location
Unknown |
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Period Detail
Gross Family Collection No.
050.001.045
Material/Technique
Silver, Cast, Chased
Material Stucture
hammered, cast (body)
Material Decoration
cast (arms, bells), gilded (body, crown)
Material Bonding
soldered
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height: 25.8 cm, Diam: 8.7 cm
Height
246 mm (general); 93 mm (shaft)
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
70 mm (body); 37 mm (shaft)
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Hallmark
City - Gans p. 13; Date - Z Gans p. 13; Stork - - David Robol - Cit: #1027
Four hallmarks are stamped on the bottom of the shaft of each finial:
1. Authority: Quality, City
2. Authority: Quality, City
3. Authority: Date
4. Artist / Workshop: Artist

1. Authority: Quality, City

The hallmark is stamped above the bottom ring. It comprises a rampant lion turning to the left, enclosed within a shield and topped
by a crown.

Identification
This is the fineness mark of silver (875), stamped on articles made in Amsterdam during the 18th century.

Hallmark Reference - - R4, p. 395, no. 7575; Tardi, p. 308.

Bibliography
- Rosenberg, Marc. Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen. Vol. 4, Ausland und Byzanz. Berlin: Frankfurter Verlags-Anstalt A. G., 1928.
- Tardi. International Hallmarks on Silver. Paris: Tardi, 1985.

2. Authority: Quality, City

The hallmark is stamped above the bottom ring.
It comprises three crosses arranged vertically and enclosed within a shield,
surmounted by a crown.

Identification
This is the city mark of Amsterdam during the 18th c., which also indicates
a quality mark of 875 silver.

Hallmark Reference
- Citroen, p. 212.
- Divis, p. 231, no. 1953. - R4, p. 395, no. 7566. - Tardi, p. 308.

Bibliography
- Citroen, Karel. Dutch Goldsmiths’ and Silversmiths’ Marks and Names Prior to 1812: A Descriptive and Critical Repertory. Leiden: Primavera Press, 1993.
- Divis, Jan. SilberStemple aus Aller Welt. 5th ed. Hanau: Verlag Werner Dausien, 1998.
- Rosenberg, Marc. Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen. Vol. 4, Ausland und Byzanz. Berlin: Frankfurter Verlags-Anstalt A. G., 1928.
- Tardi. International Hallmarks on Silver. Paris: Tardi, 1985.

3. Authority: Date

The hallmark is stamped above the bottom ring.
It comprises the letter "G" enclosed within a circle.

Identification
The letter “G” designates the year 1766, for silver articles produced in
Amsterdam.

Hallmark Reference - Citroen, p. 226 - Tardi, p. 310.

Bibliography
- Citroen, Karel. Dutch Goldsmiths’ and Silversmiths’ Marks and Names Prior to 1812: A Descriptive and Critical Repertory. Leiden: Primavera Press, 1993.
- Tardi. International Hallmarks on Silver. Paris: Tardi, 1985

4. Artist / Workshop: Artist

The hallmark is stamped above the bottom ring.
It comprises the initials "NDI" enclosed within a rectangle headed by three
arches.

Identification
These initials stand for the name of the silversmith Nicolaas van Diemen, who worked in Amsterdam during the years 1752-1783.

Hallmark Reference - Citroen, p. 88.

Bibliography
- Citroen, Karel. Dutch Goldsmiths’ and Silversmiths’ Marks and Names Prior to 1812: A Descriptive and Critical Repertory. Leiden: Primavera Press, 1993.





Iconographical Subject
C | Crown
|
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Description

The following description was prepared by William Gross:

The finials evolved from knobs at the upper end of the staves (Atzei Chaim) on which the Torah scroll is wound. Since the shape of the spherical finial recalled that of a fruit, it was called a tappu'aḥ, "apple," among the Jews of Spain and in the Sephardi Diaspora, and a rimmon, "pomegranate," in all other communities.

The earliest known reference to Torah finials occurs in a document from 1159, found in the Cairo Genizah, from which we learn that by the 12th-century finials were already being made of silver and had bells. Around the same time, Maimonides mentions finials in the Mishneh Torah (Hilkhot Sefer Torah 10:4). Despite the variations on the spherical shape which developed over the centuries and the addition of small bells around the main body of the finial, the spherical, fruit-like form was the basic model for the design of finials in Oriental and European communities.

A most significant variation appeared in 15th-century Spain, Italy, and Germany, where the shape of finials was influenced by that of various objects of church ritual, whose design often incorporated architectural motifs, The resulting tower-like structure, which seems to have appeared around the same time in different parts of Europe, became the main type of finial in 18th-century Germany and Italy, as well as Morocco, brought there by Jews expelled from Spain.

These delicate and graceful Rimmonim with their cast scrolls on which the bells are hung were crafted by the Amsterdam silversmith, David Robel. He made a number of silver Torah objects for the Jewish community in Amsterdam. These Rimmonim are called "til" Rimmonim and are part of a special custom of the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam, in which they replace the heavier Rimmonim before the ritual lifting of the Torah scroll after it has been removed from the ark. The larger Rimmonim are placed on staves at the corner of the platform of the reader's desk.

Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Binding
Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks
History/Provenance
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography

-       Benjamin, Chaya. The Stieglitz Collection Masterpieces of Jewish Art.Jerusalem:IsraelMuseum,1987. In English and Hebrew.

-       Cohen, Julie-Marthe. "From Rimmonim to Persian rugs." In The Esnoga: A Monument to Portuguese-Jewish Culture, edited by Judith C. E. Belinfante, Martine Stroo, and Ernest Kurpershoek, 74-85.Amsterdam: D’ARTS, 1991.

-       Cohen, Julie-Marthe, Jelka Kroger, and Emile Schrijver, eds. Gifts from the heart: Ceremonial Objects from the Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Jewish Historical Museum, 2004.

-       Faber, Irene. “Shapes, Patterns and Styles.” In Gifts from the Heart: Ceremonial Objects from the Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam, edited by Julie-Marthe Cohen, Jelka Kroger, and Emile Schrijver, 57-68.Amsterdam: Jewish Historical Museum, 2004.

-       Feuchtwanger-Sarig, Naomi. “Bernard Picart: Image, Text and Material Culture.” In Gifts from the Heart: Ceremonial Objects from the Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam, edited by Julie-Marthe Cohen, Jelka Kroger, and Emile Schrijver, 82-96.Amsterdam: Jewish Historical Museum, 2004.

 

-       Grafman, Rafi. Crowning Glory: Silver Torah Ornaments of the Jewish Museum, New York. edited by Vivian Mann.New York: Jewish Museum, 1996.

-       Grafman, Rafi, ed. 50 Rimonim: A Selection of Torah Finials from a European Family Collection. Tel Aviv:TelAvivUniversity, TheJudaicaMuseum, The Cymbalista Synagogue and JewishHeritageCenter,1998. In English and Hebrew.

-       Kayser, Stephen S. Jewish Ceremonial Art: A Guide to the Appreciation of the Art Objects used in Synagogue and Home, Principally from the Collections of the Jewish Museum of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.  Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society ofAmerica, 1955.

-       Klagsbald, Victor. Jewish Treasures from Paris: From the Collections of the Cluny Museum and the Consistoire (אוצרות יהודיים מפאריס).Jerusalem:IsraelMuseum,1982. In English and Hebrew.

-       Schoenberger, Guido. The Silver and Judaica Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael M. Zagayski.New York: The Jewish Museum, 1963.

-       Sotheby's. Judaica: Books, Manuscripts and Works of Art,Jerusalem, 5-6 May 1988.

-       Sotheby's. Important Judaica: Books, Manuscripts, Works of Art and Paintings,Jerusalem, 6 April 1994.

Sotheby's. Judaica, Tel Aviv, 11 October 2001.

Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Einat Ron | 06.06
Researcher
Einat Ron | 11.07
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconsdivuction
|
Section Head
Ariella Amar | 11.07
Language Editor
Judith Cardozo | 11.07
Donor
UNESCO |