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Obj. ID: 38119  JMNY Aryeh Leib ben Daniel of Goray Sepia Esther Scroll, Italy (?), 1740s

© Dagmara Budzioch, Photographer: Budzioch, Dagmara, 11.2015.

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JMNY Aryeh Leib ben Daniel of Goray Sepia Esther Scroll | Unknown
Object Detail
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Aryeh Leib ben Daniel of Goray (Goraj)
(Scribe and artist)
Aryeh Leib ben Daniel of Goray (18th century, dates of life unknown) was a prolific artist and scribe who used to include scribal notes in the manuscripts and due to them, some stages of his career can be traced. The earliest evidence of his artistic activity is proved by the scrolls dated to 1732 and 1733 created when he still was in Goray (Pol. Goraj, Poland), his hometown. Around 1737 his presence and activity are testified in Germany and in the 1740s in Italy. Here he executed at least four examples of the decorated scrolls and in some other adorned with printed frames designed by Francesco Griselini (see "Griselini scrolls" in the Index) he copied the text of Megillah. The latest manuscript including Aryeh Leib's colophon is dated to 1755 and was written in France. The scrolls created over 20 years of his activity as an artist and a scribe show that his style developed and transformed from the manuscripts painted in multicolored and delicate water paints to these decorated solely in a pen and brown ink that feature his mature style. So far, no manuscripts - other than Esther scrolls - produced by him have been found.
| (?)
Historical Origin
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Ink on parchment
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
The scroll: 275 x ca. 2175 mm.
Lenght of the membranes in the scroll: 1) ca. 735 mm, 2) 665 mm, 3) 775 mm.
Dimensions of the selected details in the scroll:
- text panel: 116x176 mm (inside);
- upper margin: 38 mm (height);
- lower margin: 45 mm (height);
- standing figures: ca. 95 mm (height);
- baskets with flowers: 55 mm (height);
- an average letter: 2 mm (height);
- spaces between the lines: 2 mm.
Panel Measurements

In general, the manuscript is preserved in good condition; some slight damages can be noticed in the decorations.

The sewing of the first and second sheets is damaged.

Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating

The right edge of the first membrane is blank and trimmed into a semicircle. The text columns are enclosed in frames, separated by figures of the Esther story protagonists including Ahasuerus, Vashti, Mordecai, Esther, Haman, Zeresh, Mehuman, Biztha, and Harbona; their names are inscribed in Hebrew semi-cursive script below each figure. Just below them, there are baskets with flowers. The upper margins are filled with medallions containing busts of the minor characters of the story; they all are also identified by their names written in the same script. The roundels are flanked by birds and between them, vases with flowers are placed. The lower margins are decorated with pairs of griffins faced each other that are supporting floral decoration with fruits. Between them and just below the standing figures of the story heroes, there are narrative scenes from the Esther story in double rectangular frames. They are identified in Hebrew in the same script as above.


The Book of Esther in Hebrew


The scroll is formed of 3 sheets, containing in total 12 columns of the text of 32 lines each.

Every membrane contains 4 columns of text.

The text is written in Hebrew square script with tagin (they are barely visible) in dark brown ink on the flesh side of the parchment membranes that are thin and relatively stiff. The membranes are bright and matte but their blank side is slightly yellow and glossy.

The letters ח (Es. 1:6) and ת (Es. 9:29) are enlarged and bolded.

All words המלך appearing at the head of the columns contain a large letter ה with 3 tagin and a letter ל decorated with a tendril. 

The letters of God's name are highlighted by tagin that are bent to the right.

All names of Haman's sons are of equal width; they include numerous elongated letters.

The ruling - horizontal and vertical lines - is made with a hard point and is well visible.

The pricking is invisible.

The membranes in the scroll are stitched together.

Number of Lines
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
The scroll is not signed but its ornamentation executed solely in sepia ink resembles the style of the megillot Esther made by the artist-scribe Aryeh Leib son of Daniel of Goray (Pol. Goraj), Poland.


Scribal Notes
Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks

The decoration is executed in two shades - brighter and darker - of brown ink. It seems the darker shade was used for corrections of the original pattern that could be faded.

Every word המלך appearing at the head of the column is decorated. It starts with the enlarged letter ה with three tagin and to the letter ל a stroke is added.

Main Surveys & Excavations

No bibliography on the scroll is available.

Bibliography on other scrolls made by Aryeh Leib ben Daniel of Goray or attributed to him:

Dagmara Budzioch, The Decorated Esther Scrolls from the Museum of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw and the Tradition of Megillot Esther Decoration in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries – An Outline [Polish: Dekorowane zwoje Estery z Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego w Warszawie na tle tradycji dekorowania megilot Ester w XVII i XVIII wieku. Zarys problematyki], Warsaw 2019, 1:206-215.

Ernest Namenyi, "The Illumination of Hebrew Manuscripts after the Invention of Printing," in Cecil Roth (ed.), Jewish Art, an Illustrated History (London 1961), col. 435.

Mendel Metzger, The Earliest Engraved Italian Megilloth, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 1966, 48/2, esp. 409, 422-425.

Olga Sixtova, O svitku / Form of the Scroll [katalog k výstavě konané v Galerii Roberta Guttmanna Židovského muzea v Praze od 22. června do 26. července 2006], Prag 2006, 32-33.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds: Highlights from the Braginsky Collection of Hebrew Manuscripts and Printed Books, eds. Evelyn M. Cohen, Emile Schrijver, Sharon Liberman Mintz, Amsterdam 2009, 246-249.

Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, eds. Emile Schrijver, Falk Wiesemann, Evelyn M. Cohen, Sharon Liberman Mintz, Menahem Schmeltzer, Zurich 2011, 266-269.

A Fine Illustrated Esther Scroll, [ca. 1740], lot 105, Sotheby's New York Important Judaica, 20 December 2017 https://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/lot.105.html/2017/important-judaica-n09687 (accessed on 31.07.2020).

A Magnificent Esther Scroll Written and illustrated Aryeh Leib ben Daniel of Goray, Schwelm, 1737, lot 187, Sotheby's New York Important Judaica Including Property from the Estate of Shlomo Moussaieff, 15 December 2016 https://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2016/important-judaica-n09589/lot.187.html (accessed on 31.07.2020).

Short Name
Full Name
Dagmara Budzioch | 2021
Dagmara Budzioch | 2021
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