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Obj. ID: 49942
Jewish Funerary Art
  New Holocaust Memorial in the Jewish Cemetery in Bačka Topola, Serbia, 2012

© Olga Ungar, Photographer: Ungar, Olga, 2023

Memorial Name

Memorial Wall to the Victims of the Holocaust from Bačka Topola in the Jewish Cemetery

Who is Commemorated?

Holocaust Victims from Bačka Topola

Description

The memorial wall was unveiled at the entrance to the Jewish cemetery in 2012. It has inscriptions in Hebrew, Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian, and English, which commemorate the victims in a similar manner, yet with slightly different content. Architect Zoltán Beck designed the memorial wall. The memorial wall is made of red brick. On the left-hand side is a memorial plaque of black stone carrying the commemorative inscription. On the right-hand side is a frieze consisting of 21 ceramic tiles entitled “Mass Grave” with motifs in color red and black, the work by Erzsébet Cservenák, retired fine arts teacher and ceramist. Above the tiles is the Magen David in a circular frame, all made of blue and white ceramic tiles.

Inscriptions

Hebrew

המצבה לזכר קורבנות השואה

 Translation: The monument in memory of the victims of the Holocaust

 

Hungarian

 Minden elhunyt emlékére, akik nem takar hant

Translation: In memory of all the deceased not covered with a clod of earth

 

Serbian

 U spomen preminulih koji nemaju grob

 Translation: In memory of the deceased who have no grave

 

English

In the memory of those who lie in mounds unknown

 

Commissioned by

The Film-Museum Civil Organization [Film-Múzeum Civil Szervezet], NGO from Bačka Topola, financially supported by the Bačka Topola municipality.


Summary and Remarks

7 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Name/Title
Memorial Wall to the Victims of the Holocaust from Bačka Topola | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Date
2012
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Unknown |
Congregation
Unknown
Location
Serbia | Vojvodina | Bačka Topola (Бачка Топола)
| 52 Široka Street, Bačka Topola, Serbia
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Unknown |
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Iconographical Subject
Textual Content
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Stone
Brick
Ceramic
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Material Inscription
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Material Cloth
Material Lining
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Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
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Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
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Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
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Location of Apse
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Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
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Denomination
Signature

Beck Zoltán, arhitekt

Cservenák Erzsébet, keramikus-keramičar

Colophon
Scribal Notes
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Group
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History/Provenance

Jews settled in Bačka Topola in 1770. The cemetery dates back to 1835 (according to some sources to 1750). The first synagogue, built around 1840, was located at today's address 20 Glavna Street. The second synagogue was built in the same place in 1863. Over 500 Jews lived in Bačka Topola prior to World War II. The deportation of the Jews took place between April 16 and June 20, 1944. Only 98 of them survived the Holocaust. The building of the synagogue was destroyed in the 1950s. No memorial plaque has been installed. The building of the Rabbinate, built at the beginning of the 20th century, still exists at the address 16 Glavna Street. Today the building is used by the 'Juhász Erzsébet' Library. There is no memorial plaque on the building.

The cemetery has about 1800 graves and only a small part of the cemetery has been cleared. It was neglected for years and exposed to vandalism and thefts of tombstones. Thanks to Mr. Antal Kocsis and a group of enthusiasts gathered around him, the cemetery was cleared of vegetation.

The Film-Museum Civil Organization [Film-Múzeum Civil Szervezet] initiated the creation of this memorial and their idea was financially supported by the Bačka Topola municipality. The local historian Antal Kocsis, the president of the Film-Museum Civil Organization, and Rózsa Cipó were the driving force behind the project.

The Holocaust memorial was designed by the architect Zoltán Beck, with the cooperation of the local Vörös stone carving workshop and the Dudás construction company, with the installation of ceramics offered by ceramist Erzsébet Cservenák. It was inaugurated in the year in which Bet Tahara at the entrance to the cemetery was renovated.

The commemoration ceremony “Memento” began at the Jewish cemetery in 2002 at the initiative of local historian Antal Kocsis and the Film-Museum Civil Organization [Film-Múzeum Civil Szervezet], of whom Kocsis is president. Since then, the Film-Museum Civil Organization, Jewish Community Subotica, and Bačka Topola municipality have been organizing annual commemoration ceremonies on the anniversary of the deportations of Bačka Topola Jews by this memorial.

Main Surveys & Excavations
Sources

Kocsis, Antal, A topolyai zsidó temető, (Bačka Topola: Pannonian Print, 2014)

Kocsis, Antal, “Topolyai zsidók,” Bácsország: vajdasági honismereti szemle 30 (2004), pp. 80-85.

"Memorials in Bačka Topola," Locations (Vojvodina Holocaust Memorials Project), https://www.vhmproject.org/en-US/Locations/Memorials/3 (accessed June 7, 2023)

“Az önkéntesek eddig 500 síremléket rekonstruáltak,” Magyar Szó, https://www.magyarszo.rs/hu/2364/hetvege/112256/A-topolyai-zsid%C3%B3-temet%C5%91.htm (accessed June 7, 2023)

“Emlékfalat állítottak a vajdasági Topolyán a holokauszt áldozatainak,” Kultúra.hu, https://kultura.hu/emlekfalat-allitottak/ (accessed June 7, 2023)

“Topolya: Minden elhunyt emlékére, akit nem takar hant,” Vajdaság, https://www.vajma.info/cikk/vajdasag/13378/Topolya-Minden-elhunyt-emlekere--akit-nem-takar-hant.html (accessed June 7, 2023)
Type
Documenter
Olga Ungar | 2023
Author of description
Olga Ungar | 2023
Architectural Drawings
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Computer Reconstruction
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Section Head
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Language Editor
Adam Frisch | 2023
Donor
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Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed: