Under Reconstruction!
Object Alone

Obj. ID: 44707
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger's Venetian Miscellany on Grammar, Venice, 1552

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,

For the full scan of the manuscript, see the website of the Bavarian State Library.

Summary and Remarks

Reuben ben Solomon Ashkenazi appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 33, 46; and Eliezer in BSB Cod.hebr. 39, 45, 47, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66.


1 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Fugger's Venetian Miscellany on Grammar | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 55 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 55)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Paper, 1 + 460 + 1 leaves.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: 339 x (239-240) mm.
Text space: Reuben: (237-238) x (140-141) mm.
Eliezer: 237 x (150-152) mm.
Panel Measurements

Good. Apparently the manuscript was not used. 

Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating

1. Even Hen (אבן חן; Precious Stone) by Menahem ben Solomon (fols. 1-307v): beginsאבן בחן לבנת ספיר דמות כסא בוחנת כל חפץ. Ends with the colophon of the author:ושלמה ועלתה בידי שלמה ומסויימת בשני בטבת בשלשה ועשרים יום לחדש טבת בשנת ארבעת אלפים ותשע מאות ושלש.

2. Nofet zufim (נופת צופים; The Book of the Honeycomb's Flow) byJudah ben Yehiel Messer Leon (fols. 308-457): begins ספר נופת צופים הדור חפץ שפתי דעת. Ends with the colophon of the printer Abraham Konat: אברהם ... בכמ"ר שלמה כונת, which appears in the printed edition published inThessalonikiin 1560 (Bonfil 1981:7-69).

Reuven ben Solomon Ashkenazi (Scribe A*): fols. 1-307v in brown ink. Eliezer (Scribe B): fols. 308-457 in brown ink. The text was proofread in part by the anonymous corrector of Fugger's group. * The letters A, uB, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes and interpolators in this manuscript.
The text is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script.
Number of Lines
The text is written in 30 lines per page.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines, e.g. fols. 456-457.
58 quires of 8 leaves each, except for XXXIX6, LVIII6. Quire structure: I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-32); V8 (33-40); VI8 (41-48); VII8 (49-58); VIII8 (59-64); IX8 (65-72); X8 (73-80); XI8 (81-88); XII8 (89-96); XIII8 (97-104); XIV8 (105-112); XV8 (113-120); XVI8 (121-127); XVII8 (128-136); XVIII8 (137-144); XIX8 (145-152); XX8 (153-160); XXI8 (161-168); XXII8 (169-176); XXIII8 (177-184); XXIV8 (185-192); XXV8 (193-200); XXVI8 (201-208); XXVII8 (209-216); XXVIII8 (217-224); XXIX8 (225-232); XXX8 (233-240); XXXI8 (241-248); XXXII8 (249-256); XXXIII8 (257-264); XXXIV8 (265-272); XXXV8 (273-280); XXXVI8 (281-288); XXXVII8 (289-296); XXXVIII8 (297-304); XXXIX6 (305-307, 307a, 307b, 307c); XL8 (308-315); XLI8 (316-323); XLII8 (324-331); XLIII8 (332-339); XLIV8 (340-347); XLV8 (348-355); XLVI8 (356-363); XLVII8 (364-371); XLVIII8 (372-379); XLIX8 (380-387); L8 (388-395); LI8 (396-403); LII8 (404-411); LIII8 (412-419); LIV8 (240, an error; 420-427); LV8 (428-435); LVI8 (436-443); LVII8 (444-451); LVIII6 (452-457).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally at the left below the text in semi-cursive script by the text scribe.
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 1v, 307a-307a verso, 307b-307b verso, 307c-307c verso, 308v, 457v.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year

Fol. 307: התחלת העתק הספר יו' ד' ח' אייר שי"ב והשלמתו כ"ט סיון יום ג' (The beginning of copying the book, Wednesday, 8th Iyar 5312 [2nd May 1552], and its completion, on Tuesday, 29th Sivan [21st June 1552]).

Fol. 307v:

ביום ד’ ח’ אייר בעזרת בעל היכולת ית' היתה ההתחלה ביום ג’ כט סיון שי"ב לפ"ק היתה תכלית והשלמת הפעולה בעזר וברצון בעל הרצון בחר בזרע ישראל לו לנחלה. אחר השלמת כל מילה לך יי' אחד מיוחד רומיה תהלה תכלית דברי לך יי' הגדלה ואת ההלנצה בנחוצה נאוצה ורצוצה נעשית בנחיצה אני ראובן בן מהר"ר שלמה

(On Wednesday, 8th Iyar … was the beginning; on Tuesday, 29th Sivan 5312 the operation was complete … I Reuben ben Rabbi Solomon).  

Preceding the colophon the scribe marked his name, Reuben, within the text with acrostics.

Scribal Notes


A trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; e.g. fols. 2, 48, 84, 97, 140, 170, 179, 258, 276, 310 etc.): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550).
Trade Mark

Dark green leather on wooden boards (336 x227 mm); gold-tooled with a central roundel on the front and a shield on the back cover within an undulating lozenge in a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The front roundel is inscribed from left to right דיקדוק, and below are the letters QQQQ. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has three hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the edges of the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two on the side and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails on the edges of the back cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring intended to hook over the nails in the opposite cover. The leaves are gilt-edged.

This binding was made for Fugger by the 'Fugger Binder' inVenice(Hobson 1999:119-129). Similar bindings in BSB: e.g. Cod.hebr. 19, 27, 33, 39, 42, 47, 51, 59, 61, 65, 66.

Watermarks on the back pastedown: A zigzag (43 mm): unidentified.

Decoration Program


Suggested Reconsdivuction

Owners' inscriptions: None.

Inscriptions of librarians and researchers:

Front flyleaf, verso: an inscription in brown ink by Librarian 1a: ספר אבן בחן/ ספר נופת צופים/ הנקרא רעטוריקא.

Below, by Librarian 3 ingreyish brown ink: Sephaer Aeuen bahon.\ Saephaer Nophaes zuphim.\ Hanikra rethorica, and on the left: Lapis Lydius, opus gramaticus\ et Lexicon. R. Menahem\ Nophaes Zuphim liber de Rhetorica.

Front pastedown, on the exlibris in plummet: the contents in German.

Exlibris and stamps:

Front pastedown: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x155 mm) with the arms of  Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972:B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (175 x135 mm) of 1618, before he became elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f).

On the front flyleaf, recto, and fol. 457v there is a 20th-century oval stamp of the BSB: BIBLIOTHECA\ REGIA\ MONACENSIS.

Old signatures:

Back cover, upper part in black ink: St.9 n0 4 (second signature of Fugger's library).

Front cover, lower part in black ink: 2 n0 30 (Duke's library, Prommer's signature).

Front flyleaf, verso in red ink: 2. 40 (Duke's library, Prommer's revision of 1583).

Front pastedown, upper right corner in brown ink: MS. Hebr. 50.

Front flyleaf, recto, upper left corner in dark brown ink: n0 8.

Sticker on the spine: Cod.hebr. 50(?); and on the spine and back pastedown in black ink: Cod.hebr. 55 (current signature).

On the exlibris, upper left corner in plummet: Cod.hebr. 55 (current signature).

Main Surveys & Excavations

Bonfil 1981   ר’ בונפיל, מבוא למהדורת צילום של ספר נופת צופים מנטובה רל"ה לערך, ירושלים תשמ"א (R. Bonfil, Introduction to the Reproduction of Nofet Zufim printed in Mantua c.1475, Jerusalem 1981).

Dressler 1972   F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972.

Harlfinger 1974-80   D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin 1974-1980.

Hobson 1999   A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings,Cambridge 1999.

Kushnir-Oron 1982 , מ' קושיר-אורון, ספר הפליאה וספר הקנה ירושלים תשמ"ב (M. Kushnir-Oron, The Sefer Ha-Peli’ah and the Sefer Ha-Kanah, Jerusalem 1982).

Sirat and Dukan, unpublished   C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux "sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished.

Steinschneider 1895   M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895.

Ilona Steimann | 2008-2015
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008-2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |