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Obj. ID: 44702
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger's Fourth Venetian Miscellany on Philosophy, Venice, 1551-1552

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,

For the full scan of the manuscript, see the websita of the Bavarian State Library.

Summary and Remarks

Eliezer ben Yoel appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 44, 47, 55, 59, 60, 66; and Yishai ben Yehiel in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 10, 19, 26, 28, 30, 31, 33, 42, 44, 46, 47, 50, 52, 56, 58, 62, 64, 68.


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Fugger's Fourth Venetian Miscellany on Philosophy | Unknown
Object Detail
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Historical Origin
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Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 45 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 45)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Paper, 1 + 587 + 1 leaves.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
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Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: 341 x (225-235) mm. Text space: Eliezer: 218 x (130-135) mm. Yishai: 235 x (135-138) mm.
Panel Measurements
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating

1. Super commentary on Avicenna's Middle commentary on Aristotle's Physics (פרוש על הביאור האמצעי לספר השמע הטבעי) by Isaac ben Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov (fols. 1-377v): beginsהפרק הראשון כוונת הפילוספא בזה הפרק להורות ולבאר. Steinschneider (1893:116). The authorship is attributed to Isaac Albalag, as mentioned in the title of this manuscript (cf. Wolfson 1929:279-290).

2. Reshit Hokhmah (ראשית חכמה; The Beginning of Wisdom) by Abraham ibn Ezra (fols. 378-422): begins טור יי' ליריאיו ובריתן להודיעם כל משכל שיחקור על זאת החכמה (cf. Levy 1939). Other copies inMunich: BSB Cod.hebr. 202 (fols. 1-37), belonged to Marcantonio Flaminio and later to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter; BSB Cod.hebr. 304 (fols. 55-116), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter. 

3. Mishpetei ha-Mazzalot (משפטי המזלות; Rules of Zodiac Signs) by Abraham ibn Ezra(fols. 422v-437): beginsספר משפטי המזלות לחכם רא' ן' (רבי אברהם בן) עזרא זצ"ל. הגלגל הגדול הנכבד ששם צבאות     השם הנכבד הנקרא שמי השמים. Another copy inMunich, BSB Cod.hebr. 202 (fols. 150-163v), belonged to Marcantonio Flaminio and later to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter.

4. Sefer ha-Moladot (ספר המולדות; The Book of Nativities) by Abraham ibn Ezra (fols. 437v-460v): begins ספר המולדות לר' אברהם ן' ע' זצ"ל. אמר כל משכיל. Another copy in Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 202 (fols. 70-91), belonged to Marcantonio Flaminio and later to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter.

5. Sefer ha-Te'amim (ספר הטעמים; The Book of Reasons) by Abraham ibn Ezra (fols. 461-477v): begins ספר הטעמים לחכם ר' אברהם ן' עזרא זצ"ל. הנה הואלתי לשום מוסר לספר ראשית חכמה (edited from Vatican, ebr.390 in Fleischer 1951). Other copies inMunich: BSB Cod.hebr. 202 (fols. 37-67), belonged to Marcantonio Flaminio and later to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter; BSB Cod.hebr. 304 (fols. 30-54v), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter.

6. Sefer ha-She'elot (ספר השאלות; The Book of Inquiries) by Abraham ibn Ezra (fols. 478-509v): begins ספר השאלות. אמר רבי אברהם בר' מאיר ן' עזרא ז"ל סוד יי' ליריאיו ובריתו להודיעם. Another copy inMunich, BSB Cod.hebr. 202 (fols. 91v-101v), belonged to Marcantonio Flaminio and later to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter.

7. Sefer ha-Mivharim (ספר המבחרים; The Book of Elections) by Abraham ibn Ezra (fols. 510-517v): begins ספר המבחרים לר' אברהם ן' עזרא ז"ל. אחל ספר המבחרים (edited in  leischer 1939).  Other copies inMunich: BSB Cod.hebr. 202 (fols. 108v-116), belonged to Marcantonio Flaminio and later to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter; BSB Cod.hebr. 304 (fols. 116v-128), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter.

8. Reshit Hokhmah (ראשית חכמה; The Beginning of Wisdom) by Shem Tov ben Joseph Falaquera (fols. 518-571): beginsהשירה הראשונה בחלקי הפילוסופיה והיא השירה הנקראת הפילוסופי וכרתי בה כללי זה הספר (cf. David 1902). Another copy inMunich, BSB Cod.hebr. 402 (fols. 18v-119v), belonged to Domenico Grimani and later to Fugger.

9. Treatise on logic by Petrus Hispanus in an anonymous translation (fols. 572-585): begins אמר אריסטו בספר ההגיון נותן דרך להתחלות החכמה (Steinschneider 1893:473).


Columns: The text is written mostly in one column.

Eliezer ben Yoel (Scribe A*): fols. 2-377v in brown ink. Yishai ben Yehiel (Scribe B): fols. 1, 378-585 in brown ink. * The letters A, B, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes and interpolators in this manuscript.
The text is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script.
Number of Lines
The text is written in 30 lines per page.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines, e.g. fols. 377a, 378.
75 quires of 8 leaves each, except for VII8-1, XLVIII4, LIII6, LX6, LXV8-1, LXVI10-1, LXXIII6, LXXV6. Quire structure: I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-32); V8 (33-40); VI8 (41-48); VII8-1 (49-55; fol. 51 is a single one, no text missing); VIII8 (56-63); IX8 (64-71); X8 (72-79); XI8 (80-87); XII8 (88-95); XIII8 (96-103); XIV8 (104-111); XV8 (112-119); XVI8 (120-127); XVII8 (128-135); XVIII8 (136-143); XIX8 (144-151); XX8 (152-159); XXI8 (160-167); XXII8 (168-175); XXIII8 (176-183); XXIV8 (184-191); XXV8 (192-199); XXVI8 (200-207); XXVII8 (208-215); XXVIII8 (216-223); XXIX8 (224-231); XXX8 (232-239); XXXI8 (240-247); XXXII8 (248-255); XXXIII8 (256-263); XXXIV8 (264-271); XXXV8 (272-279); XXXVI8 (280-287); XXXVII8 (288-295); XXXVIII8 (296-303); XXXIX8 (304-311); XL8 (312-319); XLI8 (320-326, blank unfoliated leaf between 323 and 322; fols. 322-322a are wrongly bound); XLII8 (327-334); XLIII8 (335-342); XLIV8 (343-350); XLV8 (351-358); XLVI8 (359-366); XLVII8 (367-374); XLVIII4 (375-377a); XLIX8 (378-385); L8 (386-393); LI8 (394-401); LII8 (402-409); LIII6 (410-415); LIV8 (416-423); LV8 (424-431); LVI8 (432-439); LVII8 (440-447); LVIII8 (448-455); LIX8 (456-463); LX6 (464-469); LXI8 (470-477); LXII8 (478-485); LXIII8 (486-493); LXIV8 (494-501); LXV8-1 (502-508, fol. 503a is cut out, no text missing); LXVI10-1 (509-517); LXVII8 (518-525); LXVIII8 (526-533); LXIX8 (534-541); LXX8 (542-549); LXXI8 (550-557); LXXII8 (558-565); LXXIII6 (566-571); LXXIV8 (572-579); LXXV6 (580-585).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally on the left below the text in semi-cursive script by the text scribe; they are mostly topped by a V.
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 1v, 322a-322a verso, 377a-377a verso, 378v, 385v.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year

Colophons appear only in Yishai's part:

Fol. 422:תם ונשלם ספר ראשית חכמה היום יום א' טו' טבת יג' דיצמ(בר) שי"ב לפ"ק  (The Book of Reshit Hokhmah was completed today Sunday, 15th Tevet, 13th December 5312 (1551)).

Fol. 460v: תם ונשלם ספר המולדות בעזרת יוצר עולם יום ג' כד' טבת שי"ב לפ"ק (The Book of Moladot was completed with the Creator’s help in Tuesday, 24th Tevet 5312 (22nd December 1551)).

Fol. 517v:והנה נשלם זה הספר תהלה לאל על ידי אני ישי בכמ"ר יחיאל היו'(ם) יו'(ם) ה' חי' שבט שי"ב לפ"ק  (This book was completed, praise be to God, by me Yishai ben R. Yehiel, today Thursday, 18th Shevat 5312 (14th January 14 1552)).

Fol. 569v: היום יום רביעי כז' זיינארו שי"ב לפ"ק ([Completed] today Wednesday, 27th January 5312 (1552)).

Fol. 585: נשלמה העתקת הזה הנקרא טרקטאץ מלשון הנוצרי אל לשון העברי כתבתיו פה מנטובה היו'(ם) יו'(ם) ו' כט' ייונארי שי"ב לפ"ק (The copying of this one, called treatise, from the Christian language into Hebrew, I wrote it here in Mantua, today Friday, 29th January, 5312 (1552)).

Scribal Notes

Fol. 569v, by Yishai:ועוד חבר זה המחבר [שם טוב בן יוסף פלקירא] ספר אחד וקראו בשמו ספר המעלות ולא מצאתי ממנו רק השורה שהקדים קודם אותו הספר הנקרא והגיה/ זכרתי בה כללי זה הספר הנקרא ספר המעלות (This author [Shem Tov ben Joseph Falaquera] also composed a book which he called The Book of Merits, and I found from it only the line which preceded that book. I generally remembered this book, called The Book of Merits).

A trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; e.g. fols. 17, 30, 32): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80: Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550); letters 'Na' (18 mm; e.g. fols. 557, 562, 569, 585): unidentified.
Trade Mark

Dark green leather turned brown leather on wooden boards (345 x228 mm); gold-tooled with a central roundel on the front and a shield on the back cover within an undulating lozenge in a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The front roundel is inscribed פילושוק, and below it the letters RRRR. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has three hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the edges of the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two on the side and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails on the edges of the back cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring intended to hook over the nails in the opposite cover. The leaves are gilt-edged.

This binding was made for Fugger by the 'Fugger Binder' inVenice(Hobson 1999:119-129). Similar bindings in BSB: e.g. Cod.hebr. 7, 8, 26, 31, 35, 44, 50, 56, 57,60, Ahebr. 278 and Cod.gr. 14.

Watermarks of the front and back cover flyleaves: A star above an anchor within a circle at the centre of the folio (65 mm): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80: Ancre 24-31 (Venice, 1556).

Decoration Program


Suggested Reconsdivuction

Owners' inscriptions: None.

Inscriptions of librarians and researchers:

The numbering of the texts by Fugger’s librarians does not always correspond to the actual number of texts in the manuscript. However, not in this case.

N0 1:1-377v; N0 2:.378-422; N0 3:422v-437; N0 4:437v-460v; N0 5:461-477v; N0 6:478-509v;

N0 7:510-517v; N0 8:518-571; N0 9:72-585.

Front flyleaf, verso: an inscription in brown ink by Librarian 1a:

ספר משפט הכוכבים לר' עזרא הספרדי יצ"ו/ הנקרא ראשית החכמה.

Below, by Librarian 3 on the left: Sephaer mischpat le\ ribi aesra hasphradi re\schit hahachma\ Id est; on the right: Liber Astronomicus Aesrae Hispani\ Hacochauim dictus. Below, by Librarian 1a:

פירוש ר' יצחק אלבולק/ על שמע הטבעי/ ספר ראש ראשית החכמה/ הפוליסופיה ומבאר בו/ ההצלחה הנפשות/ ספר הנקרא העתקת טראקאץ.

Below, by Librarian 3 on the left: Perusch ribi ijtzhok alebulak\ al schema hatiuj\ Sephaer rosch reschis hahachma\ haphulisophia vmephaer bo\ hahazalaha hanphaschos\ Sephaer hanikra haethacos theraacotz; on the right: Comentarius R. Isaac Alebulak\ de naturalj ausrultatione\ Liber qui vocatur Rosch Reschis\ hahachma haphul.u?'. i. de anima\ beatitudine, iuxta philosophos\ Liber Logicus ex Aristotele de\scriptus.

Back pastedown, in plummet on the exlibris: contents of the manuscript in German.

Exlibris and stamps:

Front cover pastedown: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x155 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972:B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (175 x135 mm) of 1618, before he became elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f).

On fol. 1v there is the 20th-century oval stamp of the BSB: BIBLIOTHECA\ REGIA\ MONACENSIS.


Old signatures:

Back cover, upper right part in black ink, upsidedown:St.9 n. 5 (second signature of Fugger's library).

Front cover, lower right part in black ink: 2. n0. 21 (the Duke's library, Prommer's signature).

Front cover flyleaf, recto, upper left corner: n0 12.

Front cover pastedown, upper right corner in black ink: MS. Hebr. N0 40.

Front cover pastedown, on the exlibris in plummet: 45 (current signature).

Spine and back cover pastedown, on a sticker in black ink: 45 (current signature).

Condition: Well preserved. Apparently the manuscript was not used.

Main Surveys & Excavations

David 1902   מ' דוד, ראשית חכמה, ברלין תרס"ב (M. David, Reshit Hokhmah, Berlin 1902).

Dressler 1972   F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972.

Fleischer 1939   J. L. Fleischer, Sefer ha-Mivharim (first version), Jerusalem 1939.

Fleischer 1951   י' ל' פליישר, ספר הטעמים: נוסח ראשון, ירושלים תשי"א (J. L. Fleischer, Sefer ha-Ta'amim: First Version, Jerusalem 1951).

Harlfinger 1974-80   D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin 1974-1980.

Hobson 1999   A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings,Cambridge 1999.

Levy 1939   R. Levy and F. Cantera (eds.) The Beginning of Wisdom: An Astrological Treatise by Abraham ibn Ezra: an Edition of the Hebrew Original of 1148,Baltimore 1939.

Sirat and Dukan, unpublished   C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux"sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished.

Steinschneider 1893   M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin 1893.

Steinschneider 1895   M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895.

Wolfson 1929   H. A. Wolfson, "Isaac ibn Shem Tov's Unknown Commentaries on Physics and His Other Unknown Works", Studies in Jewish Bibliography and Related Subjects in Memory of Abraham Solomon Freidus, New York 1929, pp. 279-290.

Ilona Steimann | 2008-2015
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008-2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |