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Obj. ID: 44049
Jewish Funerary Art
  Holocaust Memorial in the Jewish Cemetery in Zemun, Serbia, 1948

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Radovan, Zev, 2001

Memorial Name

No official name

Who is Comemmorated?

Jewish Victims of the Holocaust from Zemun

Description

The monument has the shape of an obelisk made of black marble standing on a flat platform. The front side features the Magen David and Serbo-Croatian (in Cyrillic script) and Hebrew inscriptions on the top, underneath are the names of the victims. Other sides of the memorial bear only the names of the victims, 574 in total.

Inscriptions

Hebrew

זכור את אשר עשה לך עמלק

Translation: Remember what Amalek did to you (Deut. 25:17)

Serbo-Croatian

Жртвама фашизма 1941-1945

Translation: To the victims of fascism 1941-1945

[All four sides of the monument bear the names of victims, 574 in total]

Commissioned by

The Jewish Community of Zemun

Summary and Remarks

13 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Name/Title
Holocaust memorial in the Jewish Cemetery in Zemun | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Date
1948
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Unknown |
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Unknown |
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Iconographical Subject
Material / Technique
Black Stone (possibly marble)
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
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Length
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Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
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Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
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Colophon
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Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance

It is assumed that Jews started settling in Zemun in the Middle Ages. However, according to the existing archival material, we can confidently say that Jews resided in this city in 1726. The cemetery was founded in 1747. Between 1770 and 1780, Hevra Kadisha was established. There were two synagogues. The Ashkenazi synagogue on 5 Rabin Alkalaj Street was inaugurated in 1863 and the Sephardi Synagogue in 1871 at 3 Dubrovačka Street.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Jewish population numbered around 1000. Most Zemun Jews perished in the concentration camps of Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška. The number of Holocaust survivors is 115. The Sephardi synagogue was demolished in 1947, there is no memorial plaque. An Ashkenazi synagogue exists today. The building is used as a restaurant and there is no memorial plaque. The Jewish Community of Zemun is active today.

The monument to the victims of fascism was unveiled in the Jewish Cemetery in 1948. Zemun-born Dr. Alber Vajs, the first afterwar president of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Yugoslavia, initiated the erection of the monument along with the members of the Jewish Community Zemun.

Between 1947 and 1948, there were several similar "ad hoc, uncoordinated initiatives that were driven largely by the sense of obligation of the surviving Jews towards their murdered relatives and friends" [Kerenji, p. 209]. As a result of these initiatives small monuments and plaques were dedicated by communities in Vojvodina, among them Subotica, Sombor, Stara Kanjiža and Senta.

Commemoration ceremonies by this monument have been annually held by the Jewish Community of Zemun on July 27, the day the Jews were deported from Zemun in 1942.

The memorial was vandalized in 2001 (?).

Main Surveys & Excavations
Sources

Kerenji, Emil, “Jewish Citizens of Socialist Yugoslavia: Politics of Jewish Identity in a Socialist State, 1944–1974,” Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 2008, p. 209., https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/60848/ekerenji_1.pdf?sequence=1. June 2020 (accessed February 23, 2022)

"Memorials in Zemun," Locations (Vojvodina Holocaust Memorials Project), https://www.vhmproject.org/en-US/Locations/Memorials/26 (accessed July 2, 2023)

Ungar, Olga, "Remembering the Victims: Vojvodina Holocaust Memorials," in   Jewish Literatures and Cultures in Southeastern Europe: Experiences, Positions, Memories (=Schriften des Centrums für jüdische Studien, vol. 37) eds Renate Hansen-Kokoruš and Olaf Terpitz, pp. 217-236.

“Život posle smrti: Jevrejsko groblje Zemun,” Jevrejsko groblje Zemun, http://joz.rs/grobljeweb/index.html (accessed July 2, 2023)
Type
Documenter
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Author of description
Olga Ungar | 2023
Architectural Drawings
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Computer Reconstruction
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Section Head
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Language Editor
Adam Frisch | 2023
Donor
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Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |