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Object Alone

Obj. ID: 21352
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Munich Spanish Pentateuch, Spain, late 13th century

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,
Summary and Remarks

14 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Munich Spanish Pentateuch | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Late 13th century
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 114 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 114)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Panel Measurements
Mutilated: The first 3 quires are missing with text (Genesis 14:3), as well as the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy. Some pages are seriously damaged (e.g. fols. 137, 142, 174: a cut along the lower margin). Fols. 194 and 246bis are loose.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Pentateuch, vocalised and punctuated with Targum Onkelos and Saadia Gaon's Arabic translation following each verse (in smaller script); massorah magna and parva. The manuscript is mutilated. Contents: Genesis 14:4 - end of Leviticus (fols. 1-282v). Tosefta Genesis (44:18) on an added leaf of the same sheepskin (fol. 283). Commentaries in all margins and between the columns (fols. 70, 78v-93v, 236v-237), corresponding to the main text: Rashi (e.g. fol. 78v-83), Tuvia ben Elazar (לקח טוב פסיקתא זוטרתא, (fols. 70, 79v-86), Bereshit Raba (fol. 79). Targum Onkelos in the margin (e.g. fols. 2v, 99, 129v, 134, 236v).
Material Sheepskin, II + 282 + I leaves (foliated 283 with errors: 136bis, 246bis; fol. 157 numbered 158). The quires are arranged hair side facing hair, each starting with the hair side according to Gregory rule. Measurements Written in two columns: Full page: (258-264) x (267-271) mm. Text space: (165-180) x 180 mm; height with massorah: c.220 mm. Column width: (73-78) mm. Written in one column: Full page (fols. 21, 111, 136bis, 246, 264): (255-262) x (195-228) mm. Text space: (169-180) x (125-155) mm. Scribes One main scribe, who also wrote the commentary. A massorator, who wrote the massorah and partly corrected the text (e.g. fols. 66v, 67, 68) and may have been the vocaliser. Hand 1: fol. 283, single last leaf (תוספתא דויגש אליו יהודה). Script Square Sephardi script for both the Hebrew text and Onkelos Targum. Semi-cursive Sephardi script for Saadia Gaon's Arabic translation. Massorah and commentary: small square Sephardic script. Columns Two columns, except for fols. 21-21v, 111-111v, 136bis-136bis verso, 246-246v, 264-264v. The First Song of Moses (Ex. 15:10-22, fols. 128v-129) is written in brickwork pattern. Number of lines The main text is written in 18-20 lines per page; the massorah magna is mainly in a single line in the upper and lower margin (except for e.g. fols. 128v-129), although 2 and 3 lines were ruled respectively. Sometimes the massorah is written in two lines (e.g. fols. 140, 246) or in a decorative pattern (e.g. fols. 128v-129). Ruling Ruling by stylus on the hair side, on the first and middle leaves of each quire: mostly 2+20+3 horizontal lines ruled across the page and 1+2+1 vertical lines for 2 columns or 1+1 for one column. Pricking In inner and outer margins, hardly noticeable (e.g. fols. 7, 26, 31, 192, 273, 280). Quires 36 quires of 8 leaves each except for: I8-2 (the original second bifolium (2/6) which should be between fols. 1v and 2 and 5v and 6, is now bound upside-down between quires III and IV (between fols. 22v-23), and its folios are numbered 1 1/2 and 1 3/4 respectively); XVIII8 (fols. 136-142, and 136bis); Single leaves in quires: XX8 (fols. 151-159 (!): fol. 157 numbered 158; 2/7, fols. 152/158 are singles); XXV8 (3/6, fols. 194/197); XXVI8 (1/8, fols. 200/207); XXVIII8 (2/7, fols. 217/222); XXXI8 (2/7, fols. 242/246bis); XXXIII8 (3/6, fols. 258/161); XXXIV8 (3/6, fols. 274/277); XXXV8 (3/6, fols. 266/269); XXXVI2+1+1 (fols. 282, 283 are single leaves). Quire XXXIII8 is bound upside-down (fols. 256-263v). Catchwords Catchwords for quires in square script, written horizontally in the lower left-hand corner of the last verso of each quire. Hebrew numeration At the beginning of quires, starting withד (fol. 1, original quire 4), in the upper right-hand corner; skipping יב (quire VIII numberedיא on fol. 55, while quire IX is numberedיג on fol. 63). Quires number כב-כד and ל were not written out. Blank leaves Fol. 283v (single last leaf).
Number of Lines
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Scribal Notes
Trade Mark

Off-white pigskin on wooden boards (280 x 285 mm) by Heinrich Peisenberg, c.1577 (cf. Geldner 1958, pl. LXIV, fig. 85; Haebler 1929, II:64, 268). The front cover is blind-tooled with Ivstitia in the centre holding tipped scales in her left hand and a sword in her right. She stands beneath an arch with two columns, inscribed: Diligite iustitiam qui iudicatis terram Sap. I. Below her: Aequa Gerit Rectam Liberat Quae Pondere Lancem/ Iustitia Immota Firma Tenaxque Manu. The back cover is blind-tooled with the arms of Duke Albrecht V with the initials SDN QCN (Si Deus Nobis Quis Contra Nos). These centre-pieces on both covers are surrounded by three frames: the inner with alternating unidentified profiles inscribed: MIR, ALE, IOH, ION; the middle one with alternating portraits of St. Paul with a book and sword, inscribed: Apparvit benig(nitas) (Tit. 3:4), John the Baptist with an open book, inscribed Ecce Agnus De(i) (John 1:29), Christ with a cross on orb, inscribed Data est mihi om(nis) (Matthew 28:18), David with a harp, inscribed De fructu ventri(s) (Ps.132:11; Vulgate 131:11); the outer frame is decorated with interlacing floral chains.


The spine has three double cords and head and tail bands. Vestiges of two straps on the back cover and nails for clasps in the front cover.


For a similar binding see BSB Cod.hebr. 208 (see also CJA Documentation).

Decoration Program
  1. Massorah in micrography written by the massorator in simple geometrical decoration (mostly zigzag; e.g. fols. 90-91, 128v-129, 179).
  2. Decorated parashah signs mostly by the massorator (fols. 26v, 35, 58, 67, 87, 105v, 125v, 135v, 141v, 151, 159v, 169, 181v, 192v, 212v, 221v, 230, 238, 246v, 254, 259v, 270v, 275v). By another hand (fols. 18, 78v. A cross decorating the word פרש' (parashah; fol. 116), perhaps by Widmanstetter.
  3. Decorated end of text: Saadia Gaon's translation (e.g. fols. 199v, 219v-220, 245v, 249, 250) and the commentary (e.g. fols. 80v, 82, 83v, 90, 91-91v) by the Scribe written in zigzag forms.
  4. One catchword decorated with a simple foliate motif by the Scribe (fol. 199v).
Suggested Reconsdivuction
Inscriptions: On the recto of the second front flyleaf, Latin inscription by a 16th-century hand: Ex Pentateucho fragmentum sermone Hebraeo Chaldaeo et Arabico cum Ma/soreth./ A capite XIIII versus IIII Genesis visque ad finem Levitici./ Paraphrasis Chaldaea initii sermonis Judae ad Josephum fratrem/ ignotum. Verisisimile est eam ex paraphrasi aliqua integra/Pentateuchi sumpertam esse./ Chaldaea interpretatio alicubi a Thargum Vulgato differt./ Arabica translatio differt ab Arabica vulgata. Videtur autem/mihi haec verior, et propior Hebreo textuj. A pencil note next to Paraphrasi Chaldaea initii sermonis Judae…: est Raschi Steinschneider Juni 1869, meaning that according to Steinschneider the additional passage at the end of the manuscript (fol. 283) is Rashi (Tosefta Genesis, 44:18). Owner's inscriptions: On the verso of the second front flyleaf, two inscriptions: In Latin: 5 lib. Mosi in Arab. Heb. Cald. In semi-square Hebrew: חסר סדר בראשית, נח ותחילת לך לך/ תרגום ערבי הוא מן רבינו סעדיה גאון/ נקרא הפיתומי ויש לי על זה כתב יד ברורה (Missing the pericopes of Genesis, Noah and the beginning of Lech lekah; the Arabic translation is by our Rabbi Saadia Gaon called the Pithomi, and I have on it a clear manuscript). Signed: B. Alexandre. Fol. 1, in the lower margin, owner's signature: Joannis Alberti Widmanstadij (cf. BSB Cod.hebr. 208). Fol. 94v, mid 16th-century Latin inscription in the outer margin by Widmanstetter, next to Ex. 1:6: nota et dictionem arabicum, que significant cum q.d. Computato unam ioseph cum liberis duobus, quos habuit in Aigypto. Old signature: In the margins of the inner cover: 3. n. 74 (signature of Duke Albrecht V). Exlibris: On the front pastedown: the exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (226 x 156 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972: B3ab). It is stuck on top of the earlier exlibris of 1618 (Dressler 1972: A3a-f), which is of Duke Maximilian I before he became Elector in 1623 (cf. BSB Cod.hebr. 21). The exlibris is inscribed in pencil with a description in German of the contents to right and left. Library Stamps and stickers: Square library stamp inscribed: BIBLIOTHECA REGIA MONACENSIS on front flyleaf II and fols. 7, 175, 283v. On the recto of the front first flyleaf: 140/194. On the spine: at the top, a sticker inscribed 104 and below, the library's modern sticker: Cod. hebr. 114.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Beit-Arié 1981 M. Beit-Arié, Hebrew Codicology, Jerusalem 1981. Dannhauer 1997 P.G. Dannhauer, "Die Hebraicasammlung der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek", Bibliotheksforum Bayern 25 (1997), pp. 36-46 (esp. p. 41). Das Buch im Orient. Handschriften und Kostbare Drucke aus Zwei Jahrtausenden (Ausstellung November – February 1983), Wiesbaden 1982 (p. 42). Dressler 1972 F. Dressler and B. Schröder, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Geldner 1958 F. Geldner, Bucheinbände aus Jahrhunderten, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich 1958. Haebler 1929 K. Haebler, Rollen- und Plattenstempel des XVI. Jahrhunderts, vol. II (Sammlung Bibliothekswissenschaftlicher Arbeiten, ed. K. Haebler, Heft 42 (Series 2, Heft 25)), Leipzig 1929. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich, 1895. Striedl 1957 H. Striedl, "Geschichte der Hebraica Sammlung der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek", Orientalisches aus Münchner Bibliotheken und Sammlungen, Wiesbaden 1957, p. 6.
Anna Nizza; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008 2009, 2013
Author of description
Anna Nizza; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin Yaffa Levy 2009 2013 2013 | 2009; 2013; 2013
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 06-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2013
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |