Under Reconstruction!
Object Alone

Obj. ID: 20941
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger's Commentaries, Venice, c.1552

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,

Summary and Remarks

Meir appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 8, 11, 15, 23, 26, 29, 31, 39, 44, 47, 49, 50, 54, 56, 58, 59; Yaakov ben Yosef in BSB Cod.hebr. 10, 12, 15, 17, 22, 24, 31, 32, 40, 43, 48, 49, 52, 57, 58, 62, 73; and Itzhak ben Elijah Manosh in BSB Cod.hebr. 18, 25, 30, 58, 63.

14 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Fugger's Venetian Commentaries | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 27 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 27)
Documentation / Research project
Paper, 1 + 415 leaves
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (358-360) x (239-243) mm.
Text space: Meir: (270-271) x (142-143) mm.
Yaakov ben Yosef: (238-239) x (136-140) mm.
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Type of grave
1. Sod ha-Melakhah (סוד המלאכה; The Secret of Work) by Johannes Jacobi (fols. 1'-96v): beginsזה הספר הכולל בקיצור כל הרפואה משער הראש עד פריסת הרגל (Steinschneider 1893:805). Another copy in Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 286 (fols. 19-81), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter. 2. Treatise on Purgation (מאמר במיני ההרקות במשלשלים) by Sheshet Nasi ben Benbenishti (fols. 96v-116v): begins מאמר במיני ההרקות במשלשלים וגם במקיאים. Another copy in Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 134 (fols. 116-122v), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter. 3. Short version of Arnavdina (ארנבדינה) by Arnaldus of Villanova (fols. 116v-151, 158v-163, 177-186) in an anonymous translation: begins בעלי הריח ותרגיל זה האישרוף העשוי עם מיץ. 4. Treatise on Purgation (הכבוסים והטהרות) by Gerhardus (גררדוס) (fols. 151-158v, 163-177, 186-193v) in an anonymous translation (Steinschneider 1893:792). Other copies in Munich: BSB Cod.hebr. 49 (fols. 411v-451v) from Fugger's Venetian group; BSB Cod.hebr. 245 (fols. 3-62v), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter. 5. Canon (Book I, 4: 20-25) by Avicenna (fols. 193v-200v): begins אמנם אם יהיה באבר השכן אלא מחלקים. 6. Super commentary on Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Organon (פירוש על ביאור אמצעי על ספר ההגיון) by Judah ben Jehiel Messer Leon (fols. 201-410): begins ספר תבנית חותם חבר מסיר ליון מנפולי אמר העבד הקטן האוהב הנאמן יהודה המכונה מסיר ליאון.
Meir (Scribe A*): fols. 1-201 in brown ink. Yaakov ben Yosef (Scribe B): fols. 202-390v, 392-410 in brown ink. Itzhak ben Elijah Manosh (Interpolator A*): fols. 391-391v in brown ink. * The letters A, B, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes and interpolators in this manuscript.
The main text is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script.
Number of Lines
The text is written in 30 lines per page mainly in one column.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines, e.g. fol. 200a.
53 quires of 8 leaves each, except for III6, XXVI4, XXXV6, LIII1+6. Quire composition:I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III6 (17-22); IV8 (23-30); V8 (31-38); VI8 (39-46); VII8 (47-54); VIII8 (55-62); IX8 (63-70); X8 (71-78); XI8 (79-86); XII8 (87-94); XIII8 (95-102); XIV8 (103-110); XV8 (111-118); XVI8 (119-126); XVII8 (127-134); XVIII8 (135-142); XIX8 (143-150); XX8 (151-158); XXI8 (159-166); XXII8 (167-174); XXIII8 (175-182); XXIV8 (183-190); XXV8 (191-198); XXVI4 (199-200, 201, 201a); XXVII8 (201b-208); XXVIII8 (209-216); XXIX8 (217-224); XXX8 (225-232); XXXI8 (233-240); XXXII8 (241-248); XXXIII8 (249-256); XXXIV8 (257-264); XXXV6 (265-270); XXXVI8 (271-278); XXXVII8 (279-286); XXXVIII8 (287-294); XXXIX8 (295-302); XL8 (303-310); XLI8 (311-318); XLII8 (319-326); XLIII8 (327-334); XLIV8 (335-342); XLV8 (343-350); XLVI8 (351-358); XLVII8 (359-366); XLVIII8 (367-374); XLIX8 (375-382); L8 (383-390); LI8 (391-398); LII8 (399-406); LIII1+6 (407-410, 410a, 410b, 410c).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally at the left below the text in semi-cursive script by the text scribe.
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 201-201v, 201a-201a verso, 201b verso.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Scribal Notes
Watermarks: A trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; e.g. fols. 2, 19, 51, 81, 149, 199, 200a, 271, 325): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550); 'A' with a curl on its right in the outer corner of the folio (22 mm; e.g. fols. 324, 331, 346, 370, 393, 409): Harlfinger: Ancre 40 (1548). Counter mark: quadruped animal in profile with outstretched tongue in the centre of the folio (60 mm; e.g. fols. 408, 410, 410b): unidentified.
Trade Mark

Dark green leather on wooden boards (338 x227 mm); gold-tooled with a central roundel on the front and a shield on the back cover within an undulating lozenge in a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The front roundel is inscribed רפואות, below are letters DDDDD. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has three hidden cords and head and tails bands. On the edges of the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two on the side and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails on the edges of the back cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring intended to hook over the nails in the opposite cover. The leaves are gilt-edged.


This binding was made for Fugger by the 'Fugger Binder' inVenice(Hobson 1999:119-129). Similar bindings in BSB: e.g. Cod.hebr. 19, 27, 33, 39, 42, 47, 51, 55, 59, 61, 65.


Watermarks on the front flyleaf: An anchor within a circle and a star on top at the centre of the folio

(65 mm): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Ancre 24-31 (Venice, 1556).

Decoration Program

The decoration was executed by Meir:

  1. Decorative title page (fol. 1).
  2. Marginal decoration (fols. 17, 39, 41, 41v, 56, 56v, 57v, 58, 59, 59v, 60, 60v, 63v, 65, 70v, 103, 121v, 126v, 127, 129, 129v,  131, 132, 132v, 133v, 134v, 137, 143v, 145, 148, 159, 160, 166v, 168v, 170v, 171, 172v, 174v, 175, 176v, 182v, 183).
Suggested Reconsdivuction
Owners' inscriptions: None. Inscriptions of librarians and researchers: Front flyleaf, verso: an inscription in brown ink by Librarian 1a: ספר הרפואות אשר חיבר הרופא/ המומחה יוהניס גאקמה הנקרא/ סוד הגדול המלאכה הוא הספר כתב לאדון המלך קארולוס/ במדינת צרפות/ ספר תבנית חותם חבר מסיר ליון מנפולי. Below by Librarian 3: Sephaer harephuos aeschaer hiber harophe\ hamumha Iohannis Gagma hanikra\ sod hagadol hamlocha hu hasephaer\ cosaph leadan hamaelech Karolos\ Bimdinas zarphas\ Sephaer taunis hosan hiber masir Lion\ Menapuli\ Id est.\Ioanis Gagmae Montispesselani\ de arcanis medicinae, liber Carolo\ Francorum Regi ab autore dedicatus.\ Domini Leonis Neapolitani liber, qui vocatur\ Tasnis hosan.i. Similitudo sigilli. On a piece of paper by Librarian 2(?) in brown ink: Ioannis Gagma Montispessulam (corrected by Librarian 3) arcane\ operis Lib. Stat. 8. n0. 62. ... ad calum". Back pastedown, on the exlibris, in plummet: contents of the manuscript in German. Exlibris and stamps: Front pastedown: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x 155 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972:B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (175 x 135 mm) of 1618, before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f). On front flyleaf, recto, there is a 20th-century oval stamp of the BSB: BIBLIOTHECA\ REGIA\ MONACENSIS. Old signatures: Back cover, upper right part in black ink, upside down: St. 9 (?) (second signature of Fugger's library). Front cover, lower right part in black ink: (?) (the Duke's library, Prommer's signature). Front flyleaf, verso in red ink: 1. 51 (the Duke's library, Prommer's revision of 1583). Front flyleaf, verso, upper right part, in black ink: MS. Hebr. 23.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Harlfinger 1974-80 D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin 1974-1980. Hobson 1999 A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings, Cambridge 1999. Sirat and Dukan, unpublished C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux "sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished. Steinschneider 1893 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin 1893. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895.
Short Name
Full Name
Well preserved. Apparently the manuscript was not used.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Ilona Steimann | 2008, 2015
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008, 2015; 2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 05-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.