Object Alone

Obj. ID: 6121
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Munich Ashkenazi Siddur-Maḥzor, Franconia, late 13th - early 14th century

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,
Summary and Remarks

The mutilated manuscript is composed of two different codicological, palaeographical and textual units.

The first, vellum, unit is a Siddur and Haggadah copied by Scribes A, B and C (fols. 1-107). The second, sheepskin, unit is a Mahzor copied by Scribes D (fols. 108-117v) and E (fols. 118-203). The codicological features of the Mahzor, such as ruling by stylus, although without pricking in the inner margin, might point to a somewhat earlier date than the ruling in plummet with pricking in the inner margin of the Siddur

(Beit-Arié 2003:20-21). Although it is not clear when the two units were brought together, Scribes A, B

and C of the later Siddur unit added annotations to the earlier Mahzor.  

According to Goldschmidt this manuscript, especially the Mahzor, although lacking a great deal from the morning service until the end of the musaf for the Day of Atonement, is the oldest and most important source of the eastern Ashkenazi rite. This manuscript was used for collating variants in Goldschmidt, Mahzor for Rosh Hashana (Goldschmidt 1970, I:53).   

The custom of reciting the Torah blessings before the morning prayers (fol. 1) is a clear indication of the east European rite, whereas in the western Ashkenazi communities it is read later, before Parashat Tamid (Goldschmidt 1970, I:28; Y. and A. Fraenkel 2008:7). Another indication of the eastern rite is the recitation of the piyyut (silluq) ונתנה תוקף in the musaf of both New Year and the Day of Atonement, whereas in western practice it is recited only on New Year. This is the case, for example, in the Nuremberg Mahzor of 1331, one of the three largest Ashkenazi mahzorim (the others are the Worms Mahzor and the Amsterdam Mahzor), which represent the eastern Ashkenazi–Austrian rite. Nevertheless, for some reason, the silluq in our mahzor appears only once, in the New Year musaf.

There is also an inconsistency in the morning service for the Shabbat of Circumcision, which in the Nuremberg Mahzor as well as in our mahzor runs according to the western Ashkenazi rather than the eastern rite (Y. and A. Fraenkel 2008:80, notes 448 and 449).

Another outstanding example is the order for blowing the horn in the musaf for the first and second days of New Year (fols. 147 and 156v - תקיעה שברים תקיעה) which is a western Ashkenazi custom, whereas in Poland (and France) the order is in accordance with Rabbenu Tam (תקיעה שברים תרועה תקיעה; Goldschmidt 1970, I:259). These inconsistencies perhaps occur because the prayer books of the eastern practice only became fixed when they were printed during the 16th century, not earlier.

Only the first unit containing the Siddur is decorated. The double arcade (fol. 1) resembles that of a Mahzor produced in 1279 apparently inBamberg(fig. 2). In both manuscripts the arcade is decorated with a geometrical pattern, juxtaposing elements coloured in ink with others in spared-ground technique. A special affinity is evident in the three spared-ground lions passant decorating the bases of the columns in our manuscript and those decorating the capitals of columns in the Bamberg Mahzor, and the bases of the latter with a decorated catchword in ours (fig. 3). The juxtaposition of elements executed in ink and those in spared-ground technique is the main characteristic of Franconian scribal art, which is found in many other manuscripts from this region from the late 13th to the early 14th century (Cohen-Mushlin 1985:92).

Another example is the Munich High Holidays and Sukkot Mahzor, which shows the general type of decoration also prevalent in our manuscript (cf. figs. 4 and 5). The variety of simple elements drawn by scribes, not always with a dexterous hand, nevertheless enrich the initial words with their different combinations, whether executed in colour, brown ink, spared-ground or all three. Thus the rich initial word in our mahzor is comparable to that in another of c.1270, although the scribes used different motifs (cf. figs. 6 and 7). We may conclude that our mahzor was produced at the end of the 13th or the early 14th century, in the region ofFranconia.





Fig. 1: Decorated arcade

Munich Ashkenazi Siddur-Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 69, fo1. 1

Fig. 2: Decorated portal

The Bamberg Mahzor

Bamberg, 1279

New York, JTS mic. 4843, fol. 1v

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

Fig. 3: Decorated catchword

Munich Ashkenazi Siddur-Maḥzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 69, fo1. 7v



Fig. 4: Inhabited initial word

Munich Ashkenazi Siddur-Maḥzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 69, fol. 24v


Fig. 5: Inhabited initial word

Munich High Holidays and Sukkot Mahzor

Franconia, end of 13th-beginning of 14th century

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 86, fol. 19

(See CJA Documentation)


Fig. 6: Decorated initial word

MunichAshkenazi Siddur-Maḥzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 69, fol. 13v



Fig. 7: Decorated initial word

Mahzor by David son of Pesah       

Franconia, c.1260-70

New York, Public Library, Jewish division, Hebrew MS B, fol. I:48

(Jerusalem, Narkiss Archive)


Two flyleaves at the beginning and end of the manuscript, today in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung (Inv. No. 171526, Inv. No. 171523), are coloured woodcuts which originally appeared in the Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer des Heils (Treasure Chest of the True Riches of Salvation), written by the Franciscan preacher Stephan Fridolin (1430-98). The woodcuts were executed by the workshop of Michael Wolgemut and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff  and published in 1491 by Anton Korberger inNuremberg

(seeMunich, BSB Cod.hebr. 14, Remarks).








12 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Munich Ashkenazi Siddur-Maḥzor | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Late 13th - early 14th century
Active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Historical Origin
Community type
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 69 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 69)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Two codicological units: vellum (fols. 1-107) and thick sheepskin (fols. 108-203).
II (glued to each other) + 203 + II.
Watermarks of flyleaves: hand with a cuff and a five-petalled flower attached to its middle finger (back cover first flyleaf; 89 mm): similar to Piccard, No. 210 (Nuremberg, 1492).
Two woodcut flyleaves now in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung in Munich (Inv. No. 171526, Inv. No. 171523) were each attached to the pastedowns of the front and back covers (see Illuminated Documents).
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (309-311) x (245-248) mm.
Text space: Fols. 1-47v, Scribe A: (203-215) x (160-170) mm.
Fols. 48-87, Scribe B: (212-214) x (156-165) mm.
Fols. 87-107, Scribe C: (215-217) x (169-172) mm.
Fols. 108-117v, Scribe D: (215-225) x (165) mm.
Fols. 118-203v, Scribe E: (230-249) x (195-207) mm.
Panel Measurements
Many quires are missing; some leaves, especially at the beginning are damaged. The lower margin of fol. 186 is cropped. A small piece of vellum with text is sewn between fols. 143 and 144. Two front and back woodcut flyleaves of the 15th century were removed on 1.12.1862 to the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung in Munich (Inv. Nos. 171523 and 171526).
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Eastern Ashkenazi Siddur-Mahzor for the entire year consisting of two codicological, palaeographical and textual units. The first unit includes a Siddur and Haggadah with commentaries in the margins by Eleazar of Worms; Ethics of the Fathers with commentaries from the Mahzor Vitry, and piyyutim for yozrot for particular Sabbaths, some with commentaries. The second unit is a Mahzor, no commentary. The manuscript is mutilated in many places. I. Siddur, Haggadah and Ethics of the Fathers (fols. 1-107): 1. Siddur (fols. 1-23v), including weekday services (fol. 1-15v); Torah blessings recited at the beginning of the service (fol. 1; cf. Goldschmidt 1970, I:28); Sabbath services (fol. 16-23v), beginning missing, opens with אתה יצרת עולמך of the musaf amidah. The section מפני חטאינו גלינו of the musaf (fol. 16) is decorated with a large initial word; the Saturday night service includes the Blessing for the New Moon (fols. 16v-17). 2. Passover Haggadah (fols. 24-37): mutilated, begins at the end of the blessing for the washing of hands. Includes also Pour out thy wrath (Ps. 79:6), first verse only (fol. 32v), and the piyyutim: אז רוב נסים (fol. 35), אומץ גבורותיך (fols. 35v-36) and כי לו נאה (fol. 36v). 3. Ethics of the Fathers (fols. 37-47v, mutilated from 4:20). 4. Yozrot for Sabbaths and special occasions (fols. 48-95v): mutilated, begins with קדושים בנפשם עולים על גבי חרשים (middle of a piyyut for the fifth Sabbath after Passover, fol. 48); Sabbath before Shavuot (fol. 49); Sabbath after Shavuot (fol. 54); Shabbat Shlah Lekha (fol. 58); Shabbat Nahamu after 9th Ab (fol. 58v); Shabbat Shma (fol. 61v); Shabbat Ekev (fol. 63); Sabbath before New Year (fol. 64); עזרת מאורה לאחר שבועות (fol. 68); Shabbat Shuvah between New Year and Day of Atonement (fols. 69); Sabbath between Day of Atonement and Sukkot (fol. 72); Shabbat Holhamoed Sukkot (fol. 74v); Simhat Torah (fol. 76); Shemini Azeret (fol. 76v: including ofan for Shabbat Bereshit). Shabbat of a wedding (fol. 78v); Shabbat of Circumcision (fols. 84-87, first column); Shabbat and Roshhodesh (fol. 87); Second Shabbat Hanukkah (fols. 89-91); Purim (fols. 91-91v); Shabbat Shira (fol. 91v); Shabbat Decalogue (fols. 94v-95v, end mutilated). 5. Selihot for fast days (fols. 96-107v): beginning missing, opens with סופקת כף אל כף (fol. 96); selihot for Isruhag of Passover (fol. 96); 17th of Tamuz (fol. 97); 10th Tevet (fol. 99v); Fast of Esther (fol. 102), and two other selihot (fols. 105v-107). Addition by another hand of a section of the piyyut Zekhor Brit (fol. 107); Selihot customs fol. 107v, end mutilated. II: Mahzor (fols. 108-230v): mostly includes piyyutim: Passover (fols. 108-127v): first day morning service (fols. 108-113v); musaf (fols. 111v-116); second day morning service (fols. 116-117v): ending נחמדים מפי בפירושי of the yozer אפיק רנן. Seventh day morning service (fols. 118-122): begins with ונ'(אמר) הסירותי מסבל שכמו from the end of the magen. The Aramaic piyyutim for the seventh day of Passover are omitted. Eighth day morning service (wrongly entitled יוצר ליום ש[מ]יני; fols. 122-127v). Shavuot (fols. 127v-133v, end mutilated): first day morning service (fol. 127v-133v): the piyyut seder olam of the kedushta, omitting the addition at the end וישמחו כל העם, which is recited in western Ashkenaz. Ends: ופדיון הבן [ו]נדר והקדש of the azharot (leaves missing). Additional piyyut (fol. 134 אורחי מעבר הנהר). New Year (fols. 134v-157): first day: morning service (fols. 134v-139); musaf (fols. 139-148v): the piyyut מלך עליון includes the verses מלך אביון (fol. 141), which are usually omitted in the Ashkenazi rite. Also includes the silluq ונתנה תוקף קדושת היום (see Remarks).The title of the amidah piyyut ויאתיו was added later in the margin of fol. 143v. Between fols. 143v-144 there are remnants of two parchment leaves (no text is missing). Second day: morning service (fols. 148v-155), musaf (fol. 155-157): including the titles of the piyyutim to be said, among which is the silluq ונתנה תוקף. Day of Atonement (fols. 157v-189): evening service (fols. 157v-164): Kol Nidrei followed by a few selihot and avinu malkenu: the abbreviated choice of the selihot is a typical eastern Ashkenazi custom. Morning service (fols. 164-187v): some piyyutim are missing between fols. 172-173; interrupted on fol. 179v: ואל ינום of the selihot; musaf (fols. 180-189v): beginning missing, opens with זמירות/ לסולח עוונות of the piyyut לאוהב צדקות; the piyyut ובכן שרפים עומדים ממעל לו/ זה אל זה שואלים is recited according to the western Ashkenazi rite. The kedushah ends with the silluqונתנה תוקף . Afternoon service (fols. 189v-193), the selihah יי' שמעה יי' סלחה on fol. 193 inserted later in semi-cursive script entitled פזמון אחר. Neilah (fols. 194-196), ending with blowing the horn (fol. 196). Sukkot (fols. 196-203v, end missing): First day: morning service (fols. 196-197v); musaf (fols. 197v-198). Second Day: morning service (fols. 198-201). Shabbat Holhamoed: morning service (fols. 201-203v), with fragmentary hoshanot at the end (fol. 203v, incomplete).
The text is written by five scribes: Scribe A: fols. 1-47v in light and dark brown ink: • Marginal commentary: Scribe A: fol. 1 (inner margin: ... י"ג תיבות נגד י"ג איברים... הוא לגוף). • Commentator 1: fols. 1 (inner margins: ברא ...)-37 (ואני לך ארץ וא"י …). • Commentator 2: fols. 37 (משה קיבל תורה ...)-47v. Scribe B: fols. 48-87 (first column) in brown ink: • Marginal commentary: Commentator 2, except for fol. 68-68v, which was copied by Commentator 3. Scribe C (Aharon): fols. 87 (second column)-107v in brown ink. On fol. 107v, end of the first codicological unit, inscribed by Scribe C: I the scribe Aharon, אני הסופר אהרון. This scribe added a missing passage in the margins of fol. 79 (in Scribe B's section). • Commentator 4: fol. 107v (Selihot customs). Scribe D: fols. 108-117v in brown ink. Scribe E: fols. 118-203v in brown ink. Script The text is written in Ashkenazi square (Scribes A-C) and semi-square (Scribe E) script; as well as quasi-Oriental(?) semi-square script (Scribe D); and the commentaries are in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script.
Number of Lines
Columns The text is written in two (mainly fols. 1-95v) and one (mainly fols. 96-203v) columns. Number of lines The main text is written in 17-29 lines per page (Scribe A: fols. 1-47v), 21 (Scribes B and C: fols. 48-107), 23-24 (Scribe D: fols. 108-117v), and 28 (Scribe E: fols. 118-203v).
Scribe A (fols. 1-47v): ruling for the main text in plummet for each leaf, hardly visible; 17-29 horizontal and 1+2+1 vertical lines. Ruling for the marginal commentary: 2+2 in the upper and lower margins and 2+2 in the inner and outer margins (e.g. fols. 20, 21, 23). Where the commentary does not fill all margins, the ruling outlines the allocated space (e.g. fols. 29, 30, 32). Scribe B (fols. 48-87): ruling for the main text in sharp plummet for each leaf, hardly visible; 22 horizontal and 1+2+1 vertical lines. The first and last two horizontal lines are sometimes ruled across the page (e.g. fols. 51-55v). The commentary is guided by a separate frame surrounding the text in the margins (e.g. fols. 40, 63). Scribe C (fols. 87-107): Ruling for the main text made in plummet for each leaf, hardly visible; 22 horizontal and 1+2+1 vertical lines for 2 text columns (e.g. fols. 88-95), and 1+1 for one (e.g. fol. 99v). Scribe D (fols. 108-117v): Ruling for the text by stylus on the hair side; 24 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines. The first and last horizontal lines are ruled across the entire page. Scribe E (fols. 118-203v): Ruling for the text by stylus on the hair side, 28 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines. The first one or two and last horizontal lines are sometimes ruled across the page.
Scribe A-C: Noticeable in all margins; the 11th and 13th lines were sometimes double-pricked and the upper and lower margins were pricked 2+2+2 (e.g. quire III, fols. 16-23). Scribe D-E: No pricking is visible.
26 quires of 8 leaves each, except for I8-1, XIV4, XV2+8, XV2+8, XXI8-1, XXIII8-1. Unit I: I8-1 (1-7: first leaf missing); II8 (8-15, quire missing?); III8 (16-23, quire missing?); IV8 (24-31); V8 (32-39); VI8 (40-47: end, Scribe A. The catchword does not correspond to the first word of the next leaf quire missing with text?); VII8 (48-55); VIII8 (56-63); IX8 (64-71); X8 (72-79); XI8 (80-87: end, Scribe B); XII8 (88-95, quire missing?); XIII8 (96-103); XIV4 (104-107v, end of first codicological unit, end Scribe C). Unit II: XV2+8 (108-117: the last two leaves of the preceding mutilated quire were added when rebound). fol. 117: end, Scribe D, finishing with catchword; some quires missing). Scribe E, some quires at the beginning missing: XVI8 (118-125); XVII8 (126-133, some quires missing); XVIII8 (134-141); XIX8 (142-149: a piece of parchment between fols. 143v-144, with 6 lines of text by Scribe E); XX8 (150-157); XXI8-1 (158-164: fourth leaf is cut out); XXII8 (165-172, leaves with text missing); XXIII8-1 (173-179: first leaf with text is cut out); XXIV8 (180-187); XXV8 (188-195: a quire missing); XXVI8 (196-203: finishing with catchword; some quires missing).
Catchwords for quires are written horizontally at the lower left side in square and semi-square Ashkenazi script by the text scribes. The catchwords by Scribe A are decorated, two elaborately (fols. 7v, 15v, 39v). Hebrew numeration None.
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Inscribed in black ink by Scribe C on the verso of fol. 107v: "I the scribe Aharon" (אני הסופר אהרון).
Scribal Notes
Trade Mark

15th-century binding on wooden boards (321 x247 mm.); the spine and a quarter part (65 mm) of each board are covered with white pigskin decorated with a stamped chain of floral ornament. The spine has three double cords and a head band, the tail band is missing. Holes and remains of nails situated along the upper and lower edges of the front cover denote the place of two lost clasps. They correspond to the indented squares on the back cover where straps were attached.

The binding was probably done in the Augustinian Friars monastery of St. Vitus inNuremberg(Munich, EBDB p001297; Hernad 1990:66; Kyriss 1951/58, No. 19).

This binding is similar to other Hebrew manuscript bindings from Schedel's collection (cf. BSB Cod.hebr. 14, 16, 21, 69, 88, 90, 298).

Decoration Program

The main decoration is found in the Siddur and done by Scribe A. It consists of a full-page double arcade and decorated initial words and catchwords. They are mostly coloured in brown ink, red and green

and spared-ground technique, decorated with wrigglework, animals and foliage motifs and a chequered pattern.


By Scribe A:

  1. A full-page double gate (227 x 174 mm) encloses the text of the opening page (fol. 1); decorated with chequered columns and bases with quadrupeds in spared-ground technique. The arches are coloured.
  2. Decorated initial word panels (fols. 4, 16v, 37v), large initial words for main sections (stem length 50-80 mm: fols. 9v, 13v, 14, 20v, 24v, 32v, 46), medium ones (stem length 25-35 mm: fols. 10, 11v, 15, 24, 29, 30, 37, 39), and smaller words for sub-sections (stem length 12-20 mm: fols. 14, 16, 42, 48v, 49, 53, 54, 56v, 69, 81v, 88). They are mostly coloured in red, green and brown ink, decorated with wrigglework and spared-ground technique, with animal and foliage motifs and a chequered pattern.
  3. Decorated catchwords (e.g. fols. 7v, 15v, 39v).

By later hands:

  1. Plummet sketches of a rosette, an interlaced knot and a dragon in the lower margins (fols. 84, 96v, 97v respectively); and crude ink doodles (fol. 76).
  2. Two woodcut flyleaves, now in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung (Inv. No. 171526, Inv. No. 171523), were attached to the manuscript as the front and back flyleaves and were detached on

1st December 1862.

Suggested Reconsdivuction
Annotations and corrections: by later hands (e.g. fols. 72, 75, 78v, 106v, 107, 107v, 144, 197v-198). Additions in Unit II by: Scribe A: fols. 162v-163; Scribe B: fols. 163v (excepting upper three lines (מי שענה; Scribe C: fol. 164; Scribe D: fol. 164, lower part of second column and last 7 lines on fol. 164v. Scribe E: 6 lines on a small piece of parchment sewn between fols. 143 and 144. Owners' inscriptions: • Within the letter פ of the initial word שפוך (pour out) on fol. 32v the name Abraham is scratched on the green ground. • In the lower margin of fol. 64v: יוסף בר' אברהם יקם (Joseph ben Abrahem Yakam). • In the lower margin of fol. 76: כהן בר ( (Cohen ben … ) • In the lower margin of fol. 136, within a scroll: מחזור של ר' ישראלו בר' יסכר(mahzor of R. Israelu ben R. Issachar). Librarians' inscriptions: • Front flyleaf, verso: inscription by Librarian 1a in black ink (cf. BSB Cod.hebr. 21): קצת תפילות היהודים בחול ובמועדים/ ובימים טובים אבל מועטים/ ובחסרון מאד עד מאד (Some weekday, holiday and festival prayers of the Jews, though few, with very great deficiency (the last six words cancelled by a line). • Under it by librarian 2: Kezas tephilos haiehudim behol uue moedim/ Vbeiamim thobim eual muethim/ Vphehisaran harbe ad meod. Id est.// Pars precationum hebraicarum super/ singulis hebdomatibus et praecipuis/ festis sed in (multis lotis mutila – cancelled by a line) fine defectum habens. • Exlibris of 1638, in its right upper corner in plummet, the contents of the manuscript in German. • In plummet on the front pastedown: Die beiden Holzschnitte, deren einer sich neben dem/ Vorsetz und der andere neben den Nachsetzblatt befand,/ wurden auf Anordnung des Directoriums/ herausgenommen. 1. Dez. 1862. Translation: The two woodcuts which were found one next to the front and the other next to the back flyleaves were removed by order of the director. 1st December 1862. Exlibris and stamps: • Two exlibris are pasted one on to the other on a separate black ground. Both were originally glued to the verso of the second flyleaf of the front cover: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (223 x 155 mm.) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I from 1638 (Dressler 1972: B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (178 x 133 mm.) from 1618, before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972: A3a-f). • Front cover, second flyleaf, recto, fol. 1 and fol. 203v: oval stamp of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek from the 20th century, inscribed BIBLIOTHECA/ REGIA/ MONACENSIS. Signatures and stickers: • Front cover, upper part, in black ink on wooden board: •D• (signature of Schedel's library). • Back cover, upper part, in black ink on wooden board: St. 8. n0 72 (signature of Fugger's library). • Front cover, lower part, in black ink on the leather of the binding: 5. n0. 54 (Duke's library, Prommer's signature). • Front cover, second flyleaf, verso, in red ink: J.44 (Prommer's revision of the Duke's library in 1582-1583). • Sticker on spine: 54. • On the exlibris of 1638, upper left corner, and on the back pastedown in pencil: Cod. hebr. 69 (present signature). • Stickers on back pastedown and spine: Cod. Hebr. 69.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Abbreviations BSB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek CJA Jerusalem, Center for Jewish Art, The Hebrew University: • Narkiss Archive • Schubert Archive • Sed-Rajna Archive • CJA Documentation EBDB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek: Einbanddatenbank SGS Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung Bibliography Beit-Arié 2003 M. Beit-Arié, Unveiled Faces of Medieval Hebrew Books: The Evolution of Manuscript Production - Progression or Regression? Jerusalem 2003. Cohen-Mushlin 1985 A. Cohen-Mushlin, "The Artistic Style of the Mahzor", Worms Mahzor (Facsimile Edition), M. Beit-Arié (ed.), Jerusalem 1985, pp. 90-93. Davidson 1924-1933 I. Davidson, Thesaurus of Medieval Hebrew Poetry, New York 1924–1933. Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Fleischer 1985 E. Fleischer, "Prayer and Piyyut in the Worms Mahzor," Worms Mahzor (Facsimile Edition), M. Beit Arié (ed.), Jerusalem 1985. Fleischer 2008 ע' פליישר, התפילה והפיוט במחזור נירנברג, ירושלים תשס"ח (E. Fleischer, The Prayer and Liturgical Poem in the Nuremberg Mahzor, Jerusalem 2008). Y. and A. Fraenkel 2008 י' וא' פרנקל, תפילה ופיוט במחזור נירנברג, ירושלים תשס"ח (Y. and A. Fraenkel, The Prayer and Liturgical Poem in the Nuremberg Mahzor, Jerusalem 2008). Goldschmidt 1970, I-II ד' גולדשמידט, מחזור לימים הנוראים לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים תש"ל: כרך א – ראש השנה, כרך ב – יום כיפור (D. Goldschmidt, Mahzor for Days of Awe of Ashkenazi Rite (Y. Fraenkel ed.), vols. I-II, Jerusalem 1970). Hernad 1990 B. Hernad (ed.), Die Graphiksammlung des Humanisten Hartmann Schedel, Munich 1990. Kyriss 1951-58 E. Kyriss, Verzierte gotische Einbände im alten deutschen Sprachgebiet, Stuttgart 1951-1958. Steinschneider 1985 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895.
Ilona Steimann Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008 2009, 2014
Author of description
Ilona Steimann Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin Yaffa Levy | 2008 2014 2014
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2014
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2014
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation | 2008-2012
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |