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Obj. ID: 27
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  The First New York Joel ben Simeon Haggadah, Germany, mid-15th century

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

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Name/Title
The First New York Joel ben Simeon Haggadah | Unknown
Object Detail
Date
Mid-15th century
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Period Detail
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Passover Haggadah of Ashkenazi Rite (fols. 1-23). Piyyut פסח מצרים Pesah Mizrayim (fols. 23-23v). Piyyut אדיר הוא Adir Hu (fol. 23v).
Codicology

Parchment, I + 23 + I leaves, (333-335) x (250-255) mm; text space (216-220) x (155-158) mm. Written in square Ashkenazi script, instructions in round Gothic script in light brown ink; 17 lines per page. Ruling not noticeable. Pricking is noticeable in all four margins. 4 quires: I6 II10 III6, IV1. Some text is missing at the beginning of the manuscript. The margins of of the manuscript were badly damaged at a later date by crude knife cropping of the illustrations, but the text of the  Haggadah remains intact.

Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Fol. 23v, at the bottom of the page: אני הסופר יואל ב'ר שמעון ז'ל כתבתי זה הגאולה לר' שמשון בר' ברוך ז'ל לו ולבניו ולבני בניו עד עולם עד שיעלה חמור בסולם "I, the scribe Joel ben Simeon, wrote this Redemption for Shimshon bar Barukh..."
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding

Modern binding of brown cloth and leather by James Mac Donald Co., New York, with gold tooling on the spine: "Haggadah Joel ben Simon 15th cent". Restored through the generosity of the Kress Foundation.

Decoration Program

A. 18 marginal text illustrations, each with an accompanying caption, sometimes within a banderole. Tinted pen drawings on the parchment ground using green, red, white and yellow (see below).

B. 10 remnants of captions of the cropped illustrations (fols. 2v, 3v, 4v, 6, 6v (four), 16, 16v, see below).

C. 4 decorated initial words (fols. 1v, see card, 8, 10, 14v, see below for the last two folios), two of which are within a panel.

D. Large display script in brown ink and red paint, some initial letters, two decorated with bearded masks (fols. 5v, 18v, see below).

E. Penwork flourishes (fol. 18, see below). two of which are within a panel.

 

Summary and Remarks

The First New York Joel ben Simeon Haggadah is one of the earliest manuscripts copied and illuminated by this prolific scribe-artist. Of about 20 manuscripts attributed to him or his itinerant workshop, from Germany and northern Italy, eleven are signed and six are dated (see Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, 1969, pp. 171-172; Narkiss, Washington Haggadah, pp. 29-42).

Our manuscript is signed, though not dated. By comparison with his more mature script and style of illumination, it is obvious that this Haggadah is the work of the young Joel, probably done in Germany before he went to Italy in the early 1450s. (The earliest dated manuscript from Italy is a Mahzor from Cremona dated 1452, in Turin, Royal Library, which was partly destroyed by fire in 1904). Joel may have been born in Cologne in the early 1420s, and expelled from there in 1426 with his family, when they settled in Bonn. In two of his colophons, Joel states that he is from Cologne while in two other colophons he is from Bonn. He may have started his apprenticeship as a scribe in Bonnor in another near by town. He must have been trained by a professional scribe, with whom he may have travelled from the age of fourteen or fifteen in the middle Rhine and Franconia. In the early 1440s, when he was seventeen or eighteen, he must have become an independent scribe, able to sign his name to a colophon, as he did in our Haggadah. 

Our Haggadah and the First Nuremberg Haggadah (Jerusalem, Schocken Library, Ms. 24086, formerly Nr. 2107b, in the Nuremberg Germanisches Nationalmuseum), are remnants of his earliest works in copying and illuminating manuscripts. Both manuscripts reveal the unsophisticated hand of a young scribe-artist. The script and the decoration are those of an unsure hand, though both script and draughtsmanship contain stylistic elements for which Joel would later be distinguished. Examples are the decorative extensions of his ascenders (i.e. lamed) and descenders (qof and the final kaf, nun, pe, >zade), the flourishes round the letters of his display script, the tapestry-like initial word panels, the style of a draughtsman in his illumination, even when it is painted, and the large, round faces with pronounced, rounded eyebrows. His training as an artist in this early stage must have been in the Rhine area, Franconia, and southern Germany. Closely related stylistically are the Coburg Pentateuch of 1396 London, British Library, Add. 19776, see Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, 1969, pl. 37, p. 114), the Hamburg Miscellany from Mainz of 1427 (Hamburg, Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek, Cod. Heb. 37, see Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, 1969, pl. 39, p. 118), and the related Second Nuremberg Haggadah (Jerusalem, Schocken Library, Ms. 24087) and the Yahuda Haggadah (Jerusalem, Israel Museum, Ms. 180/50, see Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, 1969, pls. 40, 41, pp. 120, 122), and the Hileq and Bileq Haggadah (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Hebr. 1333, see Narkiss  nd Sed-Rajna, Index of Jewish Art, 1981, Vol. II, 1), the last three are from southern Germanyin the first quarter of the 15th century. Joel's more mature style developed after he came toItaly, and is represented in this volume of the Index by the Second New York Joel ben Simeon Haggadah (ms.8279). A strange liturgical element is the inclusion, at the end of the manuscript, of a piyyut of Spanish or Provencal origin פסח מצרים (Davidson, III, פ No. 144, p. 303), which was noted by Alexander Marx (1944, p. 268, based on D. Kaufmann, "Une Haggada dela Franceseptentrionale ayant appartenu a Jacob ben Salomon Avignon" Revue des Etudes Juives, XXV, 1892, pp. 65-77). According to D. Kaufmann, the Wolf Haggadah was of northern French origin, from the end of the 14th century. It belonged to Rabbi Jacob ben Salomon of Avignon, who lost three of his children in the plague of 1373. The scribe and liturgy including this piyyut are taken to be of Provencal origin by Mordechai Glatzer (1991, pp. 139-169), since the author of the elaborate customs was from the area and a pupil of Rabbi Nathan Hayarhi (of Lunel 1155-1215). In any case, there is no obvious origin for the piyyut in the Ashkenazi rite of this Haggadah by Joel ben Simeon.

The iconographical programme of the First New York Joel ben Simeon Haggadah relates to the common Ashkenazi Haggadot of the early 15th century, such as the Second Nuremberg, the Yahuda and the Hileq and Bileq Haggadot mentioned above. They all have coloured pen-drawn illustrations in the margins, relating either to ritual, historical, or eschatological subjects. Most of them are directly connected to the text they illustrate, at times a single word or verse in the Haggadah. Joel ben Simeon mostly used traditional iconography for his illustrations, though he was fairly eclectic in choice, which is understandable in the case of a young scribe-illuminator. This is in fact Joel's earliest extant Haggadah with a fully developed programme of text illustrations. The earlier First Nuremberg Haggadah has only one text illustration, of a Seder table. Since Joel's iconography in this Haggadah is so traditional, it is at times possible to conjecture the subject and the iconography of some of the many excised pictures. At other times the missing subjects and their iconography could be deduced by comparing them with Joel's later Haggadot (see Narkiss, 1991, pp. 54-87), though a proper detailed study of Joel's entire iconography is still lacking.

 

 

Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Fol. 4, Owner's inscription:אני שמואל בר משה "I, Samuel bar Moses". Presented as a gift to the JTS Library by Mortimer L. Schiff in 1927.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Kaufmann, 1892, pp. 65-77;Fooner, 1937, pp. 217-232; Marx, 1944, p. 268; Landsberger, 1948, pp. 73-103; N.Y., Jewish Museum, 1965, No. 34; Narkiss, B., 1969, pp. 114, 118, 120, 122, 171-172, pls. 37, 39, 40, 41, 42 (Hebrew ed.), 1984, pp. 61-63, 193; Gutmann, 91970, pp.Metzger, M., 1973, pp. 17, 236-254, 294, 322, 328, 330-331, 343, 386, 389, 390, 430-432, 476, 477, 480, 483, 487; Beit-Arie, 1977, pp. 25-39; Edmunds, 1980, pp. 25-34; Narkiss, B. & Sed-Rajna, 1981;Ashkenazi Haggadah, 1985, p. 9; Glatzer, 1991, pp. 139-169; Narkiss, B., 1991, pp. 29-42, 54-87, figs. 14, 19, 23; Zirlin, 1995, especially pp. 26-28, 70-77, 157-170, figs. 4, 107-117, 126, 128-132,135-146, 235.
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Original Object
Documenter
Bezalel .Narkiss; E.W.; Evelyn .M.Cohen; Gina | 1990, 1991
Author of description
Bezalel .Narkiss; E.W.; Evelyn .M.Cohen; Gina | 1991
Architectural Drawings
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Computer Reconstruction
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Section Head
Michal Sternthal | Aug. 2019
Language Editor
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Donor
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Negative/Photo. No.