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Obj. ID: 23162
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Vienna Astronomical Manuscript, Barcelona, c. 1391

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

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Name/Title
Vienna Astronomical Manuscript | Unknown
Object Detail
Date
Around 1391
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown
(Unknown)

Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Unknown |
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 132 (Schwartz, No. 185)
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
The lower and outer margins of some leaves are cut-off (e.g. fols. 3, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30, 41, 49, 53, 54, 57). The text in some flesh-side openings is faded (e.g. fols. 4v-5, 10v-11), and in many pages there are large spots of water (e.g. fols. 31, 31v, 32, 32v, 37v, 55v). The burnished gold flaked off in a few letters of the initial words (e.g. on fols. 6v, 7 and 9). The upper right part of fol. 15 is torn.
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
The manuscript includes astronomical and astrological treatises grouped in three main parts: I. Six astrological and astronomical treatises by Ibn Ezra: a. Sefer Mishpate ha-Mazalot (ספר משפטי המזלות, treatise on the spheres and the zodiac that cites Ptolemy), (fols. 1-2v). Beginning and end missing. b. Sefer ha-'Olam ספר העולם), "The Book of the World and the Conjunctions"), first version (fols. 3-3v). Beginning and end missing. c. Sefer ha-Mivharim (ספר המבחרים, "The Book of Selections") second versions, (fols. 4-5v): Beginning missing, to chapter six. d. Sefer ha-Sheelot ספר השאלות), "The Book of Consultations of the Stars"), (fols. 5v-10v): complete. e. Sefer Re'shit Hokhmah (,ספר ראשית חכמה "The Beginning of Wisdom"), (fols. 11-18 and 20-20v). The leaves are not in order and text missing at the beginning and between some pages. fols. 12v and 13 and 14v and 15; fol. 17 follows fol. 15; the folio after 20 is fol. 16. f. Sefer ha-Te'amim ספר הטעמים), "The Book of Reasons") second version, (fols. 18-19v): Lot of text is missing (only the first 9 of 42 pages that are in the printed version survived). II. Six different astronomical tables and other texts: a. Astronomical Canons and Tables of Jacob ben David ben Yomtob (Also known as Jacob Poel or Jacob Bonjorn) use at the latitude of Perpignan, for the 31 years following 1361, (מתחלת אלף שס"א, דף 25 fols. 25-26v). Beginning and end are missing. b. Astronomical tables of Don Pedro (III) [IV] king of Aragon (Canons and Tables, anonymous translation), (fols. 21-22v, 24-24v, 28-30v, 31-36v, 41-46v, 55-56v, 57-58v, 60-61v): Prologue missing. c. Tables for converting between the Christian and Jewish calendars (available July to October), (fols. 47-47v, 49-49v). Beginning and end are missing. d. Astrological Tables for the equation of houses at latitude 420 (fols. 48-48v, 50-50v, 64). Beginning is missing. e. Astrological Tables for the equation of houses at latitude 430 (fols. 23-23v, 27-27v, 63-63v): f. Astronomical tables by Abraham bar Hiyya and other treatises (fols. 37-37v, 38-38v, 39-39v, 40-40v, 51, 51v-52v, 53-54v, 59-59v, 62-62v). III. Illustrated fixed Star Catalogue prepared for the year 1391 (קטלוג כוכבי שבת לשנת 1391, דף 66), (fols. 64v-68v, with an introduction on fol. 64v). Mid and end missing (lacking 35 of 48 miniatures of the constellations). The leaves are out of order. Their original order was: fol. 66, 68 (two pages that were set between 68v and 67 are missing), 67 and 65.
Codicology

Parchment, 1+ 68 + 1 + II (paper) leaves.

It is easy to distinguish between hair and flesh sides of the parchment.

 

Measurements

Full page: (270-274) X (197– 202) mm

Text space with the double lines ink frame: (200-203) X (139-141) mm

Text space with the double lines ink frame for the tablets: (202-204) X (140-142) mm

Column’s width: ca.65 mm

Intercolumnar space:10 mm

 

Scribes

Single scribe

 

Script

Main text is written in semi-cursive Sephardic script in dark and light brown ink.

Rarely cursive hand (e.g. fol. 28).

Tablets are written in brown and red ink.

 

Columns

The main text is written in two columns.

 

Number of lines

Main text (not including the tablets) written:

In 37 lines per column

 

Ruling

Ruling 2 + 3 + 2 vertical lines by plummet (e.g. fols. 6v, 7, 13) and 37 horizontal lines by ink (e.g. fols. 8v, 9, 22v) and plummet (e.g. fols. 5v, 12v, 13, 16v).

The tables are ruled by ink on each side of the page in various numbers of vertical and horizontal lines.

The two or three vertical and horizontal boundary lines for the text space are drawn along the entire width and height of the page.

 

Pricking

In the inner margins (e.g. fols. 1, 9, 11, 18) and lower margins (fol. 4).

 

Quires

24 quires of various number of leaves, as follows: 152 (IV, VI-X, XII-XIII, XV-XVI, XVIII-XX, XXII-XXIII); 44 (I, III, V, XVII); 36 (II, XI, XIV); 13 (XXI2+1) and 11 (XXIV2-1). The quires are not in the original structure and many leaves and texts are out of order (see: Contents).

 

Catchwords

None.

 

Hebrew numeration

None.

 

Blank leaves

None.

 

Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
A. The city of Barcelona is mentioned four times in Don Pedro's tables: 1. Fol. 21v: Upper part of the right text column, continues to the left text column: השער השני ... במדינות המזרחיות והמערביות למדינת ברצלונה... ואם תהיה במקום אחר חוץ מברצלונה 2. Fol. 29: Above the table, in brown ink: לוח מהלך חמה האמצעי.... למלך דון פירי (פדרו) השלישי מלך ארגון בחצי היום במדינת ברצלונה 3. Fol. 57v: Above the table, in red ink: לוח זמני השעות ... במדינת ברצלונה/ ובכל מקום שישתוה לה ברחב 4. Fol. 60: Above the table, in brown ink: לוח מצעדי המזלות באופק מדינת ברצלונה ובכל מקום אשר ישתוה לה ברחב. B. The city of Majorca is mentioned in Don Pedro's tables: On fol. 57v, above the table, below the words Barcelona ((במדינת ברצלונה, added by the scribe in brown ink: לי נראה במדינת מיורקה I saw it at Majorca. C. The illuminated Star Catalogue for the year 1391: Fol. 66, in the right column at the upper part of the page in red semi-cursive Sephardic script inscribed above Orsa Minor ((דוב הקטן, the first constellation star of the illuminated Star Catalogue, is the year 1391 indicated according to three different calculations: מקומות ככבי שבת בארך ורחב מאופן המזלות בראש שנת אלף/ שצ"א להגשמה וסימניך ויקרא יהו"ש"ע אל שנים העשר אשר/ הכין והיא שנת(ת מסומנת) תשצ"ג לחשבון הגרים וסי' שאו(מילה מסומנת) מרום(מילה מסומנת) עיניכם(מילה מסומנת)/ והיא שנת ה' אלפים קנ"ב ליצירה וסי' שאו מרום עיניכם וראו מי ברא אלה/ המוציא (מילה מסומנת) במספר צבאם לכלם בשם יקרא מרוב אונים ואמיץ כח איש לא נעדר. Paraphrase: “The location of the fixed stars in relation with the wheel of the zodiac, at the beginning of the year 1391 to the Christian Era. This is the year 793 to the Hijra (indicating the year 793+622=1415, not 1391!). This is the year [5]152 to the Creation, which is the year 1391/2". D. Added texts at the beginning and end of the treatises by the scribe, usually in a poetic form: 1. Fol. 5v: In the right column, at the end of Sefer ha-Mivharim: נשלם ספר המבחר באויבי אל תתחר ואפך יחר/ סביביו תאכל אש ואת תוכו נחר וחטאי הלבן כמו/ צמר צחר ותאיר את אורי כמו אור השחר. 2. Fol. 10v: At the end of the left column, at the end of Sefer ha-Sheelot and beginning of Sefer Mishpate ha-Mazalot: תמו השאלות ת"ל. ואחל משפטי המזלות 3. Fol. 18: In the mid left column, at the beginning of Sefer ha-Te'amim: בשם שוכן מרומים / אחל ספר הטעמים 4. Fol. 28: In the lower margin of Don Pedro's canon, added in cursive script: אמר המחבר ובכאן נשלם לנו ביאור הלוחות ולאל לבדו השבח וההודאה אשר עזרנו ברחמיו וברוב חסדיו ומעתה נתחיל בעשיית הלוחות אשר יעדנו בביאורינו בג"ה. תם ונשלם ת"ל E. Corrections for the text are written by the scribe in the margins (e.g. fols. 2v, 3).
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding

Modern binding of dark brown leather on cardboards. Spine is divided into four sections. 

Small sticker inscribed: "Cod. Hebr.132”is glued at the upper corner of the inner side of the front cover. 

Small white paper is glued to the upper inner back cover inscribed: “restauriert durch/ das institut fur/ restaurierung 1994 Eniko cruzi”

At the center of the inner back cover is a glued paper with the name: “Herrn Dr. Wolfgang Georg Fischer” of the ÖNB's department of restoration.

Decoration Program

The main decoration of the manuscript focuses on the star catalogue. Each constellation in the catalogue is furnished with a decorated heading followed by an illustration and associate table.

The main colours are red, magenta, dark and light blue, ochre, light yellow, green, brown, gray and white colours. The human body coloured in pink (mixed with metal white) now looks black by oxidation. The pink coluor retained sometimes through the black colour, e.g. in the face of the young Bootes (אל גול) on fol 68.

A. Pen decoration:

  1. I.               84 full-page tables mostly written in alternating red and brown ink (fol. 23-23v, 27-64, 65-68v). Some include columns of circles with the names of the zodiac signs (fols. 37, 37v, 39-40v, 51, 53-54, 59, 59v, 62v). Some headings in the upper part of the tables are written in ornamental in micrography, especially in a zizag form (e.g. fols. 23, 23v, 27, 27v, 29-41v). Other headings in a form of a pointed arch (fols. 37, 37v, 51 and 59).
  2. II.       Pen-drawings:
    1. 1.       The names of the stars are written in micrography in a carpet-like table with red floral pattern in the diamonds (fol. 1v).
    2. 2.       Fine floral and geometric interlaces in brown ink in spared-ground technique in the spandrels and between the circles on fols. 37 and 39.

B. Coloured decoration:

I.          13 illustrated constellations, one or two in a page, (according to the present order of the

pages) as follows: Gemini (fol. 65), Cancer and Leo (fol. 65v), Ursa Minor and Ursa Major (fol. 66), Draco (fol. 66v), Andromeda and Triangulum (fol. 67), Aries and Taurus (fol. 67v), Cepheus and Bootes (fol. 68) and Corona Borealis (fol. 68v).

II.         Burnished gold initial words (fols. 1-2v, 5v, 6v, 7, 7v, 8v, 9, 9v, 10v, 21, 21v, 22, 22v, 24, 24v, 25v, and 65-68v); the five initials on fol. 21 are framed by pen-work panels in violet and red filigree, while those on fols. 65-68v framed by panels with gold borders and blue ground filled with flowers of white and red dots. The upper border of some panels extends to include the flag of the letter lamed.

             Empty spaces were left in the text columns for other decorated initials which have never been written (fols.

11v, 12v and 14-20v).     

 

Summary and Remarks

The Vienna Astronomical Manuscript is a compendium of Hebrew astronomical and astrological treatises and fragments of treatises comprising texts written mostly inSpainby famous astronomers.

The six treatises by Abraham ibn Ezra (d. 1164) is part of the corpus of astronomical and astrological treatises - a kind of an Astrological Encyclopedia that Ibn Ezra wrote for teaching purposes mostly in 1148 inBeziers ((בדרש in southern France. Of these treatises the two earliest and most important, which designed to impart the basic rules of astrology are Sefer Mishpate ha-Mazalot, a treatise on the spheres and the zodiac, refers mainly to Ptolemy and discussed Indian astronomy, and Sefer Re'shit Hokhmah, a second and improved version of Sefer Mishpate ha-Mazalot that explains basic rules and principles of various fields of astrology.

The other three treatises are featuring the basics of various branches of astrology. These areSefer ha-Te'amim, (second version), written around 1149 in France, which includes explanations to Re'shit Hokhmha and Sefer ha-Mivharim, (second version, which time and place of writing unknown) including discussion of determination and free will, and Sefer ha-Sheelot, about the influence of the stars on every day life and properties. The last book is, Sefer ha-'Olam the large astrology of the world (Sela, Ibn Ezra, pp. 21; 361-378).

The Tables of Jacob Po'el, ("לוחות הפועל") was written by the Catalan-Jewish astronomer of the King Pedro IV of Aragon ("the Ceremonious", king 1336-1387). His set of tables and discussions on astronomy and solar and lunar eclipses was prepared for the 31 years following 1361 for the latitude of Perpignan, where he lived (see: Sassoon, Ohel David, p. 1041; Glick, Convivencia, pp. 91, 198). This may imply that our manuscript was copied not before 1361.

Most of the remaining tables are after the works of Don Pedro (see Millas, Tablas Astronómicas), of Abraham bar Hiyya, called "Savasorda", the astronomer contemporary to Ibn Ezra who lived and worked in Barcelona in the first half of the twelfth century (Glick,Convivencia, p. 86) and other tables.

The last and the most important treatise in our manuscript is the Star Catalogue for the year 1391. This is a rare example in the medieval Hebrew literature and in fact we know of only one manuscript known as "Sassoon 823", (now in the private library of Lawrence J. Schoenberg, in the U.S.A, Ms. 57) which includes identical texts and star catalogue in an almost complete version (see: Sassoon, Ohel David, II, No. 823; Sotheby's catalogue, New York, 1984, lot 88). Both Star Catalogues are richly illustrated, and this feature makes them unique in the Hebrew manuscript tradition (Langermann et al., Sassoon 823, p. 260). In contrast to the Viennese manuscript which has only thirteen out of forty eight constellations, that of Sassoon's (pp. 116-144) has forty six constellations and in addition contains a rough sketch of the back of an astrolabe and two full-page miniature of the sky constellation. However, we recently become aware of another manuscript (Moscow, Russian State Library, Ms. Ginsburg 840, now in Braginsky Collection, No. 93, see: A Journey through Jewish Worlds, pp, 40-41) which holds 18 leaves closely related to our manuscript.  It is very probable that these leaves are part of the missing leaves in our Vienna manuscript. Two of the pages of this manuscript include three constellations of the Orion?, Lepus and Eridanus, that have there parallels in Sassoon manuscript (respectively, pp. 133, 134).

Sassoon work can be dated to around 1391 also on the basis of its first astronomical table of the fixed star catalogue (p. 117). Presumably it was a copy after the Viennese manuscript. The texts of which are also written in the same semi-cursive Sephardic script, and has identical measurements, same layout of the text and same number of lines. When there are differences, the Sassoon codex inserts nonsense-rows – this may point to the direction of dependence, since in ourVienna manuscript the text is much more fluent. Nevertheless, it is possible that both manuscripts shared a common unknown model.

The Sassoon manuscript was restored relatively early in the Arab region, for example, the outlines of the constellations were re-drawn, as that of Cepherus on page 119. Also the Arabic inscriptions on the Sassoon's leaves (e.g. p. 10) may. point to this possibility. But the pictures are preserved close to the origin in its entire composition and the well preserved gold framing and headings (e.g. pp. 130 and 131). The colours are exactly the same in both codices. Even the ornaments in brown ink can be found in the Sassoon codex although those of the Viennese manuscript are of a higher quality. The fleuronnée of the Viennese manuscript is of a higher quality, too.

These provide enough clues to allow us to localize the work in the same workshop as the Vienna Codex. However, whereas the Viennese codex was executed by the same scribe and artist, several scribes can be identified in the Sassoon codex, the main scribe being similar to that of the Viennese manuscript. He identifies himself on p. 2 as Moses by emphasis the letters of his name (see Schwarz 1925, pp. 208-11).

 

The stylistic similarities of both Viennaand Sassoon manuscripts mainly concern the zodiac animals, where even details are matching, especially that of the Snake, Capricorn, Taurus, Lion and of the Cancer. Cephues also is almost completely identical with the same red garment, the Phrygian hat and his posture, the same is true for the Twins. The more orientalised features of Bootes and other human figures in the Sassoon 823 point to the later restoration.

Other similarities of both manuscripts can be found in the design of the human figures. Especially, the fashionable details of the figures dressed contemporarily, as that of Andromeda on fol. 67 and that of Bootes on fol. 68 point to the time around 1400. The closely fitting, high laced and low necked dress with the characteristic closed fitting but at the end wide sleeves can be found nearly identically – but reaching the ground in contrast to the Viennese manuscript – in the Valerius Maximus manuscript, written in 1395 and localized in Barcelona in the oeuvre of Rafael Destorrents (Ms. L/36 of Historical Archives of the City of Barcelona (fol. 198v, in Planas, gótico catlán, fig. 29), and also on fol. 47v in manuscript Ms. 760 of the University Library of Barcelona (see Boto Varela & Molina Figueras, Satire et comique dans l`illustration marginale, fig. 1) dated between 1415 and 1430; codices, which can be compared stylistically and support the localization to Catalonia. The dress of Bootes also points to the period around 1400, so is the decorated diadem on his head, with pearls and projected center – the star – which is very often found in the ornament on angels' head in the 1400 painting.

The fleuronnée motif, which surrounds the initial words on our fol. 21 consisting mainly of folded leaves whose inner "teeth" are rows of buds, can be found also in other Spanish manuscripts, especially those made in Catalonia in this period. One might compare for example Ms. Or. 5600 of the British Library in London, especially fol. 124v (in Narkiss, British Isles, fig. 392), a codex, which was carried out in Spain in the beginning of the fifteenth century. Here one can also find the spiral "enrollings“. Similar is also the fleuronnée of the Maimonides Manuscript, Ms. Add. 1493 of Cambridge University Library, written in 1396 in Catalonia (Narkiss, British Isles, fig. 375, there the captions are swapped).

The set of illustrations of the human and animal mythological figures associated with the constellations in Viennaand Sassoon codices goes back to al-Ṣūfī and dates from about the year 1000. It is a pictorial representation of the Ptolemaic star catalogue dates from 138 C.E. While Ptolemy himself did not provide the catalogue with any drawings of the constellations, al-Ṣūfī's Arabic book on the constellations and later in his Latin corpus, were accompanied by drawings (Wellwsz, al-Ṣūfī Manuscript, pp. 1-26). The same illustrations which belong to the manuscripts of al-Ṣūfī are utilized on all medieval Arabic star globes (see Langermann et al., Sassoon 823). The sequencing of the constellations' illustrations is very close to the order of al-Ṣūfī as it appears in the, either his Arabic astronomical manuscripts or in the Latin al-Sufi tradition (Vienna Cod. Mixt 331 (Baghdad1400; compare Duda, Isalmische Handschriften, 10 and 159 ff.) and CVP 5318 (Saltsburg, 1474). Altogether, it seems that the author of the Hebrew manuscripts has assembled astronomical material from a variety of sources.

The stylistic result confirms the assumption that the manuscripts generated inCatalonia, to which point already the mentioning of “Barcelona” in the headings on fols. 29 and 57v as well as “Majorca” (as insertion by the hand of the scribe on fol. 57v in the tables of Don Pedro). Thus the manuscript was made around1391 ina Catalonian workshop, which was responsible for at least one other Hebrew astronomic manuscript.

The 17th century Greek inscriptions on the flyleaves refer to the later retention of the manuscript in the Greek-speaking area. There are also some notes in Latin script. In mid 19th century the manuscript was given as a gift to the Imperial Library of Vienna by Anton von Mihanovich ofConstantinople.

 


Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Fol. 10: A note in the intercolumnar space, inscribed vertically in black ink by a later hand: "וצריך שנעשה? בענין הזה? שלשה ... בכל ח'[דש] יום אחד." This may refer to the debate in the left text column, regarding the planet Venus: ...ויש מחלקת גדולה בכוכב נגה / כך (?) דורוניוס אמר כי הוא מערבי על כן הוא כבודו הפך כבוד חמה. גם משא אללה אמר כי שבתאי מזרחי בעבור שיש לו שותפות במזלות המזרחיים. Fol. 1: in the lower margin is the stamp of the ÖNB. On the last three flyleaves are Greek and Latin inscriptions: - 17th century Greek inscriptions on both sides the first flyleaf, saying that this large and nice Hebrew book of 70 pages was transferred to Mr. Sabas. There are also the Latin names Donipnon Theodorios and Donipnon; – Some other Latin inscriptions are on the second flyleaf (… Maio a. 1913…). According to the document dated June 3, 1854, the codex was given as a gift to the Royal Library (Hofbibiliothek) by a high officer Anton von Mihanovich, who was at that time a Consul General in Constantinople. On the edge of some pages are several comments with references to parallel manuscripts by the hand of Arthur Zachariah Schwarz.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Boto Varela & Molina Figueras, Satire et comique dans l`illustration marginale G. Boto Varela, J. Molina Figueras, Satire et comique dans l`illustration marginale. Un Manuscrit Du Gothique International Catalan, Flanders in A European Perspective. Manuscript Illumination Around 1400 In Flanders and Abroad (Proceedings of the International Colloquium Leuven, 7-10. September 1993), M. Smeyers, B. Cardon (eds.), Leuven 1995, pp. 154-170. Duda, Isalmische Handschriften D. Duda, Isalmische Handschriften II (Die illuminierten Handschriften der ÖNB 5), Vienna 1992, pp. 159-170. Glick, Convivencia T. F. Glick, "Science in Medieval Spain: The Jewish Contribution in the Context of Convivencia", in Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain, Exhib., Jewish Museum, New York 1992, pp. 83-111. Langermann et al., Sassoon 823 Y. T. Langermann, K. A. F. Fischer, P. Kunitzsch, "The Hebrew Astronomical Codex Ms. Sassoon 823", in The Jews and the Sciences in the Middle Ages, ed. Y. Tzvi Langermann, Ashgate 1999, pp. 253-285. Levy and Cantera, Beginning of Wisdom The Beginning of Wisdom. An Astrological Treatise by Abraham ibn Ezra. An Edition of the Hebrew Original of 1148, ed. R. Levy & F. Cantera, Baltimore 1939. Millas, Tablas Astronómicas J. M. Millas Vallicrosa, Las Tablas Astronómicas del Rey Don Pedro el Ceremonioso, Edición crítica da los textos hebraico, catalan y latino, con estudio y notas, Madrid-Barcelona 1962. Narkiss, British Isles B. Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts in the British Isles: A Catalogue Raisonné, Vol. I: The Spanish and Portuguese Manuscripts, Vols. I-II, Jerusalem and London 1982. Planas, gótico catlán J. Planas, El esplendor del gótico catlán: La miniatura del siglo XV, Lleida 1998. Sassoon, Ohel David D. S. Sassoon, Ohel David: Descriptive Catalogue of the Hebrew and Samaritan Manuscripts in the Sassoon Library, London 1932, Vol. II, pp. 1041-43, and pl. 32. Schwatz 1925 A. Z. Schwatz, Die hebräischen Handschriften der Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Leipzig 1925, No. 185, pp. 208-11. Sela, Ibn Ezra S. Sela, Astrology and Biblical Exegesis in Abraham Ibn Ezra's Thought, Ramat-Gan 1999. Sotheby's catalogue, New York, 1984 Sotheby's Catalogue, A Further Ninety-Seven Highly Important Hebrew Manuscripts from the collection formed by the Late David Solomon, New York, Tuesday, December 4, 1984, Lot. 88. Wellwsz, al-Ṣūfī Manuscript Wellwsz, E., "An Early al-Ṣūfī Manuscript in the Bodleian Library in Oxford: A Study in Islamic Constellation Images", Ars Orientalis, Vol. 3 (1959), pp. 1-26. Further literature Alpha und Omega: Geschichten vom Ende und Anfang der Welt. ed. H. Petschar. Ausstellung in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien. Wien 2000, p. 217. F.Y. Baer, Die Juden im christlichen Spanien, Vol. 1, Berlin 1929, pp. 256-259. Digital Katalogue of the Schoenberg collection, online-Faksimile, see Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text and Image: http://dewey.library.upenn.edu/sceti/ljs H. J. Hermann, Die Westeuropäischen Handschriften und Inkunabeln der Gotik und der Renaissance mit Ausnahme der Niederländischen Handschriften. 3. Französische und Iberische Handschriften der ersten Hälfte des XV. Jahrhunderts (Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der illuminierten Handschriften in Österreich NF Bd. VII, 3), Leipzig 1938, pp. 219-220, tab. LXIV. Jüdische Lebenswelten katalog, ed. A. Nachama & G. Sievernich, (then owned by the Floersheim Trust), Berlin 1991, Cat. No. 20:1/83, pp. 471-472. T. Metzger & M. Metzger, La vie juive au moyen age illustrée par les manuscrits hébraiques enluminés du XIIIe au XVIe siécle, Fribourg 1982, pp. 314, No. 252. Sotheby's Catalogue, Thirty-eight Highly Important Hebrew and Samaritan Manuscripts from the Collection Formed by the late David Solomon Sassoon, Sotheby`s Zürich, Wednesday 5th November 1975, Lot. 15. Sotheby's Catalogue, Western Manuscripts and Miniatures, Sotheby`s London, Tuesday 10. December 1996, Lot. 48. A. Z. Schwatz, Die hebräischen Handschriften der k.k.Hofbibliothek zu Wien, Wien 1914, pp. 101-107 (No. 72).
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Karl-Georg Pfändtner Michal Sternthal Michal Sternthal | 10/2/04
Author of description
Karl-Georg Pfändtner Michal sternthal Yaffa Levy | 2009
Architectural Drawings
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Computer Reconstruction
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Section Head
Michal Sternthal |
Language Editor
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Donor
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Negative/Photo. No.