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Obj. ID: 23158
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Itzhak ben Shmuel Pentateuch, Germany, 14th c.

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

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Name/Title
Itzhak ben Shmuel Pentateuch | Unknown
Object Detail
Date
14th century
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Unknown |
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. hebr. 6 (Schwartz, No. 16)
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Pentateuch with Targum Onkelos to each verse, Five scrolls, Haftarot, Job and Jeremiah 2:29 – 8:12, 9:24 – 10:16. Vocalized and punctuated. Pentateuch: Genesis (fols. 1 – 53); Exodus (fols. 53 – 98); Leviticus (fols. 99 – 131); Numbers (fols. 131 – 173); Deuteronomy (with Targum Yerushalmi on fol. 4 for Gen. 4:8) (fols. 173 – 211v) Five scrolls: Song of Songs (fols. 211v – 213); Ruth (fols. 213 – 214v); Lamentations (fols. 214v – 216v); Ecclesiastes (fols. 216v – 220v); Esther (fols. 220v – 224v) Haftarot (fols. 224v – 259v) Job (fols. 260r – 270) Jeremiah, "Passages of Doom" 2:29 – 8:12, 9:24 – 10:16 (fols. 270 – 273) Haftarat Shabbat Ha-Gadol and Haftarat Pkudei (fols. 273v-274)
Codicology

: Parchment, 1+274 leaves

             

Measurements

 

Full page:  315 x 455 mm

 

Text space:  ? x ? mm    

 

Scribes

The original quires are written by a single scribe.

First three quires were replaced by later ones: the first is written by two scribes, whereas the second and third by one scribe.

 

Scribe A

Pentateuch (from Genesis 25:26), Five scrolls, Haftarot, Job, Jeremiah and two additional Haftarot

 

 

Fols. 23-273v

 

 

 

Scribe B (later)

Genesis 1:1 - 8:2

Fols. 1-6v

 

 

 

Scribe C (later)

Genesis 8:2 - 9:6

Fol. 7-7v

 

 

 

Scribe D (later)

Genesis 9:6 - 25:26

Fol. 8-22v

 

 

 

 

Columns

 

Scribe A

Fols. 23-258v: three columns

 

 

Fol. 259-259v: one column

 

Fols. 260-273v: two columns

 

 

Fol. 270r (upper part): one column

Pentateuch (from Genesis 25:26) Five scrolls, Haftarot

 

Last Haftarah  and scribal note   

 

Job , Jeremiah and two additional Haftarot

 

End of Job

Scribe B (later)

Fols. 1-6v: two columns

Genesis 1:1-8:2

Scribe C (later)

Fols. 7-7v: two columns

Genesis 8:2-9:6

Scribe D (later)

Fols. 8-22v: three columns

Genesis 9:6-25:26

 

 

 

Script

Scribe A

Fols. 23-258v

 

The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in

Scribe B (later)

Fols. 1-6v

The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in

Scribe C (later)

Fols. 7-7v

The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in

Scribe D (later)

Fols. 8-22v

The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in

 

 

Number of lines

Pentateuch (from Genesis 25:26), Five scrolls, Haftarot, Job, Jeremiah (fols. 23-273v) and two additional Haftarot (fols. 273v-274):

 

 

 

Most leaves are of 36 lines per page, but several leaves contain 35 lines per page (e.g. fol. 250) or 37 lines per page (e.g. fols. 146v, 149)

Genesis 1:1-8:2 (fols. 1-6v):

38-39 lines per page

Genesis 8:2-9:6 (fol. 7-7v):

38 lines on fol. 7 and 34 lines on fol. 7v

Genesis 9:6-25:26 (fol. 8-22v):

35 lines per page, except for fol. 22v which contains 38 lines

 

Ruling

Stylus? on ? side:

 

Pentateuch (from Genesis 25:26), Five scrolls, Haftarot, Job, Jeremiah (fols. 23-273v) and two additional Haftarot (fols. 273v-274):

 

 

 

36 horizontal lines and 1+1 (e.g. fol. 38)

Genesis 1:1-8:2 (fols. 1-6v):

?

Genesis 8:2-9:6 (fol. 7-7v):

?

Genesis 9:6-25:26 (fol. 8-22):

?

 

Pricking

 

Pentateuch (from Genesis 25:26), Megillot, Haftarot, Job, Jeremiah (fols. 23-273v) and two additional Haftarot (fols. 273v-274):

 

 

 

On the outer and inner margins?????????

Genesis 1:1-8:2 (fols. 1-6v):

?????????????????

Genesis 8:2-9:6 (fol. 7-7v):

On the outer and inner margins

Genesis 9:6-25:26 (fol. 8-22):

On the outer and inner margins?????????

 

 

Quires

35 quires of 8 leaves each, except for I (7), III (7) (second and third quires replacing the original ones), XII (4) (quire which ends with Exodus), XXXII (8+1) (end of Haftarot), XXXIII (8+1), XXXIV(6) (last quire).  

 

The hair side of the leaves face the hair side and the flesh side face the flesh side.

 

Catchwords

The catchwords are written in the lower left hand corner on the final verso of almost each quire, except for the first quire and for fol. 260. Usually, they are enclosed within rectangular decorative frames.

The third quire ends with four words plus one catchword repeated in the beginning of the fourth quire.

 

Hebrew numeration

None

 

Blank leaves

 

Fol. 98v was originally a blank leaf. The order of the Parshiot for whole year was added to it, written by a later hand in Ashkenazi semi-cursive script. 

 

 Verso side of the fol. 274v, which is the last leaf in the last quire, remained blank. 

Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
None
Scribal Notes
Two scribal notes, originally containing information about the names of the scribe and the patron, were partly erased and rewritten by a later hand: The first note on fol. 211v, is situated in the middle of the right column at the end of the Pentateuch. It was written by the original scribe, but the names mentioned in the note were erased and replaced by other names written by a later hand on the erasure. The original part of the colophon is written in square and semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in Ink color? , while the later one is written in semi-cursive script in Ink color? Text: Original part: "חזק\ ונתחזק הסופר לא יזק היום ולא\ לעולם עד שיעלה חמור בסולם:\ אמן אמן אמן סלה Later replacement: זה התרגום כתבתי יצחק ב"ר שמואל\ לר' ישראל ב"ר משה זצ"ל (זכר צדיק לברכה) חזק\ ונתחזק" Original part: "Strengthen and be strong, the scribe will not be harmed today and never until a donkey climbs the ladder. Amen, amen, selah" Later replacement: "I copied the targum, Isaac bar Shmuel for R. Israel bar Moshe. Strengthen and be strong" The second note on fol. 259v appearing at the end of the Haftarot section also consists of two parts. The original part of the note is written in square Ashkenazi script in Ink color? , whereas the later one is written in semi-cursive script in Ink color? Text: Original part: "חזק ונתחזק הסופר\ לא יזק Later addition: "[אני יצחק ב"ר שמואל הכהן מ...ברוק כתבתי זה התרגום לר' ... ב"ר שלמה]* המקום יזכיהו לי ולזרעו אחריו עד עולם" Original part: " Strengthen and be strong, the scribe not be harmed" Later addition: "[I am Isaac bar Shmuel Ha-Cohen from …bruk, wrote this targum for R. … bar Shlomo]* …” * The words in the square brackets today are invisible (Schwartz, Catalogue, p. 15). Other notes are written by different hands in square and semi-cursive Ashkenazi scripts in Ink color? on the margins and in the spaces between the columns. Mostly, they correct the text or complete the missing letters and words. Since sometimes two corrections, probably written by two different hands refer to the same place in the text we can conclude that there were at least two stages of corrections. For example, on fol. 7 in the right column (line 29) there is a word ותאיב written with a mistake. On the left there is first correction ותתיב, which is also written with a mistake, while on the right side is another correction, correcting the first one: ותיב. It seems that both corrections are written by different hands. The places in the text where the missing words written outside the text space should be, are marked by a small circle with a tail or by the abbreviation ד"ך. Similar signs appear close to the words added outside the text space. For example, on the outer margin of fol. 232v the corrector added to Haftarat Yitro (Isaiah 6: 1-7: 6; 9: 5-6) the verses from Isaiah 7: 7-9, which should follow Isaiah 7: 6. Sometimes, the notes complete even the words which were abbreviated in order to prevent the left margin from being infringed. For example, several words of outer column on fol. 232v or on fol. 220v (line 29) the original scribe abbreviated the last word מדינ' while the corrector added the ending –ות in the space between the columns.
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding

Leather binding

??????????????????

 

Two fragments from the Babylonian Talmud (Baba Kama treatise) were used as flyleaves. The front bifolio: the right folio begins with Baba Kama 59b and ends with 60b. The left page begins with fol. 54 and ends with 54v. The bifolio at the end of the ms. contains Baba Kama 51b till 52b on the right page and 62a till VII, 2 on the left page.

The text of the flyleaves is written in two columns (37 lines) in Ashkenazi square script of 14th century.  

Decoration Program
  1. Two initial words, one opening the book of Numbers (fol. 131), the second the book of Ruth (fol. 213), are surrounded a wriggle line done in ink.
  2. Almost all catchwords are enclosed within rectangular frames, decorated with lines, circles or divided into triangles.
  3. Drawings of animals appear in the middle of the lower margins on fols. 158 and 212. On fol. 158 there are two contours of animals, dogs or wolves. On fol. 212 there is another animal, similar to the lower one of fol. 158.

Both drawings are not related to the text and they could have been rendered by a later hand.

  1. Shaped text in geometrical forms on fols. 7v and 273. One scribe finishing first quire and another scribe finishing the whole text disposed the text in a way allowing for filling an empty space on the leaf.

On the fol. 273 Scribe A used the same method of filling the empty space at the end of Jeremiah. Lower lines of the left column are shaped as two triangles, one under the other, with tops turned downwards, plus two lines at the end of the passage. In fact, this is the end of the manuscript's text, after which only two Haftarot (missing in the Haftarot section) appear.  

Summary and Remarks
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Fol. 1: inscribed at the upper part of the page in small square script in ? ink color: "בטב גדא אתחיל דא עמ"י עש"י [במזל טוב אתחיל זה עזרי מעם יי' עושה שמים וארץ]" Below inscribed in small square script in ? ink color: "חיים ב"ר פנחס ז"ל [זכרו לברכה]" “Hayyim bar the late Pinhas” On the one of the flyleaves at the end is written in square script in ? ink color: אראל אואלים The manuscript probably once belonged to the Old University Library of the Court Library in Vienna (Schwartz, Catalogue, p. 16).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Schwarz, Catalogue, no. 16, pp. 15-16.
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Ilona Steimann | 20.03.2005
Author of description
Ilona Steimann | 01.04.2005
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconsdivuction
|
Section Head
Michal Sternthal | 19.04.2005
Language Editor
Judith Cardozo | 20.04.2005
Donor
|
Negative/Photo. No.