Under Reconstruction!
Object Alone

Obj. ID: 22119
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  13th-century Ashkenazi Pentateuch and its binding of 1470s

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,

5 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Ashkenazi Pentateuch (tikkun) for Torah Scrolls and its Binding | Unknown
Object Detail
Text: first half of the 13th century. Binding: 1470s
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 212 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 212)
Documentation / Research project
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Some pages are cropped to half or less (e.g. fols. 1, 9, 33 and 43). Many pages have tears sewn together with either white (e.g. fols. 5, 18, 41, 73) or blue thread (e.g. fols. 81, 98, 99) at various stages of the history of the manuscript. There are sometimes slits in the parchment (e.g. fols. 20, 21). On many pages the ink has faded (e.g. fols. 15v, 36v); at times the faded text is overwritten in a darker ink (e.g. fols. 12v-13, 42). Fols. 1 and 2 are stained. Fols. 1 and 33 are mutilated. Restored in BSB in 1951.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Type of grave
Pentateuch with some vocalisation (fols. 1v, 2, 8v, 95) and letters with the specific serifs (tagin) used in Torah scrolls. The text is copied in a layout of the so-called ווי עמודים (Vavey Amudim) where the first word of every two facing pages starts with the letter ו (vav). These features suggest that the Pentateuch served as a guide or exemplar (tikkun) for copying special Torah Scrolls. It includes Genesis (fols. 1-38v), Exodus (fols. 38v-70v), Leviticus (fols. 70v-92), Numbers (fols. 92v-122v) and Deuteronomy (fols. 123-151).
Material Sheepskin, 151 leaves. No flyleaves. Error in ink pagination from fols. 60-80 (numbered 80-142); for these the added plummet foliation will be used. Hair and flesh sides distinguishable--the hair side is rough and darker than the smooth flesh side. The quires do not follow Gregory's rule but start inconsistently either with hair or flesh sides. Measurements Full page: (235-238) x (170-181) mm. Text space: (191-205) x (115-130) mm. Scribes Three scribes: Scribe A: fols. 1v-30; Scribe B: fols. 30v-96v; Scribe C: fols. 97-151 (from quire XIII). Script Written in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. Columns One column. Number of lines 30 lines per page. Ruling Ruling by stylus, 31 horizontal and 2 + 1 vertical lines. Sometimes there are 1 + 2 vertical lines (e.g. fols. 43, 46) or 2 + 2 (e.g. fols. 71, 72). The ruling unit seems to be for a bifolium, mostly on the hair side. Pricking Noticeable in the outer, upper and lower margins. Quires 19 quires of 8 leaves each except for the last quire XIX8-1 (last blank folio is cut off). Fols. I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-32); V8 (33-40); VI8 (41-48); VII8 (49-56); VIII8 (57-64); IX8 (65-72); X8 (73-80); XI8 (81-88); XII8 (89-96); XIII8 (97-104); XIV8 (105-112); XV8 (113-120); XVI8 (121-128); XVII8 (129-136); XVIII8 (137-144); XIX8-1 (145-151). Catchwords Catchwords appear in the lower left-hand margins of some quires (e.g. fols. 32v, 64v, 72v, 80v, 96v, 104v, 112v, 120v). Hebrew numeration None. Blank leaves Fols. 1, 151v.
Number of Lines
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
None. Colophon of the binder, see Illuminated Document.
Scribal Notes
Scribe A proof-read and completed texts in Scribe B's section: Fol. 47v, missing text (Ex. 12:42) added in the outer margin in small semi-square script. Fol. 49, last line written by Scribe A in smaller square script. Fol. 79v, missing text added in smaller square script. Notes by Scribe B: Fol. 90v, in the upper outer margin, in brown semi-cursive script: עד כאן נ(?) יש לי/ תופס, "Up to here… I have an exemplar." Fol. 94, in the lower inner margin, in semi-cursive brown script: דילוג/ למעלה, "Skip above", referring to Num. 2:34 (ויעשו בני ישראל ככל...) which was copied next to the last line of the page instead of in the middle of line 6. Scribe C’s corrections: Num. 7:87 and 11:13 (fols. 100v, 103 respectively) were copied twice by mistake and crossed out.
Trade Mark

15th-century brown leather binding on wooden boards decorated in cuir ciselé technique, with decorated centre and corner brass bosses and side clasps (c.250 x190 mm). The binding is signed by "Meir Yaffe the artist" on the front cover (see Illuminated Document).

Decoration Program

None, except crude decoration for parashah signs. Genesis (faded triangle): fols. 11v, 17v possibly by

Scribe A. Exodus: fols. 45, 48v, 51v, 53v, 56v, 61v, 65, 68, possibly by Scribe B.

 For the decoration of the binding, see Illuminated Document.

Summary and Remarks

This Ashkenazi Pentateuch was copied probably in the mid-13th century or before, as can be deduced from its codicological features: the distinguishable sides of the leaves resemble parchment in Germany until the mid-13th century (Beit-Arié 1981:22-25); the arrangement of the quires does not follow Gregory's rule, perhaps because it was not yet established in Ashkenazi Hebrew manuscripts; and the methods of ruling by stylus and pricking all margins except the inner one in our manuscript supports this early dating. The text was written by three unknown scribes who used defective parchment with torn edges and holes. However, the Pentateuch was intended to serve as an exemplar (tikkun) for copying Torah scrolls. The Hebrew letters are furnished with tagin (crowns, or tittles), for example, the letter bet of בראשית (Gen. 1:1, fol. 1v) is decorated on top with four tagin; certain letters (usually pei and tet) are spiral ((לפופות, curved (עקומות,

e.g. fol. 5, the roof of final nun of ידון), or rounded (e.g. fol. 133, the heads of the letter ayin of ועצמתיהם). These and similar special letters are based on the rules of the Book of Tagin (Sefer Tagi), an ancient work on the letters of the Torah. One of the earliest copies of this book is included in the Vitry Mahzor, copied in 1208 by R. Simhah b. Samuel of Vitry (thanks are due to Mr. Ephraim Caspi and Mr. Mordechai Dov Weintraub for sharing their findings on this topic). Indeed, our manuscript is one of the earliest codices known today which include these tagin and special letters. The earliest known manuscript is the Valmadona Pentateuch, produced perhaps inEngland in 1189 (London, Valmadona Trust Library,

MS Valmadona 1), which has similar codicological features to ours (Beit Arié 1985). Moreover, besides the tagin, the layout of the text in our manuscript, where every two facing pages start with the letter vav, proves that it served as an exemplar (tikkun) for special Torah scrolls (Vavei ha-Amudim): the text of facing pages constitutes one column in such Torah scrolls which starts with the letter vav; except for six facing pages (fols. 1v, 37v, 49v, 136v, 141v, 148v), which follow another massoretic rule, namely:

בי"ה שמ"ו (i.e. the initials in these pages). This may explain why the scribes, mainly Scribe B, have trouble justifying the text (e.g. fols. 31, 34), and on many pages the text is either densely written towards the end of the line (e.g. fols. 13, 28), or the last letters are extended to fit the layout (e.g. fols. 31v, 63v, 149v-151). These are typical features of such exemplars (cf. the Pentateuch from Regensburg of c.1300, Jerusalem, IM, MS 180/52; see Sternthal 2008:9-10, figs. 4-5).




Fig. 1: Ashkenazi Pentateuch (tikkun)                                           

for Torah Scrolls and its Binding                                    

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 212, front and back covers

Fig. 2: TheLondonAshkenazi Haggadah

London, BL Add. 14762, fol. 19            

(London Ashkenazi Haggadah, facsimile 1985)


About two hundred years later, at the end of the 1460s or the 1470s, our Pentateuch received its present binding inNuremberg(fig. 1). It was produced by the prolific Jewish scribe, illuminator and binder Meir Yaffe for the Council of Nuremberg (cf. CJA Documentation of Ulm Mahzor,MunichBSB Cod.hebr. 3).

Our binding was first published by Husung (Husung 1925:38-39). A short time later Goldschmidt identified Meir Yaffe with a Jew, Meyerlin von Ulm, mentioned in a decree of the Nuremberg Council issued on July 4th 1468, where Meyerlin was permitted to stay in the city and bind the library’s books for the Council (Goldschmidt 1928:80). As Landsberger suggested, the binding was probably a payment for the permission to stay in the city (Landsberger 1940:544). This is supported by Glatzer’s research on the London Ashkenazi Haggadah, where he shows that in 1459 or 1460 Meir Yaffe worked inUlm on this Haggadah as a scribe (Glatzer, facsimile 1991:140, 144). According to Narkiss, Meir Yaffe also drew the marginal decorations of the London Ashkenazi Haggadah (Narkiss, facsimile 1991:35, note 33). However, Zirlin claims that Yaffe only inserted the text into the pencil drawings by a skilled hand of Bämler’s atelier (Zirlin 2006:293). In any case, the scrolls on the back cover of our binding resemble to some degree those in the panel on fol. 19 of the London Ashkenazi Haggadah (fig. 2). 

Meir Yaffe produced the decoration of our binding in cut-leather technique (Lederschnitt, cuir ciselé),

a procedure in which the craftsman cuts ornaments and figures into the moist leather and then, by various methods, raises them in relief. This is an old established craft which reached its peak in the 14thand 15th centuries (EJ, 'Books') and was probably introduced to central Europe fromSpainandPortugalthrough Jewish binders (Katzenstein 1982:17, 20). In 1927 Herbst discovered 11 bindings, some of which bear a scroll with the stamped name "Mair bb" and a deer. He concluded that these are from the same bindery of Meir Yaffe (Katzenstein 1982:21-22; Geldner 1953:31f, 36-37, pl. 6). Goldschmidt has enlarged the group by 11 additional volumes, making a total of22. Incontrast, Landsberger claimed on stylistic ground that these 11 or 22 bindings are not the work of Meir Yaffe (Landsberger 1940:546), except for the Mentelin Bible of 1466 (fig. 3; Landsberger 1940:547).



Fig. 3: Mentelin Bible, binding signed: Mair bb

Strasbourg, 1466

Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek Msc. Bibl. 148

(Schmidt-Künsemüller 1980, Cat. 27:5, 27 VD and 27 RD, p. 93)


Another Hebrew manuscript with its original cut-leather binding is the above-mentioned London Ashkenazi Haggadah which was copied by Meir Yaffe (fig. 4; Glatzer, facsimile 1991:140). Its dark brown leather binding (385 X 290 mm) has a delicate cuir ciselé design on the front, which includes in the upper part a partly naked man and woman topped by banderoles, with a plant between them. To the right is St. Michael fighting a prostrate devil with sword and lance. In the lower part is a man in armour, probably St. George, confronting a dragon with a knife (London Ashkenazi Haggadah, facsimile 1985:14, and fig. 8). Kurz noted that the scene of St. Michael fighting the devil in the Haggadah binding is based on an engraving by Master E. S. who worked in theUpper Rhine area between 1440 and 1468 (Kessler 1963:8; Kurz 1965:4). The similar technique and the resemblance of the acanthus scroll and leaves in the Haggadah binding and our manuscript's suggest a close link between them. However, at this stage of research no definite conclusion can be reached as to whether the Haggadah binding was the work of Meir Yaffe or not. 


Fig. 4:LondonAshkenazi Haggadah

London, BL Add. 14762, front cover binding

(London Ashkenazi Haggadah, facsimile 1985, fig. 8)


Landsberger suggests that Meir's father, Israel Yaffe, who copied the Darmstadt Haggadah probably inUlm(Darmstadt, HLH Cod. Or. 8), also produced its decorated binding with the same cut-leather technique, and passed this skill on to his son Meir (Landsberger 1940:556ff).

Our manuscript has a piece of paper glued to fol. 52, inscribed with a 15th-century Jewish oath (Judeneid) in German (fig. 5).



Fig. 5: Jewish Oath                                                        Fig. 6: Jewish Oath, woodcut

Ashkenazi Pentateuch (tikkun)                                        Tengler, Laienspiegel

for Torah Scrolls and its Binding                         Augsburg, 1509

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 212, fol. 52                               Cecil Roth Collection

(EJ, 'Oath More Judaico', fig.1)

The oath contains the text which a Jew has to swear in law suits, evoking the name of the God of Israel, with reference to curses and punishments in the Old Testament which will befall one who does not speak the truth. 

Different formulae of the Jewish Oath in German are known from the 12th century and later (e.g. the Erfurt Jewish Oath; see Kisch 1940 (Nuremberg):331; Magin 1999:304). Several 15th-century versions of the from Nurembergappear in the Ratschlagbücher (volume 52A), including documents pertaining to the medieval legal history of the Nuremberg Jews (Kisch 1940 (Nuremberg):25).

A similar version of our Oath is found in an order of 1417 fromNuremberg. It was administered in the synagogue, with the person taking the oath facing eastwards and with his right hand laid up to the wrist on the Five Books of Moses (Barbeck 2002:23). A much more complicated procedure appears in the Law Code of Nuremberg of 1478 (1484), where the Jewish Oath was recited several times in different versions (Barbeck 2002:24-26; Kisch 1940 (Nuremberg):23-38). The Code of 1478 was a result of the reform of the legal procedure begun inNurembergaround 1477. For the Jewish Oath the Council of Nuremberg formed a commission of legal advisors to seek suggestions for a new oath formula (Kisch 1940 (Nuremberg):27).

 The oath attached to our Pentateuch suggests that the manuscript was used when a Jew swore on it in court (Barbeck 2002:24), especially since it belonged to theNurembergcouncil as the inscription on the binding attests. Indeed, Kisch mentions that the court secured a genuine copy of the Pentateuch which is unobjectionable and with no translation (Kisch 1949:284). Thus, our 13th-century Pentateuch with its optimal, flawless text which served as an ex

Suggested Reconsdivuction
Notes by various hands: Fol. 4v, outer margin, a massoretic note in dark brown semi-cursive script: ג' בעי' וסימ'(נו)/ ח'ל'ן' חנוך/ למך נח: "Three times (where it is written in the Torah ויהי and not in plural as it should be: ויהיו) and its sign is E.L.N.: Enoch, Lemech, Noah". The same hand appears on fol. 69v. Fol. 70v, between the end of Exodus and beginning of Leviticus, in dark brown semi-cursive script: סליק ספר שלישי: "Book three is complete". Fol. 87, outer margin, next to the letter ב (bet), inscribed (פרשיי(ה: parshiyya. The Hebrew letters א-ו (1-6) marking six out of the seven sections of each parasha, read by seven different people. Fol. 117, the scribe did not copy Num. 29:20-25 in the proper order and preceded the offering of Wednesday before that of Tuesday. A later hand added the words: וביום הרביעי: at the end of the page. Proof-reading: Fol. 69v, missing text (Ex. 40:40) added in semi-cursive script (same hand as on fol. 4v). Corrections and annotations of the text by several hands (e.g. fols. 67v, 69v, 118, 125v, 137v, 147). Jewish Oath (Judeneid): Glued to the upper part of fol. 52 is a piece of paper inscribed with the Jewish Oath (Judeneid) in 15th- century German in dark brown ink: Als dich der angesprochen hat etc. Das du des/ Unschuldig seist also bit dir got zu helffen/ Und die ee. Die got gab moysi auff dem/ perg Synay an zwayen staine tafeln/ wo du nit war un Recht habest an der sach/ Als er dich angesprochen hat. Das dich das/ fewr ubergee das Sodoma und Gomorra/ uberging. und wo du nit war und Recht/ Habest, an der sach als er dich angesproch/ en hat. Das dir der war got. der laüb/ und grasß und alle ding erschaffen hat/ nÿmmer zu statten kome In kainen deinen/ notten wo du In anrüffend seyst Und/ wo du nit war und Recht habest. Das dich/ alle die flüch angeen die an der Thara/ geschrieben steen. Und als dü war und/ Recht habest also helff dir die war Gotheit/ Andonay und anders nit etc. Heb beschurun (signed by the accused Jew). Translation: If he accused you etc. and you are innocent ask God to help you and the ee that God gave Moses on Mount Sinai on two stone tablets; [but] if you were not true and right in the matter of which he accused you, then may the fire of Sodom and Gomorra consume you; and if you were not true and right in the matter of which he accused you, then the true God who made the leaves and grass and all things created will never help you when you call in need; and if you were not true and right, all the curses written in the Torah will come upon you; and if you were true and right then the true divinity Adonay will help you and no one else etc. I have sworn (signed by the accused Jew). The same formula, written between 1456 and 1463, (Merkel 1901:66) was preserved in two gatherings of the Nuremberg Council legislations and decrees, issued at the initial stage (1450s) of the city’s municipal law reform (Stadtrechtsreformation) which aimed to bring traditional customs of German legislation in line with the Roman law (Fürth, Stadtbiblithek Cod. No. 105, p.134; and Nuremberg, Stadtbiblithok Scheurlschen Sammlung, No. MMMCCXXIII, p. XVI (cit. in Merkel 1901:140-141; see Steimann 2014, Chapter IV.1). Bookmark and inscriptions on fols. 52 and 53: Fol. 52 has a red parchment tab attached to the outer edge of the folioas a marker, pertaining to fol. 53. Fol. 53, upper margin, in Latin: Decum mandata legis domini. Hoc folio ibi contine(n)tur (Ex. 20:2-14): God’s Ten Commandments of the Law are contained in this folio (indeed, Ex. 20:2-14). In the middle of the outer margin, by a non-Jewish hand, the Hebrew letter yod (י) is written three times denoting God, together with the number 13. Above it, in German: urphed (urfehde), an oath a released prisoner had to swear not to take revenge. The corresponding verse Ex. 20:7, לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לשוא (Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain) is underlined and marked by a cross at its beginning and end. Owner's inscription: Fol. 151v, note in light brown ink (read with UV light): זה הספר הוא של הנער וולבלין, "This book belongs to the youth Wölfflin". Shmuel bar Halafta: inscribed in the outer lower margin in light brown square script: שמואל/ בר חלפתא'/ החתן א': Shmuel bar Halafta the groom … (fol. 2v); חלפתא ... Halafta (fol. 1); upper edge (partly cropped): שמואל, Shmuel (fol. 4v); outer margin, written vertically: חלפ, Halaf (fol. 89); lower outer margin: ש[שמואל] בר [חל]פ[תא], Shmuel bar Halafta, and in large square script in light brown ink אל נורהו... (fol. 151). Pen trials: Fol. 2v, outer margin: א-מ (A-M) by Shmuel bar Halafta. Fol. 30, outer margin, in light brown ink: ,אבגד ABCD; fol. 151v: (sic) ,אנסה את הדייו I shall try the ink. Library signatures and stickers: Fols. 1v, upper outer margin, and 151v: an oval stamp BIBLIOTHECA/REGIA/MONACENSIS. Fol. 70v, outer margin, librarian's note in plummet: "Leviticus," marking the beginning of Leviticus. Front and back pastedowns, in pencil: Cod. heb. 212; below it: Moses Pentateuch and: Cim. 140. Stickers on spine and back pastedown with the current library signature: Cod. hebr. 212. Back pastedown, lower left corner in brown ink: 91 U (signature of previous library?). Exlibris: none.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Barbeck 2002 H. Barbeck, Geschichte der Juden in Nürnberg und Fürth, Nuremberg 1878 (translation into English by RIJO in 2002). http://www.rijo.homepage.t-online.de/pdf/EN_FU_JU_barbeck.pdf Beit-Arié 1981 M. Beit Arié, Hebrew Codicology. Tentative Typology of Technical Practices Employed in Hebrew Dated Medieval Manuscripts, Jerusalem 1981. Beit-Arié 1985 M. Beit Arié, The Only Dated Medieval Hebrew Manuscript Written in England (1189 CE) and the Problem of Pre-Expulsion Anglo-Hebrew Manuscripts, London 1985. Caspi and Weintraub 2011 E. B. Caspi and M. D. Weintraub, "The Period of the Tagin", Our Heritage: Year Book to Ashkenaz Scholars, their Teachings,Paths and Customs, 5 (2011):300-310 (Hebrew). EJ, 'Books'; 'Nuremberg'; 'Oath More Judaico' Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jerusalem 1971. s.v. 'Books', vol. 4, col. 1229-1231; 'Nuremberg', vol. 12, col. 1274-1280; 'Oath More Judaico', vol. 12, col. 1302. Geldner 1953 F. Geldner, Bamberger und Nürnberger Lederschnittbände (Festgabe der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek für Karl Schottenloher), Munich 1953. Glatzer, facsimile 1991 M. Glatzer, "The Ashkenazic and Italian Haggadah and the Haggadot of Joel ben Simeon", The Washington Haggadah: A Facsimile Edition of an Illuminated 15th century Hebrew Manuscript at the Library of Congress signed by Joel ben Simeon, ed. Myron M. Weinstein, Washington 1991:139-169. Goldschmidt 1928 E. Ph. Goldschmidt, Gothic & Renaissance Bookbindings: Exemplified and Illustrated from the Author’s Collection, London 1928. Goldschmidt 1933 E. Ph. Goldschmidt, "Some Cuir-Ciselé Bookbindings in English Libraries", The Library, Fourth Series, XIII/4 (March 1933):337-365. Husung 1925 M. G. Husung, "Über den sogenannten jüdischen Lederschnitt", Soncino-Blätter. Beitrage zur Kunde des jüdischen Buches, I (1925):29-43. Katzenstein 1982 U. E. Katzenstein, "Mair Jaffe and Bookbinding Research", Studies in Bibliography and Booklore, 14 (1982):17-28. Kessler 1963 H. L. Kessler, "A Lost Design by the Master E.S.", Record of the Art Museum of Princeton, 22 (1963):8-14. Kisch 1940 (Nuremberg) G. A. Kisch, "Nuremberg Jewry Oaths", Historia Judaica, II/1 (April 1940): 23-38. Kisch 1940 (South Germany) G. A. Kisch, "Fourteenth-Century Jewry Oath of South Germany", Speculum 15, No. 3 (July 1940):331-337. Kisch 1949 G. A. Kisch, The Jews in Medieval Germany: A Study of Their Legal and Social Status, Chicago 1949. Kurz 1965 O. Kurz, "A Copy after the Master E. S. on a Jewish Bookbinding", Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University, 24/1 (1965):3-11. Landsberger 1940 F. Landsberger, "The Cincinnati Haggadah and its Decorator", Hebrew Union College Annual, 15 (1940):543-552. London Ashkenazi Haggadah, facsimile 1985 The Ashkenazi Haggadah: a Hebrew Manuscript of the Mid-15th Century From the Collections of the British Library, notes on the illuminations, transcription and English translation by David Goldstein (Facsimile, London 1985). Magin 1999 C. Magin, Wie es umb der iuden recht stet. Der Status der Juden in spätmittelalterlichen Rechtsbüchern, Wallstein Verlag 1999. Narkiss, facsimile 1991 B. Narkiss, "The Art of the Washington Haggadah", The Washington Haggadah: A Facsimile Edition of an Illuminated 15th century Hebrew Manuscript at the Library of Congress signed by Joel ben Simeon, ed. Myron M. Weinstein, Washington 1991:27-102. Rosenwasser 2006 M. Rosenwasser, "The strange letters in the Torah", Hamayan 46 (3), (Nissan 2006):22-40 (Hebrew). Schmidt-Künsemüller 1980 F. A. Schmidt-Künsemüller, Corpus der gotischen Lederschnitteinbände aus demdeutschen Sprachgebiet, Stuttgart 1980. Smoller 1986 L. A. Smoller, "Playing Cards and Popular Culture in Sixteenth-Century Nuremberg," The Sixteenth Century Journal, 17/2 (Summer 1986):183-214. Steimann 2014 I. Steimann, Habent sua fata libelli, Hebrew books of the collection of Hartmann Schedel, (Ph.D. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, in progress). Steinschneider 1985 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K.Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895. Sternthal 2008 M. Sternthal, The Regensburg Pentateuch, M.A. Thesis, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, December 2008 (Hebrew). Zirlin 2006 Y. Zirlin, "Meir Jaffe and Joel Ben Simeon: Working Relations between Jewish Scribes and a Christian Atelier", Auskunft, Nordhausen, 26 (2006) 2:287-309.
Short Name
Full Name
Original Object
Michal Sternthal; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008; 2010
Author of description
Michal Sternthal; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin ;Yaffa Levy | 2009, 2013; 2014; 2014
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 09-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2014
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.