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Obj. ID: 21806
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Munich Meshal ha-Kadmoni, Southern Germany, before 1458

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,
Summary and Remarks

Our manuscript is a miscellany of treatises which includes at its beginning the book Meshal ha-Kadmoni by Isaac ibn Sahula, composed inSpainin 1281. It was copied with five other treatises, philosophical, medical and polemical, by two main scribes, Scribe A-Abraham, and Scribe C-Jacob, with Scribe B writing least, for an unknown intellectual patron. 

Meshal ha-Kadmoni is the only illustrated part of the manuscript, except for Sefer ha-Nizzahon (Book of the Triumph) which has some decorated space fillers and catchwords by Jacob, Scribe C.

Our manuscript has one of five early illustrated copies of ibn Sahula’s Meshal ha-Kadmoni, if not the earliest. They were all produced during the second half of the fifteenth century, two in south Germany in the 1450s: our manuscript (Munich Cod.heb. 107; Gronemann 2006, I:8-9; 60-66) and one in Oxford ('Oxf.1'; Bodl. Lib. MS Opp. 154), dated 1450 (fol. 59v), probably fromUlm (Gronemann 2006, I:8; 52-60). Three other copies were produced in northItaly between 1470 and 1491: one housed inOxford ('Oxf.2'; Bodl. Lib.MSCan. 59; Gronemann 2006, I:9; 67-71); another inMilan ('Milano'; Ambrosian Library, MS X 112 Sup.), dated 1483 and localised inBrescia (fol. 80; Gronemann 2006, I:10; 71-74); and the fifth manuscript is the Rothschild Miscellany in Jerusalem ('Rothschild'; IM MS 180/51), produced in the Veneto after 1470 (Gronemann 2006, I:9-10; 78-109). There are also two incunabula (1491, 1497/8) and many printed editions (Gronemann 2006, I:7).

The five manuscripts are not identical. The text of each story is divided into several episodes which follow similar basic patterns with some variations. The depictions largely follow a uniform iconography and composition and are mostly at the end of the episodes, dictated by the caption or the respective text, but each copy is rendered in a completely different style. Gronemann shows (2006, I:32, 50-51) that the text and titles for the illustrations appearing in the north Italian group of Meshal ha-Kadmoni (Oxf.2, Milano and Rothschild) are based either on our manuscript or, more probably, on a similar copy which transferred this genre from Germany to Italy, since our manuscript apparently never left Germany (see History). For more about the text see Loewe (2004:cxi-cxix).    

It is hard to tell whether Ibn Sahula’s original copy included illustrations since no copy has survived from his days or later fromSpain, although in some places in the text the author refers to the astronomical diagrams (fols. 81v, 83, 85, 87v, 89). In any case, there is no way to reconstruct the hypothetical Spanish copy and therefore Gronemann suggests that the 15th-century Ashkenazi illustrations are a new departure which includes up to 85 illustrations (Gronemann 2006, I:29).

The 84 pen-drawn illustrations of Meshal ha-Kadmoni in our manuscript lack 4 scenes (Gronemann 2006, II:Table 4b, lines 19, 20, 22, 62). The illustrations are placed in the centre of the text space below the captions which describe them. They were executed by one artist in greyish-black ink over plummet underdrawings, except for two (fols.1 and 50) by Scribe A, Abraham, who also corrected some depictions in brown ink (see Decoration Programme) and probably executed some of the underdrawing (e.g. fols. 29v, 43). The illustrations present human and animal imagery in different configurations, compositions and postures (fols. 46v, 47v, 70, 71v, 74), in a yellowish-grey landscape and arranged in open and symmetrical compositions.

The empty spaces breaking the text column into three (fol. 3), or the large spaces left between text, captions and illustrations, suggest that the captions and illustrations were added after the writing was done.

Robert Suckale suggested that our manuscript was produced in Regensburg in the workshop of the Viennese Martinus Opifex who worked for a while in Regensburg (Suckale 1987:109-110); and further suggested that the cursory and minimal rendering of the illustrations pointed to their being just preparatory drawings (Vorzeichnungen) awaiting completion. Both contentions were later refuted by Simona Gronemann (2006, I:61, 143-150).

Gronemann shows that the style of illustrations in our manuscript is very close to a group of manuscripts from southern Germany, perhaps Swabia, especially to two copies produced in Augsburg in the 1440s: Der Edelstein by Ulrich Boner, Augsburg 1447 (Heidelberg Universitätsbibliothek, MS cpg.314) and a Calendar, c.1457, from Augsburg or Regensburg (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, MS mgf. 557).

Together withMunich, these two manuscripts share a seemingly cursory style, shaky lines and scanty thin wash colouring. The figures are voluminous and animated and some of them display extreme gestures. They have large hands and the facial features are minimally rendered with high forehead, closed eyes drawn as two inverted loops, the nose a vertical line with a short horizontal one, and the lips marked by two slightly undulating lines, the upper longer than the lower (Gronemann 2006, I:144 and  comparisons II:figs. 34-48). The style suggestsAugsburgas a possible place of production for the illuminations of our manuscript around 1450 but before 1458, when the owner recorded the birth of his firstborn son (fol. 204v; see History). However, since Jews were expelled fromAugsburgin the year 1438, the manuscript could have been produced before that, or if later, then nearby, perhaps inRegensburg(Gronemann 2006, I:243).



117 image(s)

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Munich Meshal ha-Kadmoni | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Before 1458
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 107 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 107)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Panel Measurements
Some leaves are missing (see Quires above) and some are torn (e.g. fol. 57). There are scribbles on the text (fol. 11v). The paper was damaged by ink (fol. 176).
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
The manuscript contains six different works copied by three scribes: 1. Fols. 1-94v: by Scribe A: Meshal ha-Kadmoni משל הקדמוני), The Book of Fables) by Isaac ben Solomon Ibn Sahula (Spain, 1281). The book comprises a Prologue and Introduction (fols. 1-3) and five parts: Part I – In Praise of Intelligence and Wisdom (fols. 3v-18v); Part II – In Praise of Penitence (fols. 18v–41); Part III – In Praise of Soundly Based Counsel (fols. 41v-52); Part IV – In Praise of Humility (fols. 52–68); Part V – In Praise of True Reverence (fols. 68–94v). 2. Fols. 95v-98: by Scribes C (fols. 95v-96v) and B (fols. 97-98): Sefer ha-Tappu'ah (ספר התפוח, The Book of the Apple) attributed to Aristotle was translated by Abraham Halevi ben Hisdai (1165-1216) as indicated at the end of the treatise (fol. 98; cf. Steinschneider 1893:267-279). In printed editions, Sefer ha-Tappu'ah appears with Meshal ha-Kadmoni (e.g. Frankfurt-am-Oder, 1693 and 1800; Steinschneider 1893:268). 3. Fols. 98-100: by Scribe B: Sefer ha-Nefesh (ספר הנפש, The Book of the Soul) attributed to Galen, translated by Judah ben Solomon al-Harizi (1170-1235) as is indicated at the end of the treatise (fol. 100; Steinschneider 1893:273-274). In printed editions it appears with Sefer ha-Tappu'ah (e.g. Venice 1519; Steinschneider 1893:274). 4. Fol. 100-100v: by Scribe B: beginning of Sefer ha-Shamayim ve-ha-Olam (ספר השמים והעולם, De coelo et mundo) by Avicenna, translated by Shlomo ben Moshe of Melgueil (cf. Steinschneider 1893:283). On fol. 100-100v is a table of contents with 16 chapters and the beginning of the first. 5. Fol. 101: by Scribe A: a section of a medical treatise (beginning missing). 6. Fols. 102v-203v: by Scribes A (fols. 102v-105v) and C (fols. 106-203): Sefer ha-Nizzahon (ספר הנצחון; Book of Triumph, written after the disputation of 1389) by Yom Tov Lipmann Muelhausen (d. after 1420) (cf. Talmage 1984).
Material Paper, 1+ 204 +1 (fol. 205) leaves (fol. 52bis not foliated). Watermarks: A crown with two types of cross: Briquet, Nos. 4642 (Orléans, 1444) and 4645 (Lyon, 1459-1469). First leaves of the manuscript: Meshal ha-Kadmoni, 1444 Towards the end of the manuscript: Book of the Triumph, 1444 Measurements Full page: (275-278) x (202-204) mm. Text space: Scribe A, Abraham: (175-178) x 112 mm. Scribe B: (195-201) x 110 mm. Scribe C, Jacob: (182-186) x 125 mm. Scribes The text is written mainly by Abraham and Jacob, with an additional Scribe, B, interpolating parts of the same treatises. Scribe A, Abraham: fols. 1-94v, 101-105v (Meshal ha-Kadmoni; a section of a medical treatise; beginning of The Book of the Triumph). Scribe B: fols. 97-100v (part of Book of the Apple; Book of the Soul; De coelo et mundo). Scribe C, Jacob: fols. 95v-96v, 106-204 (beginning of the Book of Apple; most of Book of the Triumph). Script The text of the three scribes is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script. Columns The text is mostly written in two columns, but at times in one (e.g. fols. 74-81, 95v-96v). Number of lines Meshal ha-Kadmoni is written in 32-44 lines per page: Scribe A: c.34; from fol. 20 on his script becomes larger reducing the number of lines. Scribe B: 44 lines. Scribe C: 32-34 lines. 41-44 lines Ruling Fols. 1-94, 97-100, 102v-105, 107: brown ink ruling by Scribes A and B for the frame and columns only: 1+1 or 1+2+1 vertical and 1+1 horizontal lines. Sometimes the verticals for margins are doubled (e.g. fols. 102v, 103) and additional ruling within the frame guides the shaped text (e.g. fols. 86v, 87); Fols. 95-96, 101-102, 106, 107v-203: ruling by stylus by Scribe C (except for fol.107) for the frame and columns only: 1+1 or 1+2+1 vertical and 1+1 horizontal lines. Sometimes the verticals for margins are double (e.g. fols. 130, 131); Pricking Noticeable in all margins (e.g. fols. 105v-118). Quires 26 quires of 8 leaves each except for: I8-1, II10, XI10, XII6, XIII(8-4)+1and XXVI8-1: Fols. I8-1 (1-7: first, blank, leaf missing); II10 (8-17); III8 (18-25); IV8 (26-33); V8 (34-41); VI8 (42-49); VII8 (50-56: fol. 52bis not foliated); VIII8 (57-64); IX8 (65-72); X8 (73-80); XI10 (81-90: 4th leaf is a single one); XII6 (91-96: no text missing); XIII(8-4)+1 (97-101: 5th-8th leaves with text cut out; fol.101 is an added single one); XIV8 (102-109); XV8 (110-117); XVI8 (118-125); XVII8 (126-133); XVIII8 (134-141); XIX8 (142-149); XX8 (150-157); XXI8 (158-165); XXII8 (166-173); XXIII8 (174-181); XXIV8 (182-189); XXV8 (190-197); XXVI8-1 (198-204; the last, blank, leaf is missing). Catchwords Catchwords for quires by Abraham and Jacob in semi-cursive script in the lower left-hand corner, sometimes decorated (Abraham: e.g. fols. 7v, 41v, 49v, 56v, 64v; Jacob: e.g. fols. 117v, 149v, 197v; see Decoration Programme). Hebrew numeration None. Blank leaves Fols. 95, 101v, 102, 203v-204v (with owners' inscriptions).
Number of Lines
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Scribal Notes
A. Names emphasised by the scribes: By Scribe A (Abraham): The name Abraham is decorated by Scribe A on fols. 24v (topped by a crown), 66v (floral motif), 103v (crown), 105. Fol. 94v, end of Meshal ha-Kadmoni, a rhymed verse by Abraham with an acrostic of his name: ספר משל הקדמוני נשלם שבח ותהילה לאל עולם בנל"ך ואע"י (=ברוך נותן ליעף כח ולאין אונים עצמה ירבה) אזמר לצורי למגן וסתרי אשר סייעתני לתכלית ספרי בהר קדשך אל מקום מקדשך ושמה תביאני וישכון בשרי ראה נא למחלי ולא ימעדו קרסולי וחזק ואמצני יי' שומרי היה לי ושמע נא לקולי משיחך שלח אל אב"י ר"ם וברוך לאל עליון אברהם וחלצני ושמע אל אמורי תם ונשלם שבח לאדון השלום. Fol. 97: The name Abraham is marked at the beginning of the Book of the Apple copied by Scribe B. It is possible that Scribe B's name is also Abraham, but most probably this is the name of the translator of the book, Abraham Halevi ibn Hisdai, a usual custom. By Scribe C, Jacob: The name Jacob is decorated by Scribe C on fols. 114 (descender of the letter kof), 118v (floral motif), 141v (descender of the letter kof), 146 (floral motif), 174 (descender). B. Verses and blessings: Scribe A, Abraham: in the lower margin, in smaller semi-cursive scipt: Fol. 73v: הש'(ם) יאיר לנו עינינו/ וישלח לנו איש משיחינו, (The Lord will open our eyes and send us our Messiah). Fol. 91v: אלהי' חוסר/ך מחלי ומכאובי // // וכלה וגרוש את אויבי/ אא"א סס"ס /ויבא משיחי לעיר מושבי (My Messiah will come to my city and the Lord spares me from sickness and pain. Annihilate and expel my enemies. Fol. 103, in the lower margin: לא אמות כי אחיה ואספר מעשה יה/ ולמות לא נתנני יסור יסרני יה (I shall not die but live and declare the works of the Lord. He hath not given me over unto death, the Lord hath chastened me sore (based on Ps. 118:17-18)). Scribe C, Jacob: Fol. 102v: at the head of the text in semi-cursive script: עמ"י עש"ו (עזרי מעם השם עושה שמים וארץ; אנא ה' הושיענא, (My help cometh from the Lord who hath made heaven and earth (Ps. 121:2); Save now I beseech thee O Lord (Ps. 118:25)). Inscriptions at the end of sections in large semi-cursive script: Fol. 157v: completed the Pentateuch:חסלת ה' חומשי תורה/ בריך רחמנא דסייען א"ס (אמן סלה) . Fol. 158: Completed Joshua: סליק יהושע/ בריך רחמנא דסייען. Fol. 203, end of manuscript: בנל"ך ואע"י (ברוך נותן ליעף כח ולאין אונים עצמה ירבה; ישעיהו מ כט). Blessed be He who giveth power to the faint and to them that have no might he increaseth strength (Is. 40:29). C. Notes by Scribe C, Jacob: Fol. 96v: the text of the Book of the Apple on this page ends with לא מצאתי יותר (I found no more), which means that it is not the end of the book; however, the text is continued on the following page (fol. 97: במהלכם ומבואם ) by Scribe B. Fol. 186v, in the margins:ועוד הק(בלה?) בפי(רוש) ר' דוד קמחי ...; וה"ר (והביא ראיה?) אברהם בן עזרי'(אל) (And more Kabbalah by R. David Kimhi …; and Abraham ben Azriel …).
Trade Mark

Sixteenth-century brown sheepskin on cardboard decorated with gold stamped floral motifs in the centre and corners. The spine is decorated with similar floral motifs and has four double cords and head and tail bands.

The binding was probably done in the workshop of the court binder Heinrich Peisenberg in Munichfor Duke Albrecht V (cf. EBDB: w003886 for the centre motif and w003886 for the corner motif; Schunke 1958/60:721ff.):


Floral motif

(EBDB: w003886)

Floral motif

(EBDB: w003886)

Watermarks of the flyleaves: Piccard, Nos. 152921 (Munich 1562) and 24105 (Munich 1578):


Front flyleaf

Back pastedown

Decoration Program

The Artist and Scribe A, Abraham (fols. 1-94v):

The 80 illuminations of Meshal ha-Kadmoni were executed by one artist, first in plummet and then in dark greyish ink, except for fols. 1 and 50, which were decorated by the main scribe Abraham in brown ink. The figures are economically yet voluminously rendered in shaky black ink outlines over a sketchy plummet drawing which delineates compositions and postures (e.g. fols. 46v, 47v, 70, 71v, 74). The shaky outlines were mostly overdrawn in bold black lines, and the illustrations coloured in grey, yellow ochre and magenta wash.

Following the illuminations, Scribe Abraham corrected some depictions in brown ink, but also did some underdrawings, which the artist overdrew in black ink (e.g. fols. 29v, 43). Abraham the scribe added details such as a lion's mane (fol. 9v), roof tiles (fol. 16v), a beard to indicate an old man (e.g. fols. 22, 55v) and headgear (fols. 33, 55v). He added pupils to down-cast eyes (e.g. fols. 22, 33, 55v, 73, 79), table-ware (fol. 55v), and branches with leaves to trees (fols. 29v, 33v). Indeed, the style of the added leaves (fol. 29v) is similar to those marking the name Abraham (fol. 66), thus divulging his hand. 

Moreover, Abraham was not shy in correcting compositions and details which clarify the story or caption. For example, he changed the image of a woman to a man in accordance with the text (fol. 42), added a fifth astrologer on the right of the scene (fol. 79), changed the posture of figures and added identifying attributes (fols. 29v, 43). He covered a crown and other details with silver powder (fol. 33v) and added inscriptions in open books held by the figures (e.g. fols. 22v, 68, 73, 92v), a donkey's saddlebag and astronomical drawings

(fols. 81v, 83, 85, 87v, 89).

1. 75 text illustrations for Meshal ha-Kadmoni within the text space, mainly by the artist with additions by

    Abraham, sometimes occupying more than half a page (fols. 3v, 4, 4v, 5v, 6, 7, 7v, 8v, 9, 9v, 11v, 13, 14,

    15v, 16, 16v, 17, 17v, 18v, 19v, 20v, 22, 22v, 23v, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29v, 30v, 33, 33v, 34, 36, 38, 38v, 39,

    41v, 42, 43, 44v, 46, 46v, 47v, 48, 50 (by Abraham), 52, 52v, 53, 54v, 55v, 56v, 57v, 59, 59v, 60v, 62,

    65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71v, 73, 74, 75, 76v, 77v, 79, 79v, 80, 88, 90, 91, 92v).

2. Five astronomical diagrams by Abraham illustrating the text (fols. 81v, 83, 85, 87v, 89).

3. Decorated initial words by Abraham for some sections of the text (e.g. fols. 1, 19, 41v, 52), the first

    enclosed within a panel (fol. 1); some ascenders (e.g. birds' heads, fols. 53v, 55v, 91) and descenders

    (e.g. fols. 49, 53) of letters are decorated by the scribe Abraham.

4. Shaped text by Abraham in geometrical forms at the end of sections and sub-sections (e.g. fols. 6v, 11,

    12v, 13v, 30, 35v, 51v, 64v, 80v, 82v, 84, 86v, 87), two in the form of a jar (fol. 88, 88v), at times

     surrounded by decorative borders (e.g. fols. 80v, 93v, 94).

5. Catchwords by Abraham are framed and decorated with tendrils (fols. 7v, 41v, 56v, 64v).

6. Decorative space fillers by Abraham (e.g. fols. 69v, 76v, 90v).

7. Abanner inscribed by Abraham with the word ניצחון (Triumph) on fol.103 inthe inner lower margin,

    for the Book of the Triumph.

By Scribe C, Jacob:

1. Zoomorphic space fillers within the text space (fols. 149, 159).

2. Decorated catchwords, some zoomorphic, including perhaps a literal one of a ghost (e.g. fols. 117v

    "השדים יכולים" 149v), and a dog (fol. 197v).

3. A pointing hand by the scribe (e.g. fol. 140).


Suggested Reconsdivuction
Marginal annotations for the Book of the Triumph by a later hand (e.g. fols. 108, 148). Fol. 175v, a still later hand added in the upper margin: The reason for not speaking to Christians on the Ten Days of Repentance is based on the verse "Therefore the prudent shall keep silence in that time; for it is an evil time" (Amos 5:13). It is written above a consoling text that the Lord "will bring again the captivity of my people of Israel" (Amos 9:14): נ"ל שעת'(ה) בעי"ת (=נבאר להלן שעתה בעשרת ימי תשובה) אין לדבר עם הנוצרים ואם מבקשי'(ם) תשובה למה אנו נמנעים לדבר עמם יאמר להן תשובה מזה הפסוק בעמוס "לכן המשכיל בעת ההיא ידום כי עת רעה היא" (עמוס ה יג), ואני הדיוט השבתי זה למשומד אחד לפני הרבה מלומדים והודו לי אב"י (אחינו בני ישראל). Fol. 113: In the outer and lower margins are corrections by a later hand to a Latin verse from St. Luke, transliterated into Hebrew characters with many errors by Scribe C, Jacob: "The Latin has mistakes due to the scribe's errors, thus: Pater Abraham Miserere mei …" (Lk. 16:24-25): הלטין טעות הוא/ משו'(ם) טעות סופר/ וכך הוא/ פַטֵר אברהם מִיזְרֵרֵי/ מֵעִי עֵט מִיטֵי לַזְרום/ אִינטִינגווַט/ אין אֵקְשְטְרֵימום דִיְגטִי/ זואִי אִין אַקְווַם/ אוט רֵיפֿרִייֵרִיט לִינְגְווַאם מֵיעַם קְוִויאָה קְרוצְיוֹר אִיקְפֲֿלִמַא אֵיט דִיקְצִיט אברהם וִילִי רֵיקורְדַרֵי קְוִויאָ/ ... רֵיצִיפִישְטֵי בוֹנַא אין ויטַא טואַה אֵיט לזרוש זִימִילְטַר מַלַא נונְק אִאוּטֵם אִיק קוֹנְסְלַטור טוּ/ וֵראֺקרוצְיאַרוש. Fol. 204v: Birth and death inscriptions from the years 1458-1461 by the owner (son of R. Jacob bar Meir), in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in brown and greyish ink: Anshel my firstborn son was born on Thursday evening, 12th Shevat 5218 (February 5th 1458): בני בכורי אנשל שי(חיה) נולד ליל ה' יב' שבט ופרטו אשירה לה' כי גאה גאה רי"ח לפ"ק. My daughter Reichlin was born on Thursday evening, 28th Sivan 5219 (June 29th 1459) and died on the 22nd of Kislev 5220 (November 27th 1459): בתי רייכליין שת(חיה) נולדה כח' סיון ליל ה' רי"ט לפ"ק ופטירת כב' כסליו ר"ך לפ"ק. My daughter Gottlein was born on Thursday evening, the New Moon of Kislev 5221 (November 23rd 1460): בתי גוטליין שת(חיה) נולדה ליל ה' ר"ח כסליו רכ"א לפ"ק. The death of my father, R. Jacob bar Meir, on Monday evening, 5th Tishrei 5222 (September 18th 1461): פטירת אב' ער' (אבי, עטרת ראשי) ז"ל הר"ר יעקב בר' מאיר ז"ל ה' תשרי ליל ב' שנת רכ"ב לפ"ק תנצב"ה. Signatures of witnesses at the bottom of the page. Inscriptions of librarians and researchers: • Front pastedown, on the exlibris in plummet: contents of the manuscript in German. manuscript in German Exlibris and stamps: Front pastedown: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (229 x 156 mm.) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I from 1630 (Dressler 1972: B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris of 1618 (175x135 mm.), before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972: A3a-f). On fols. 1, 203v, 204 a 19th-century oval stamp of the BSB: BIBLIOTHECA/ REGIA/ MONACENSIS. Signatures: Front cover, lower edge and fol. 1, lower edge, in black ink: 3.63 (Duke's library, Prommer's signature). Sticker on spine and front flyleaf, in plummet: 97. Front and back pastedowns, in plummet; stickers on spine and back pastedown: Cod. hebr. 107 (current signature). The manuscript was probably owned by Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter (Striedl 1952:218) and was purchased in 1558 together with his entire collection by Duke Albrecht V for his Court Library. The Hebraist Widmanstetter's interest in the texts of this manuscript, especially the Book of the Triumph, is obvious, because of its polemical character and arguments against Christianity. Indeed, another Hebraist, Sebastian Münster (1488-1552), also owned a copy of this text, which he made from Johannes Reuchlin's copy (Burnett 2000:176).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Burnett 2000 S. Burnett, "A Dialogue of the Deaf: Hebrew Pedagogy and Anti-Jewish Polemic" in Sebastian Münster, "Messiahs of the Christians and the Jews (1529/39)", Classics and Religious Studies, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 2000:168-190. Dover Pub. New York Sebastian Brant, The Ship of Fools 1494, Dover Pub. New York 1962. Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Goldschmidt 1974 A. Goldschmidt, An Early manuscript of the Fables of Avianus, Princeton 1974. Gronemann 2006 S. Gronemann, The Extant 15th Century Ashkenazi Illuminated Manuscripts of “Meshal ha-Kadmoni” by Isaac ibn Sahula, Ph.D Thesis, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2006 (Hebrew). Haberman 1953 A. M. Haberman, “Shira Ivrit Beyemei Habeinaim”, Qiryat Sefer, 29 (1953), pp. 199-203 (Hebrew). Hansen 1985 W. Hansen, Kalenderminiaturen des Stundenbuecher, Mittelarters Leben in Jahrestlauf, Munich 1985. IJA 1982 Jerusalem, The Bezalel Narkiss Index of Jewish Art: Rothschild Index Cards IJA 1982. Loewe 2004 R. Loewe (ed. and trans.), “Meshal haqadmoni”, Fables from the Distant Past, Oxford 2004. Rothschild Miscellany (facsimile). Rosenthal 1913 E. Rosenthal, "Zu den Anfängen der Holzschnittillustration in Ulm" in: Monatshften für Kunstwissenschaft, VI ( 1913), pp. 197-198. Schirmann 1997 J. Schirmann, The History of Hebrew Poetry in Christian Spain and Southern France, Jerusalem, 1997:345, 347- 364, 366, 533 (Hebrew). Scholem 1929-30 G. Scholem, "Prakim Metoldot Safrut Hakabala, Qiryat Sefer, (1929-1930), pp. 118-119 (Hebrew). Schunke 1958/60 I. Schunke, "Zur Frage der Münchener Hofbuchbinder", Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens 2 (1958-1960), pp. 719-728. Spurr 2001 J. Spurr, "A Profane History of Early Modern Oaths", Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, vol. 11, (2001) pp. 37-63. Steinschneider 1893 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin 1893. Steinschneider1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895. Striedl 1952 H. Striedl, "Die Bücherei des Orientalisten Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter," Serta Monacensia. Franz Babinger zum 15. Januar 1951 als Festgruss dargebracht, eds. H. J. Kissling, A. Schmaus, Leiden 1952:200-244. Suckale 1987 R. Suckale, "Die Regensburger Buchmalerei von 1350-1450", Regensburger Buchmalerei, Munich, 1987, pp. 109-110. Talmage 1984 ר’ יום טוב ליפמן מילהויזן, ספר הנצחון. צילום מהדורת הקשפן, אלטדורף-נירנברג 1644, מבוא ע"י אפרים תלמג', ירושלים 1984 (R. Yom Tov Lipmann Muelhausen, The Book of Triumph. Photograph of הקשפן Edition, Altdorf-Nuremberg 1644, Introduction by Ephraim Talmage, Jerusalem 1984).
Ilona Steimann | 2008, 2014
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008, 2014; 2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 06-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |