Under Reconstruction!
Object Alone

Obj. ID: 21005
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger's Miscellany on Philosophy, Venice, 1550

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,
Summary and Remarks

Yishai ben Yehiel appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 10, 19, 26, 28, 30, 33, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, 52, 56, 58, 62, 64, 68; Yaakov ben Yosef in BSB Cod.hebr. 10, 12, 15, 17, 22, 24, 27, 32, 40, 43, 48, 49, 52, 57, 58, 62, 73; Meir in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 8, 11, 15, 23, 27, 29, 39, 44, 47, 49, 50, 54, 56, 58, 59. Ezra of Fano in BSB Cod.hebr. 8, 9, 35, 26, 56, 57. 


5 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Fugger's Venetian Miscellany on Philosophy | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 31 (Steinschneider 1985, No. 31)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Paper, 1 + 372 + 1 leaves.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (352-354) x (249-252) mm.
Text space: Yishai: (236-237) x 140 mm.
Yaakov: (237-239) x (138-140) mm.
Meir: (228-231) x (135-140) mm.
Ezra: (240-246) x (146-148) mm.
Panel Measurements
Well preserved. Apparently the manuscript was not used.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
1. Middle Commentary on Aristotle's On the Heavens (באור אמצעי על ספר השמים והעולם) by Averroes (fols. 1-102v), translated by Solomon ben Joseph ibn Ajub: beginsמאמר הראשון מספר השמים והעולם לארסטות ביאור החכם בן רשד אמר כוונת ארסטו בזה הספר לדבר בעולם (Steinschneider 1893:128). Other copies in Munich: BSB Cod.hebr. 234 (fols. 1-145v), belonged to Fugger; BSB Cod.hebr. 371; BSB Cod.hebr. 387 (fols. 94-175). 2. Astronomical Tables for 1465 by Moses Botarel Farissol (fols. 106-113): beginsבקשנו לחשוב מקומות הכוכבים ... בשנת תס"ה לחשבון הנצרים. Another version of the same tables was copied in this manuscript on fols. 319v-345v; a further copy in Munich: BSB Cod.hebr. 249 (fols. 1-6), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter. 3. Paraphrase of Euclid's Elements: i:1-32 (ספר היסודות) (fols. 113-122v): beginsהנקודה היא תכלית הגודל ודבר בלתי מתחלק (Steinschneider 1893:507). 4. Epitome of Ptolemy's Almagest (קצור אלמגסטי) by Averroes (fols. 122v-242v), translated by Jacob Anatoli: beginsכפי שהתבאר בזולת זה המקום שהחכמו'(ת) העיוניות שני מינים (Steinschneider 1893:547). 5. Extracts from Euclid's Elements: i:1-19 (fols. 242v-248) and parts of ii:6-14 (fols. 248-254v): beginsעל האחד כאשר ידובקו כיאוי קצתם מקצתם הם שוים (Steinschneider 1893:507). 6. Fragment of Etz ha-Hayyim (עץ החיים; Tree of Life) by Isaiah ben Joseph (fols. 254v-255v): beginsאמר המחבר עבור כי מספר הגלגלים וככבי לכת ותנועתם והקפתם נודע לנו . 7. Sefer ha-Derushim ha-Tivi'im (ספר הדרושים הטבעיים), a compilation of questions by Averroes, Abu'l Qasim ibn Idris and Abu Ja'afar ibn Sabik (fols. 256-318v) in an anonymous translation with the commentary by Moses Narboni: beginsספר דרושים הטבעיים חברו החכם אבו אליד וליד בן רשד ועמו דרושים טבעיים לחכמים זולתו (Steinschneider 1895:179, 183, 188). Another copy in Munich: Cod.hebr. 36 (fols. 219v-222), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter (cf. Rozenberg 1982:715-724). 8. On Mathematics (חכמת התשבורת) by Theodosius Tripolitanus? (fol. 319): only the title page (Steinschneider 1893:541-542). 9. Astronomical Tables for 1465 by Moses Botarel Farissol (fols. 319v-345v): beginsבקשנו לחשוב מקורות הככבים; the end is missing. 10. Astronomical Tables by Johannes Blanchinus (fols. 346v-369): beginsאשר ראוי לקראו המאיר לחכמת האיצטגנינית; the end is missing. It was possibly translated into Hebrew by Mordecai Finzi (Steinschneider 1895:17). Most examples of the tables date from 1447; some terms are in Italian.
Yishai ben Yehiel (Scribe A*): fols. 1-105 in dark brown ink. Yaakov ben Yosef (Scribe B): fols. 107-255 in dark brown ink. Meir (Scribe C): fols. 106, 255v-318v in dark brown ink. Ezra of Fano (Scribe D): fols. 319-369 in light brown ink. Proofreading by the scribes themselves. * The letters A, B, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes and interpolators in this manuscript.
The text is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi (Yishai, Yaakov, Meir) and Italian (Ezra) script, while titles and some initial words are in square Ashkenazi script (Yishai, Yaakov, Meir).
Number of Lines
The text is written in 30 lines per page, mainly in one column.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines (e.g. fol. 318b).
41 quires of 8 and 10 leaves each, except for XXIX10-1, XXXV6+1. Quire composition: I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-32); V8 (33-40); VI8 (41-48); VII8 (49-56); VIII8 (57-64); IX8 (65-72); X8 (73-80); XI8 (81-88); XII8 (89-96); XIII10 (97-105a); XIV10 (106-115); XV10 (116-125); XVI10 (126-135); XVII10 (136-145); XVIII10 (146-155); XIX10 (156-165); XX10 (166-175); XXI10 (176-185); XXII10 (186-195); XXIII10 (196-205); XXIV10 206-215; XXV10 (216-225); XXVI10 (226-235); XXVII10 (236-245); XXVIII10 (246-255); XXIX10-1 (256-264); XXX10 (265-274); XXXI10 (275-284); XXXII10 (285-294); XXXIII10 (295-304); XXXIV10 (305-314); XXXV6+1 (315-318, 318a, 318b, 319 is single); XXXVI8 (320-327); XXXVII8 (328-335); XXXVIII8 (336-343); XXXIX8 (344-351); XL8 (352-359); XLI10 (360-369).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally on the left below the text in semi-cursive script by the text scribe.
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 1v, 105v, 105a-105a verso, 106v, 318a-318a verso, 318b-318b verso, 319v, 346r, 369v.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Fol. 102v: ואני ישי בכמ"ר יחיאל ז"ל העתקתי אותו גם כן מגוף/ הספר והשלמתי אותו היום יום זכור ברית שנת ש"י לפרט/ קטן ליצירה במדינת איטליי'(ה) רבתי/ בעיר וויציזיה (And I, Yishai ben R. Yehiel z"l, copied it from a book [manuscript] and completed it today, the day of Zkhor ha-Brit [the weekly Torah portion], in the year 5310 [1550] from the Creation, in Italy, in the city of Venice). Fol. 369: נכתב ע"י הצעיר עזרא בכמ"ר יצחק מפאנו יצ"ו ולמסי'(ר)/ קורניליאו יצ"ו כתבתיו (Written by the youth Ezra ben R. Itzhak of Fano, may his Rock protect and sustain him, I wrote it for Messir Corneglio, may his Rock protect and sustain him).
Scribal Notes
Fol. 314v: There is a crown above the name of the scribe Meir.
Watermarks: 'A' in the outer corner of the folio (27 mm; e.g. fols. 9, 24, 33, 60, 90, 105a, 257, 278); counter mark: 'B' between the tips of two crossed arrows forming an X at the centre of the folio (66 mm; e.g. fol. 318b): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Flèche 35 and 41 (1550, 1547); a trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; e.g. fols. 207, 209, 211, 322, 347, 365): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550).
Fol. 106: a star above an anchor within a circle in the centre of the folio (this paper was usually used for flyleaves): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Ancre 24-31 (Venice, 1556).
Trade Mark

Dark green leather partly turned brown on wooden boards (351 x243 mm); gold-tooled with a central roundel on the front and a shield on the back cover within an undulating lozenge in a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The front roundel is inscribed פילוסופיא, and the letters FFFF below (same binding and signature as in Cod.hebr. 50). The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has four hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the edges of the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two on the side and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails in the edges of the back cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring intended to hook over the nails in the opposite cover. The leaves are gilt-edged.


This binding was made for Fugger by the 'Fugger Binder' inVenice(Hobson 1999: 119-129). Similar bindings in BSB: e.g. Cod.hebr. 7, 8, 26, 35, 44, 45, 50, 56, 57,604, Ahebr. 278 and Cod.gr. 14.


Watermark of the front flyleaf: The head of a bull surmounted by an arch in the centre of the folio (80 mm): unidentified. 

Decoration Program


  1. Title page (fol. 106) and initial word (fol. 315) by Meir decorated with scrolls, ribbons, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs.
  2. Male and female hybrids with human heads flank the last lines of the text (fol. 278).


Suggested Reconsdivuction
Owners' inscriptions: None. Inscriptions of librarians and researchers: Front flyleaf, verso: contents in Hebrew in brown ink by Librarian 1a: ספר השמים והעולם עם ביאור/ בן רשד/ ספר למגיסטי מאבן רשד/ ספר תודוסיוס בחכמת התשבורת/ ספר דרושים הטבעיים חברו החכם/ אבו אליד וליד בן רשד ועמו/ דרושים טבעיים לחכמים זולתו. Below this, on the left, by Librarian 1a in dark brown ink: Sephaer haschamaim iehaolam im bior\ ben reschad\ Sephaer lemagisthi meaebaen reschad\ Sephaer thodosius behachmas hataschboros\ Sephaer deruschim hathephaaijm habru haehacham\ Abu alid velid baen reschad veimo\ Deruschim thephaaaijm lahaechamim sulaso. On the right by Librarian 3 in greyish-brown ink: Liber de Caelo et Mundo comentaria\ ReSchad. i.Auerrois\ Magisthi super librum Auerrois de Astonomia\ Thodosios liber behachmas hatas\ boros de sapientia astronomia\ Abu patris Alid, et Lid filij Auerrois\ et aliorum quorundam Rabinorum liber\ de philosophia naturalj. Back pastedown, on the exlibris in plummet: contents of the manuscript in German. Exlibris and stamps: Front pastedown: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x 155 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972:B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (175 x 135 mm) of 1618, before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f). Old signatures: Back cover, upper right corner in black ink: Stat. 8 n0 11? (second signature of Fugger's library). Front cover, lower right corner in black ink: 2 n0 49 (Duke's library, Prommer's signature). Front flyleaf, upper right corner in red ink: 2. 49 (Duke's library, Prommer's revision of 1583). Front flyleaf, upper right corner in brown ink: MS. Hebr. 27. Sticker on the back pastedown and on the spine: Cod.hebr. 31 (current signature). On exlibris in plummet: Cod.hebr. 31 (current signature).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Harlfinger 1974-80 D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin 1974-1980. Hobson 1999 A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings, Cambridge 1999. Rozenberg 1982 ש' רוזנברג, "התרגומים העבריים ל'דרושים הטבעיים' של ן' רשד ופירושיו של ר' משה נרבוני", קרית ספר נז, ג/ד (תשמ"ב):715-724 (Sh. Rozenberg, "Hebrew Translations of 'Ha-Derushim ha-Tivi'im' by Ibn Rushd and its Commentary by Moses Narboni", Kiryat Sefer 57, 3/4 (1982):715-724. Sirat and Dukan, unpublished C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux"sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished. Steinschneider 1893 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin 1893. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895.
Ilona Steimann | 2008, 2015
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008, 2015; 2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 05-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |