Under Reconstruction!
Object Alone

Obj. ID: 20953
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger’s Miscellany, Venice, c.1552

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,

3 image(s)

sub-set tree:

Fugger’s Venetian Miscellany | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 49 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 49)
Documentation / Research project
Paper, 1+462+1 leaves.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (342-343) x (234-236) mm.
Text space: Meir: (226-238) x (135-138) mm.
Yaakov ben Yosef: (238-239) x (137-140) mm.
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Well preserved. Apparently the manuscript was not used.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Type of grave
1. Shaarei Hayyim (שערי חיים; The Gate of Life) by Mordecai ben Yaakov Rossello (fols. 1r-42v): begins יאר יי' פניו אליך במאור תורתו (Scholem 1933/34:503 no. 41). 2. Commentary on Avicenna's Canon (Book III) (פירוש הקאנון) (fols. 43r-231v): beginsאמר המחבר אמר השר אבו עלי אבן סינא . 3. Hanhagat ha-Kadahat (הנהגת הקדחת; The Treatment of Fever) (fols. 232r-261v): begins בעבור שאין יותר טוב בחקירת האמת כי אם על-ידי ויכוח החכמים (Steinschneider 1893:841). 4. Ez Hayyim (עץ החיים; The Tree of Life) by Aaron ben Elijah of Nicomedia (fols. 262r-338r): begins זה ספר דרך אמונה חברו החכם האלהי הכולל מאשטרי' אברהם ן' ביבאג ז"ל ממלכות אראגון. Another copy in Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 56 (fols. 265-348v). 5. Treatise on purgatives and emetics (the Latin title: De medicines iaxtavis: De Consolatione medicinarum et correctione operationum earundem) (מהעצה והטבעים והתנאים של רפואות המשלשלות הפשוטות והמורכבות) by Masawaih ibn Yūhannā (fols. 339r-411v): begins אחל ספר יואניס אבן מסואי מהעצה והטבעים והתנאים של רפואות משלשלות הפשוטות (Sarton 1931:784; Steinschneider 1893:718-719). 6. Treatise on Purgation (הכבוסים והטהרות) by Gerhardus (גררדוס) (fols. 411v-452v): beginsספר הכבוסים וטהרת הגופים . Another copy in Munich: BSB Cod.hebr. 27 (fols. 151-158v, 163-177, 186-193v). 7. Hanhagat ha-Guf ha-Bari (הנהגת הגוף הבריא; The Treatment of the Healthy Body) by Shem Tov ibn Falaquera (fols. 452v-458v): beginsבתי הנהגת גוף בריא אמר ר' שם טוב בן פלקירא כבר התבאר בספרים אשר על דרך המופת.
Meir (Scribe A*): fols. 1-42v, 339-458v, in brown ink. Yaakov ben Yosef (Scribe B): fols. 43-338, in dark brown and light brown ink. * The letters A, B, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes in this manuscript.
The text is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script.
Number of Lines
The text is written in 27-30 (Meir) and 30 (Yaakov) lines per page, mainly in one column.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines (e.g. fols. 8, 21).
52 quires of 8 and 10 leaves each. Quire structure: I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-32); V10 (33-42); VI10 (43-52); VII10 (53-62); VIII8 (63-70); IX8 (71-78); X8 (79-86); XI8 (87-94); XII8 (95-102); XIII8 (103-110); XIV8 (111-118); XV8 (119-126); XVI8 (127-134); XVII8 (135-142); XVIII8 (143-150); XIX8 (151-158); XX8 (159-166); XXI8 (167-174); XXII8 (175-182); XXIII8 (183-190); XXIV8 (191-198); XXV8 (199-206); XXVI8 (207-214); XXVII8 (215-222); XXVIII8 (223-230); XXIX8 (231-238); XXX8 (239-246); XXXI8 (247-254); XXXII8 (255-261a); XXXIII10 (261b-270); XXXIV10 (271-280); XXXV10 (281-290); XXXVI10 (291-300); XXXVII10 (301-310); XXXVIII10 (311-320); XXXIX10 (321-330); XL10 (331-338, 338a, 338b); XLI10 (339-348); XLII10 (349-358); XLIII10 (359-368); XLIV10 (369-378); XLV10 (379-388); XLVI10 (389-398); XLVII10 (399-408); XLVIII10 (409-418); XLIX10 (419-428); L10 (429-438); LI10 (439-448); LII10 (449-458).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally on the left below the text in semi-cursive script.
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 1v, 43v, 261a-261a verso, 261b-261b verso, 338v, 338a-338a verso, 338b-338b verso, 339v.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Fol. 42v: the colophon of the copying exemplar: ותכל מלאכת הקדש בארבעה ועשרים יום לחדש טבת/ שנת חמשת אלפים ושלש מאות ואחד עשר לבריאות עולם/ פה בעיר רומא מתא דיתבא על נהר/ טיבריס וכתבתהו אני/ יוסף בכמ"ר/ אליהו/ חכים/ זלה"ה (זכרו לחיי העולם הבא)/ לבקשת החכם/ השלם כמהר"ר מרדכי/ רפאל בן הנשא ונעלה זקן/ ונשוא פנים י' יעקב רושילו י"ץ (ישמרהו צורו) השם/ יתברך יזכהו לחבר ספרים אחרים אמן וכן/ יהי רצון. (I began this holy work on 24th Tevet, 5311 [2.1.1551] from the creation of the world, here in the city of Rome on the river Tiber. I, Yosef son of R. Elijahu Hakim, his memory in the next life, wrote it upon the request of the wise and honorable R. Mordecai Rafael son of the distinguished elder Yaakov Rossello, may his Rock protect him God be blessed and grant him to compose other books. Amen). The colophon states that the manuscript was copied in Rome in 1551 by Yosef ben Elijahu Hakim for Mordechai Raphael ben Yaakov Rossello (Ruscelli), who was the author of Shearei Hayyim. Rossello, a scholar and liturgical poet born in Barcelona, finished working on Shearei Hayyim in Rome in 1548 (Zunz 1867:49). In 1551 he hired Yosef Hakim to copy his own work for him, the colophon of which is repeated in this manuscript.
Scribal Notes
Watermarks: A trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; e.g. fols. 95, 148, 151, 171, 196, 247, 261a, 303, 338a): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550);
'A' (27 mm; e.g. fols. 352, 376); counter mark: 'B' between the tips of two crossed arrows forming an X at the centre of the folio (66 mm; e.g. fol. 340): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Flè‎che 35 and 41 (1550, 1547); An anchor within a circle topped by a star at the centre of the folio (65 mm; fols. 446, 449, 452, 453): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Ancre 24-31 (Venice, 1556).
Trade Mark

Dark green leather, turned brown, on wooden boards (345 x228 mm); gold-tooled with a central roundel on the front cover. Below are the letters LLLLL and above them in black ink: XI. The roundel on the back cover encloses a shield. Both roundels are within an undulating lozenge inside a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has four cords and head and tail bands. On the edges of the back cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two groups on the side edge and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails in the front cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring which was intended to hook over the nails in the opposite cover.

The leaves are gilt-edged.


This binding was made for Fugger by Anton Ludwig inVenice(Hobson 1999:129). Similar bindings in BSB: e.g. Cod.hebr. 20, 28, 43, 46, 68, 73, Cod.gr. 78.


Watermarks on flyleaves: A star above an anchor within a circle at the centre of the folio (65 mm; front pastedown): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Ancre 24-31 (Venice, 1556).

Decoration Program


The decoration is executed by Meir:

Decorated titles (fols. 1 and 339).

Summary and Remarks

Meir appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 8, 11, 15, 23, 27, 29, 31, 39, 44, 47, 50, 54, 56, 58, 59; Yaakov ben Yosef in BSB Cod.hebr. 10, 12, 15, 17, 22, 24, 27, 31, 32, 40, 43, 48, 52, 57, 58, 62, 73.

Suggested Reconsdivuction
Owners' inscriptions: None. Inscriptions of librarians and researchers: Fol. 1: saare haijm, No. 1; fol. 43: No. 2; fol. 261b: derech aemuna, No. 3; fol. 339: Abon massoi? medira, No. 4. Front pastedown: contents in Hebrew ספר שערי חיים in brown ink by Librarian 1, who repeated it on the recto of the front flyleaf. Exlibris and stamps: Inside the front wooden board: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (230 x 155 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972:B3ab). Old signatures: Front cover, lower part in black ink, upside-down: St. 9 n. 14 (second signature of the Fugger's library). Front cover, lower part in black ink: 2. n0. 22 (Duke's library, Prommer's signature). Front pastedown, lower part in red ink: 2. 22 (Duke's library, Prommer's revision of 1583). Front pastedown, upper right corner in black ink: MS. Hebr. 44. Sticker on the spine in brown ink: 88.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Harlfinger 1974-80 D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin, 1974-1980. Hobson 1999 A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings, Cambridge 1999. Sarton 1931 G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, vol. II, Baltimore 1931. Scholem 1933/34 ג' שולם, "מפתח לפירושים על עשר ספירות," קרית ספר י' (תרצ"ד):498-515 (G. Scholem, "Index of the Commentaries on the Ten Sefirot", Kiryat Sefer 10 (1933-1934):498-515). Sirat and Dukan, unpublished C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux"sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished. Steinschneider 1893 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin 1893. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895. Zunz 1867 L. Zunz, Nachtrag zur Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie, Berlin 1867.
Short Name
Full Name
Ilona Steimann | 2008, 2014
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008, 2014; 2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 05-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen |
Negative/Photo. No.