Under Reconstruction!
Object Alone

Obj. ID: 20942
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger's Fourth Commentaries on the Bible, Venice, 1550

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,
Summary and Remarks

onathan ben Yaakov Galiko appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 9, 32, 34, 57; Scribe 11 in this manuscript only; Scribe 12 in BSB Cod.hebr. 57; Itzhak ben Elijah Manosh in BSB Cod.hebr. 18, 27, 30, 58, 63.


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Fugger's Fourth Venetian Commentaries on the Bible | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 25 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 25)
Documentation / Research project
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Textual Content
Unknown |
Languages of inscription
Shape / Form
Material / Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (362-365) x (253-255) mm.
Text space: Jonathan ben Yaakov Galiko, Scribes 11 and 12: (236-239) x (135-139) mm.
Itzhak ben Elijah Manosh: (238-240) x (135-139) mm.
Panel Measurements
Well preserved. Apparently the manuscript was not used.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
1. Commentary on Proverbs (פירוש משלי) by Immanuel ben Solomon of Rome (fols. 1-191): beginsאמר עמנואל בר' יעקב. 1st ed. Naples 1487. 2. Commentary on Song of Songs (פירוש שיר השירים) by Immanuel ben Solomon of Rome (fols. 192-262v): begins שיר השירים אשר לשלמה (Eschwege 1908). 3. Meir Job (מאיר איוב) by Meir ben Isaac Arama (fols. 263-462): begins אמר מאיר בן הרב הכולל. 1st ed. Thessaloniki 1517.
Anonymous scribe of titles: fol. 1, in dark brown ink. Jonathan ben Yaakov Galiko (Scribe A*): fols. 2-99v in brown ink (from fol. 54 on the style of his script has changed). Scribe 11** (Scribe B): fols. 100-(including 141, 140, 139, 138, 137, 136, 135v; cf. quire XVII), 146-146v in brown ink. Scribe 12 (Scribe C): fols. 134, 142-145v, 147-191 in brown ink. Itzhak ben Elijah Manosh (Scribe D): fols. 192-462 in dark brown ink. * The letters A, B, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes and interpolators in this manuscript. ** Running numbers (Scribe 1, 2, etc.) denote anonymous main scribes and interpolators throughout the entire group of Fugger’s Venetian manuscripts. The scribes identified by name are not numbered.
The text is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script, while titles and some initial words are in square Ashkenazi script (Manosh) and Italian semi-cursive script (Galiko, and Scribes 11 and 12).
Number of Lines
The text is written in 30 lines per mainly in one column.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines (e.g. fols. 191).
62 quires of 8 leaves each, except for I10-1, VII10, X6, XII10, XIV12-2, XIX10, XXXIII10-1. Quire composition: I10-1 (1-9); II8 (10-17); III8 (18-25); IV8 (26-33); V8 (34-41); VI8 (42-49); VII10 (50-59); VIII8 (60-67); IX8 (68-75); X6 (76-81); XI8 (82-89); XII10 (90-99); XIII8 (100-107); XIV12-2 (108-117); XV8 (118-125); XVI8 (126-133); XVII8 (134-141; this quire is bound upside-down from end to beginning); XVIII8 (142-149); XIX10 (150-159); XX8 (160-167); XXI8 (168-175); XXII8 (176-183); XXIII8 (184-191); XXIV8 (192-199); XXV8 (200-207); XXVI8 (208-215); XXVII8 (216-223); XXVIII8 (224-231); XXIX8 (232-239); XXX8 (240-247); XXXI8 (248-255); XXXII8 (256-262a); XXXIII10-1 (263-271); XXXIV8 (272-279); XXXV8 (280-287); XXXVI8 (288-295); XXXVII8 (296-303); XXXVIII8 (304-311); XXXIX8 (312-319); XL8 (320-327); XLI8 (328-335); XLII8 (336-343); XLIII8 (344-351); XLIV8 (352-359); XLV8 (360-367); XLVI8 (368-375); XLVII8 (376-383); XLVIII8 (384-391); XLIX8 (392-399); L8 (400-407); LI8 (408-415); LII8 (416-423); LIII8 (424-431); LIV8 (432-439); LV8 (440-447); LVI8 (448-455); LVII8 (456-462a).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally at the left below the text in semi-cursive script by the text
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 1v, 191v, 262a-262a verso, 363v, 462, 462a-462a verso.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Fol. 462: נאום יצחק בר אליהו מאנוש שלי"ו [שיחיה לאורך ימים ושנים] מק"ק [קהילת קודש] לויטמריץ ממדינת פיהם תחת ממשלת ורדיננוס יר"ה [ירום הודו] תם ונשלם ביום ג’ ג’ בו בר"ח [בראש חודש] תמוז שנת ש"י לפ"ק (Says Itzhak bar Elijahu Manosh, long may he live, of the holy community of Leitmeritz in Bohemia under the rule of Ferdinand [I] his high majesty; completed Tuesday, New Moon of Tammuz 5310 [15.06.1550]).
Scribal Notes
Watermarks: 'A' (27 mm; e.g. fols. 33, 132, 133, 210) or 'B' (24 mm; e.g. fols. 35, 56) in the outer corner of the folio; counter mark: 'B' between the points of two crossed arrows forming an X at the centre of the folio (66 mm; e.g. fols. 1, 191, 462, 462a): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Flèche 35 and 41 (1550, 1547).
Trade Mark

Dark green leather turned brown on wooden boards (360 x237 mm); gold-tooled with a central roundel on the front and a shield on the back cover within an undulating lozenge in a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The front roundel is inscribed משלי/ פירושים; below are the letters LLL. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has four hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the edges of the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two groups on the side edge and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails on the edges of the back cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring which was intended to hook over the nails on the opposite cover. The leaves are gilt-edged.


This binding was executed for Fugger by the 'Fugger Binder' inVenice(Hobson 1999:119-129). Similar bindings in BSB: e.g. Cod.hebr. 30, 34, 41, 53 and Cod.gr. 12.


Watermarks on flyleaves: A star above an anchor within a circle at the centre of the folio (65 mm; front and back flyleaves): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Ancre 24-31 (Venice, 1556).

Decoration Program

Decorative title by Itzhak ben Elijah Manosh (fol. 263).

Suggested Reconsdivuction
Librarians' inscriptions: The numbering of texts by Fugger’s librarians does not always correspond to the actual number of texts in the manuscript, however in this case it does. N0 1: fols. 1-191; N0 2: fols. 192-262v; N0 3: fols. 263-462. Front flyleaf, verso: Contents in Hebrew in brown ink by Librarian 1a: פירוש משלי עם הביאור/ הארוך היפה גם על ספר/ איוב מרבינו עמנו אל/ עם פי' ר' מאיר מארמעה/ פירוש שיר השירים/ מרבי עמנואל בן שלמה. Transcription written by Librarian 6 in similar ink on the left of the Hebrew inscription: Peirusch misli im habiur\ haaruch haiaphah gam al sephaer\ Iiob merabenu Imanu el. Underneath by Librarian 3: Rabi Emanuelis filij Jacob commentaria\ super proverb Salomonis\ Item Emanuelis filij Salomonis\ in Cantica Canticorum.\ Item Rabi Meir de Armaa comentaria\ in Job. Inside front wooden board, on the exlibris in plummet: Contents of the manuscript in German. Exlibris and stamps: Inside front wooden board: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x 155 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972:B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (175 x 135 mm) of 1618, before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f). On the first flyleaf of the front cover recto, and fol. 462v there is a 20th-century oval stamp of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek: BIBLIOTHECA\ REGIA\ MONACENSIS. Old signatures: Front cover, right lower part in black ink: I. n. 62. (Duke's library, Prommer's signature). Back cover, middle of upper part in black ink: St. 8 n0. 16 (signature of Fugger's library). Front flyleaf, right upper corner: MS. Hebr. 21. Spine, in black and brown ink on stickers: 6? and Cod.hebr. 25 (current signature). Back pastedown, in black ink on sticker: Cod.hebr. 25 (current signature).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Eschwege 1908 י"ד אשוגה, פירוש ר' עמנואל בן שלמה על שיר השירים: נדפס פעם ראשונה על פי כתב יד מינכען, פראנקפורט על נהר מיין תרס"ח (I. D. Eschwege, Commentary on Canticles by Immanuel ben Solomon: Printed for the First Time according to the Munich Manuscript, Frankfurt a. M. 1908). Harlfinger 1974-80 D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin 1974-1980. Hobson 1999 A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings, Cambridge 1999. Sirat and Dukan, unpublished C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux"sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895.
Ilona Steimann | 2008, 2014
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008, 2014; 2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 05-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.
The following information on this monument will be completed:
Unknown |