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Obj. ID: 20928
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Fugger's Venetian Philosophical Miscellany, Venice, 1551

© BSB, Photographer: Unknown,

21 image(s)

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Fugger's Venetian Philosophical Miscellany | Unknown
Object Detail
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Historical Origin
Community type
Unknown |
Unknown |
Period Detail
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 26 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 26)
Paper, 1 + 480 + 1 leaves
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (349-351) x (241-242) mm.
Text space: Scribe 17: (238-239) x (131-132) mm.
Ezra of Fano: (242-252) x 145 mm.
Scribe 18: (235-236) x (136-141) mm.
Meir and Yishai: (236-240) x (133-135) mm.
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Well preserved. Apparently the manuscript was not used.
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Type of grave
1. Akeidat Itzhak (עקידת יצחק; The binding of Isaac), "Portals" 54-88, by Isaac ben Moses Arama (fols. 1-213v): begins השער הנ"ד. ויאמר משה אל ה' ראה אתה אלי. 1st ed. Salonika 1522. 2. Anonymous Commentary on the Pentateuch (פירוש התורה) by Solomon ben Aderet's circle (fols. 214-317): begins תורת יי' תמימה ראש וכתר לכל הכתרים פתרון הכשר חבריה (Idel 1989:9-21). 3. Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Topics (באור אמצעי לספר הנצוח) by Averroes (fols. 318-402v), translated by Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, with the commentary of Levi ben Gershom at the first part of the treatise: begins אמר כוונת זה הספר ידיעת הסידורים והדברים הכוללים אשר מהם תחובר מלאכת הנצוח (Steinschneider 1893:62; Sirat 2008:18). Other copies in Munich: Cod.hebr. 106 (fols. 176-245v) and Cod.hebr. 284 (fols. 1-90v), both belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter. 4. Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Sophistic Elenchi (באור אמצעי לספר ההטעאה) by Averroes (fols. 403-434v), translated by Kalonymus ben Kalonymus: beginsביאור סופסוטיקי והוא ספר ההטעאה לאריסטוטלוס אמר הכוונה בזה הספר היא המאמר בדחיות ההטעאיות (Steinschneider 1893:62). Another copy in Munich: Cod.hebr. 106 (fols. 246v-273v), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter. 5. Topics (אומנות הנצוח) by Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (fols. 434v-442): beginsספר אומנות הנצוח אתחיל בשם בורא כל ובעזרו תמיד או"חיל. אומנות הנצוח הוא האומנות אשר בה יושב לאדם הכח (Steinschneider 1893:47-48). Other copies in Munich: Cod.hebr. 106 (fols. 223v-227v), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter; and Cod.hebr. 244 (fols. 222-227). 6. Sophistic Elenchi (ספר ההטעאה) by Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (fols. 442v-457): beginsספר הספסטניא לאבונצר האלפרבי והוא שער המקומות אשר בהם ישעה המעיין בכל מה שהוא דורש לגעת אותו (Steinschneider 1893:48; Grignaschi 2000:24). Other copies in Munich: Cod.hebr. 106 (fols. 219-223v), belonged to Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter; and Cod.hebr. 244 (fols. 213-221v). 7. Zekhut Adam (זכות אדם; The first Sin of Man) by David Roquemartine (fols. 458-478), a philosophical- polemical treatise: beginsספר זכות אדם. יען כי בספר היצירה השניה אשר להוים הראשונים יגידו (published in Sachs 1866).
Scribe 17* (Scribe A**): fols. 1-213v in dark and light brown ink. Ezra of Fano (Scribe B): fols. 214-317 in dark and light brown ink. Scribe 18 (Scribe C): fols. 319-350v in black ink. Meir (Scribe D): fols. 318, 351-368v (lines 1-13: ומקום), 370v-383v, 384v-398v, 406-411, 412v-430v, 432-438v, 441v-457 in brown ink and purple. Yishai ben Yehiel (Scribe E): fols. 368v (lines 13: ומקום ... -30) -370, 384, 399-405v, 412, 431-431v, 439-441, 458-478 in dark brown ink, red and green. * Running numbers (Scribe 1, 2, etc.) denote anonymous main scribes and interpolators throughout the entire group of Fugger’s Venetian manuscripts (see Appendix II in Introduction). Scribes identified by name are not numbered. ** The letters A, B, etc. denote the order of copying by the main scribes and interpolators in this manuscript.
The main text is written in semi cursive-Italian (Scribes 17 and Ezra), quasi-Sephardi (Scribe 18) and Ashkenazi (Meir and Yishai) script.
Number of Lines
The text is written in 30 lines per page in one column.
Ruling by stylus: 30 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines (e.g. fol. 200).
56 quires of 10 and 8 leaves each, except for XXII6, XXXVI10-1, LIII4, LIV6, LV10-1. Quire composition: I10 (1-10); II10 (11-20); III10 (21-30); IV10 (31-40); V10 (41-50); VI10 (51-60); VII10 (61-70); VIII10 (71-80); IX10 (81-90); X10 (91-100); XI10 (101-110); XII10 (111-120); XIII10 (121-130); XIV10 (131-140); XV10 (141-150); XVI10 (151-160); XVII10 (161-170); XVIII10 (171-180); XIX10 (181-190); XX10 (191-200); XXI8 (201-208); XXII6 (209-213a); XXIII8 (214-221); XXIV8 (222-229); XXV8 (230-237); XXVI8 (238-245); XXVII8 (246-253); XXVIII8 (254-261); XXIX8 (262-269); XXX8 (270-277); XXXI8 (278-285); XXXII8 (286-293); XXXIII8 (294-301); XXXIV8 (302-309); XXXV8 (310-317); XXXVI10-1 (318-326); XXXVII8 (327-334); XXXVIII8 (335-342); XXXIX8 (343-350); XL8 (351-358); XLI8 (359-366); XLII8 (367-374); XLIII8 (375-382); XLIV8 (383-390); XLV8 (391-398); XLVI8 (399-406); XLVII8 (407-414); XLVIII8 (415-422); XLIX8 (423-430); L8 (431-438); LI8 (439-446); LII8 (447-454); LIII4 (455-457a); LIV6 (459-464); LV10-1 (465-473); LVI8 (474-481).
Catchwords for leaves are written horizontally at the left below the text in semi-cursive script; they are surmounted by a V (Meir and Yishai) or two dots (Ezra).
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Fols. 213a, 213a verso, 317v, 318v, 457v, 457a-457a verso, 458v (numbered 456 by mistake), 478v, 479-479v, 480-480v, 481-481v.
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Fol. 478: תם ונשלם בעזרת/ יוצר עולם. אמן סלה. היום יו’ ל"ו בספירה/ שי"א לפ"ק (It was completed with the help of the Creator, amen sela. Today is 36 to the Counting of the Omer, 5311 [27.04.1551]).
Scribal Notes
Fol. 365v: A crown above the name of the scribe Meir. Fol. 468v: A crown above the name of the scribe Abraham is topped with a crown. Yishai, the scribe of this section, added crowns above the names of other biblical characters in various manuscripts he copied, for example Moshe in Cod.hebr. 7 (fol. 7v). Fol. 457: תמו ספרי אבונצר אלפוראבי המועתקים אצלינו במלאכת הדבר תהלה/ לאל חי אמן (Completed are the works of Abu Nasr al-Farabi which are copied by us, who are skilful in copying, praise to the living God, amen).
Watermarks: A trefoil flower between 'P' and '3' in the outer corner of the folio (32 mm; on many leaves): similar to Harlfinger 1974-80, Lettres 75 (Venice, 1548, 1550).
Trade Mark

Dark green leather on wooden boards (350 x236 mm), gold-tooled with a central roundel on the front and a shield on the back cover within an undulating lozenge in a large rectangle, decorated with floral motifs at the centre of each side and at the corners. The front roundel is inscribed פירושים, below are the letters IIII (+I). The spine, blind-tooled with hatching, has four hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the edges of the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands, two on the side and one each on the upper and lower edges, with corresponding holes for four nails on the edges of the back cover (for preserved bands see Cod.hebr. 301). Each group of three bands terminated in a ring intended to hook over the nails in the opposite cover. The leaves are gilt-edged.


This binding was made for Fugger by the 'Fugger Binder' inVenice(Hobson 1999:119-129). Similar bindings in BSB: e.g. Cod.hebr. 7, 8, 31, 35, 44, 45, 50, 56, 57,60, A.hebr. 278 and Cod.gr. 14.


Watermarks on flyleaves: None.

Decoration Program
  1. Decorative title page by Meir depicting a gate (fol. 318).
  2. Human profiles, birds and scrolls in violet ink by Meir in the outer margins, next to initial words (fols. 399, 399v, 400, 400v, 402, 402v, 403, 404, 423v, 424, 424v, 425, 425v, 426, 426v, 427, 428, 428v, 429).
Summary and Remarks

Scribe 17 appears in BSB Cod.hebr. 8, 39, 51, 42, 46, 60, 65; Ezra of Fano in BSB Cod.hebr. 8, 9, 31, 35, 56, 57; Scribe18 inthis manuscript only; Meir in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 8, 11, 15, 23, 27, 29, 31, 39, 44, 47, 49, 50, 54, 56, 58, 59; and Yishai ben Yehiel in BSB Cod.hebr. 7, 10, 19, 28, 30, 31, 33, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, 52, 56, 58, 62, 64, 68. 

Suggested Reconsdivuction
Owners' inscriptions: None. Inscriptions of librarians and researchers: The numbers given to the texts by Fugger’s librarians do not always correspond to the actual numbers of texts in the manuscript; however this case is not the case here. N0 1: fols. 1-213v; N0 2: fols. 214-317; N0 3: fols. 318-402v; N0 4: fols. 403-434v; N0 5: fols. 434v-442; N0 6: fols. 442v-457r; N0 7: fols. 458r-478r. Front cover flyleaf, verso: Contents in Hebrew in brown ink by Librarian 1a: שערי אורה על התורה/ ספר תורת יי' תמימה ופירושו על/ חומשי תורה, ספר ניצוח/ ספר ההטעה, ספר זכות אדם/ הראשון. Below on the left by Librarian 3: Schaere Ora al hatora.\ Sephaer thoras hadonai\ temima. Vperuscho al\ humschi thora:\ Sephaer Mizua\ Sephaer hahathaa\ Sephaer sechus Adam\ harischin. On the right: Commentarius in Pentateuchu'\ Schaare Ora al hatora dictus. i.\ Porta Lucis\ Sephaer Mitzuha. i. Elenchorum\ Sophisticorum. Aristotelicus. Back pastedown, in plummet on the exlibris: contents of the manuscript in German. Exlibris and stamps: Front cover pastedown: an exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x 155 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I of 1638 (Dressler 1972: B3ab), stuck over his earlier exlibris (175 x 135 mm) of 1618, before he became Elector in 1623 (Dressler 1972:A3a-f). On fol. 1v there is a 20th-century oval stamp of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek: BIBLIOTHECA\ REGIA\ MONACENSIS. Old signatures: Back cover, upper part in black ink: Stat. 8 n0 5 (second signature of the Fugger library). Front cover, lower part in black ink: 2 n0 48 (Duke's library, Prommer's signature). Front cover flyleaf, verso, upper right corner: MS. Hebr. 22. Front cover flyleaf, recto, upper left corner: n0 19. Front cover flyleaf, verso, lower part in red ink: 2. 48 (Duke's library, Prommer's revision of 1583). Stickers on the spine and back pastedown: Cod.hebr. 26 (current signature).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Dressler 1972 F. Dressler, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972. Grignaschi 2000 M. Grignaschi, "Renseignements concernant les éditions et les travaux en cours", Bulletin de philosophie médiévale, 42 (2000):19-49. Harlfinger 1974-80 D. Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften, Berlin 1974-1980. Hobson 1999 A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, their Books and Bindings, Cambridge 1999. Idel 1989 מ' אידל, "פירוש אנונימי לתורה מחוג הרשב"א", מיכאל יא (תשמ"ט):9-21 (M. Idel, "Anonymous Translation of the Torah from the Circle of Rashba", Michael 11 (1989):9-21). Sachs 1866 S. Sachs, יין הלבנון, Paris 1866. Sirat 2008 C. Sirat, "Droit et logique: Gersonide et les Juristes chrétiens", Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age, 75 (2008):7-41. Sirat and Dukan, unpublished C. Sirat and M. Dukan, Etude des manuscrits hébreux"sehr inkorrekt" conservés dans la Bibliothèque de Munich (Institut des Recherche et d'histoire des Textes, CNRS, Paris), unpublished. Steinschneider 1893 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin 1893. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895.
Short Name
Full Name
Ilona Steimann | 2008, 2015
Author of description
Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008, 2015; 2015
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconsdivuction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 05-2016; 2008-2015
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2015
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.