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Obj. ID: 20175
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Yiddish Pentateuch, Southern Germany, 1530-1540

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

17 image(s)

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Name/Title
Yiddish Pentateuch | Unknown
Object Detail
Date
1530-1540
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Unknown |
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 152 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 152)
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Paper, 1 + 153 + 1 leaves.
Watermarks: In some leaves (e.g. fols. 2, 93, 153): an anchor within a circle topped by a six-pointed star (height 52 mm). Similar to North Italian, 1527-9 (Picard No. 111, Bassano 1527, and No. V 225, Gemona del Friuli, 1529). In other leaves the initials I and A (e.g. fol. 112; 22 mm).
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Full page: (317-319) x (215-221) mm.
Text space: (202-216) x (125-138) mm.
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Brown liquid stains on text (fols. 112-115), elsewhere in the gutter and upper and lower margins.
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Yiddish Pentateuch: Genesis (fols. 2-39v); Exodus (40-69); Leviticus (fols. 70-92v); Numbers (fols. 94-122v); Deuteronomy (123-152v) – divided into parashot (pericopes).
Codicology
Scribes
The text is written by two scribes: Scribe A: fols. 2-26v, 94-101v, 119-120, in greenish-brown ink in small neat semi-cursive script. He also wrote the beginnings of parashot in Hebrew in decorated display script. Scribe B (Joseph, fol. 30v): fols. 27-92v, 102-118v, 120v-152v, in brown ink in larger semi-cursive script. He also wrote the beginnings of parashot in Hebrew, in built-up ink letters. Most running titles of parashot in Hebrew are by Scribe B.
Script
Both scribes in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in greenish-brown and brown ink.
Number of Lines
The main text is written in 30-40 lines per page in one column by both scribes.
Ruling
The ruling is mostly not visible. However, some ruling in brown plummet for the frame only is noticeable in the sections copied by Scribe A (e.g. fols. 21v-23v, 98v, 99v, 100v-101v).
Pricking
None
Quires
21 quires of 8 leaves each, except for I1+8 (first, single, folio is blank); IX4, X6, XI10, XIX4. Quires: I1+8 (1-9: first, single, folio is blank), II8 (10-17), III8 (18-25), IV8 (26-33), V8 (34-41), VI8 (42-49), VII8 (50-57), VIII8 (58-65), IX4 (66-69), X8 (70-77), XI6 (78-83), XII10 (84-93), XIII8 (94-101), XIV8 (102-109), XV8 (110-117), XVI8 (118-125), XVII8 (126-133), XVIII8 (134-141), XVIXI8 (142-149), XX4 (150-153).
Catchwords
Mostly catchwords for leaves in semi-cursive script in the lower left margins. The catchwords, sometime up to three words, do not always correspond to the first words of the next page, but to subsequent ones.
Hebrew Numeration
None
Blank Leaves
Fols. 69v, 93-93v, 153.
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Fol. 30v: the catchword Joseph (יוסף) is marked by an elaborate crown by Scribe B.
Scribal Notes
• Scribes A (e.g. fols. 6, 7) and B (e.g. fol. 39v) added in the margins text they missed while copying. Scribe B corrects Scribe A; he also adds missing text and annotates his own (fol. 47v). On fol. 30v he added a crown above the catchword Joseph, thus divulging his name. • Annotations by several hands in Yiddish (e.g. fol. 33 outer margin) in German (fol. 32 in red and brown ink, two different hands).
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding

16th-century brown leather glued on cardboard, decorated with blind-tooled frames and running floral motifs, much effaced. Four double cords, modern cloth spine and no head and tail bands.  

Watermark: Anchor, North Italian 1527-9; initials I and A; similar to those of the manuscript leaves. 

Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
1. In red ink in German: running titles noting the first to fifth books of Moses, as well as the chapter numbers. 2. By another hand in red ink (fol. 55v): in the margins in Yiddish, text omitted by Scribe B (Ex. 22:4 ff). 3. In red ink (fol. 54v), in the margin in Latin and Hebrew, a comment on the translation (Ex. 21:6): Hic tex. habet עֹלָם Quod Spatium usque ad Iubileum sonat. The word עֹלָם was translated יוֹבֶל in Yiddish and the note comments on it. 4. On fol. 1: 1885 von Herrn B. Strassburg[er?]/ Lehrer in Buchau am Federsee/ (in Würtemberg) erworben. Fol. 2, lower margin: Cod. hebr. Monac. 428 152. 5. The manuscript entered the BSB in 1885.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Adam 1544 A. Adam, Pentateuchübersetzungen, Haftarot und Megilot (printed by Paulus Fagius), Constance 1544. Aemilius 1544 P. Aemilius, Yiddish Pentateuch, Augsburg 1544. Bechtoldt 2005 H.-J. Berchtoldt, Jüdische deutsche Bibelübersetzungen von ausgehenden 18. bis zum Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart 2005, pp. 15-18. Encyclopaedia Judaica 1972 Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jerusalem 1972, Vol. 4, cl. 866-7. Leibowitz 1931 N. Leibowitz, "Die Übersetzungstechnik der jüdisch-deutschen Bibelübersetzungen des XV. und XVI. Jahrhuderts, dargestellt an den Psalmen [Diss. Marburg]", in: Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, Vol. 55 (1931), pp. 377-463. Röll 1996 W. Röll, "Die Bibelübersetzung ins Jiddische im 14. und 15. Jahrhudert", in: Die Vermittlung geistlicher Inhalte im deutschen Mittelalter, T. R. Jackson et. al. (ed.) Tübingen 1996, pp. 183-195. Shmeruk 1986 Ch. Shmeruk, The Illustrations in Yiddish Books of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: The Texts, the Pictures and their Audience, Jerusalem 1986. Staerk and Leitzmann 19772 W. Staerk and A. Leitzmann, 1923, Die Jüdisch-Deutschen Bibelübersetzungen von den Anfängen bis zum Ausgang des 18. Jahrhunderts, Frankfurt a.M., Hildesheim 19772. Steinschneider 1864 M. Steinschneider, Serapeum 1864, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 89-90. Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895, No. 152. Timm 1987/88 E. Timm, "Die Bibelübersetzungssprache als Faktor der Auseinanderentwicklung des jiddischen und des deutschen Wortschatzes", in: Deutsche Bibelübersetzungen des Mittlelalters. Beiträge eines Kolloquiums im Deutschen Bibel-Archiv (Vestigiae Bibliae, Jahrbuch des Deutschen Bibel-Archivs Hamburg 9/10), Hamburg 1987/8 (1991), pp. 59-75. Timm 1993 E. Timm, "Formen der Bibelvermittlung im älteren Jiddisch", in: Bible in jüdischer und christlicher Tradition. Festschrift für J. Maier zum 60 Geburtstag, H. Merklein, K. Müller, G. Stemberger (ed.), (Athenäum Morongrafien Vol. 88), Frankfurt a.M. 1993, pp. 299-324.
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2008
Author of description
Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 2011-2012
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconstruction
|
Section Head
Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin | 04-2016; 2008-2012
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2012
Donor
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen |
Negative/Photo. No.