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Obj. ID: 1236
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Vienna New Year Mahzor, Upper Rhein, 1344-47

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

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Vienna New Year Mahzor | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Historical Origin
Community type
Period Detail
Documentation / Research project
Material: Vellum. I + 379 (fols. 1-40, 101-102 are later additions)+ I leaves. The original parchment is very thin and it is hard to distinguish between the flesh and hair sides. The parchment of the later additions is thicker and the differences between the two sides are clearly discernible.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Construction material
Full page: (225-228) x (149-151) mm
Text space: (113-115) x (78-79) mm
Width of each text column of the Torah Readings (fols. 100-107, 284-291v): 34 mm
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Good. Fols. 2v (the first text leaf) and 41 (the original first leaf) are spotted and the upper edges of fol. 41 are torn. In a few pages the ink has corroded the parchment, e.g. fols. 9v, 126-129 (fols. 128-129 the serious corrosion was stopped by the restoration of the parchment). Fol. 341:
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Type of grave
Mahzor of Ashkenazi Rite for the New Year. All punctuated, the Torah readings (fols. 100-107, 284-291v) are also vocalized. First day of New Year (fols. 2v-203): • Morning Service: (fols. 2v-98): Morning prayers (fols. 2v-43), Yozer "Melekh Azur Gevurah" מלך אזור גבורה (Davidson, III, מ, 1529) (fols. 44-48, text is missing between the strophes ד' to ל', copied in the outer margin on fol. 45); the reading of the Shema (fols. 48-61); Amidah (fols. 61-98; piyyut "A'afid Nezer Ayom" אאפיד נזר איום [Davidson, I, א, 25], copied in smaller script in the upper and lower margins of fols. 78v-79). • Torah reading (fols. 98-107) • Shofar blowing (fols. 107v-108) • Musaf (fols. 108v-203); most part of piyyut"Melekh Elion El Dar Bamarom" מלך עליון אל דר במרום (Davidson, III, מ, 1653) is missing and copied in the margin on fols. 134v-135; part of piyyut "Ve'atah Azon Kol Mefa'arekha" ואתה אזון קול מפאריך (Davidson, ו', 81) is missing and copied in the margins on fol. 144v; and of piyylut "Tehillot Kevodekha" תהלות כבודך (Davidson, ת', 126). Second day of New Year (fols. 204-379v): • Morning Service: (fols. 204-284v; fol. 204 begins in the middle of the Kaddish: text before is missing, see: quires): the Reading of Shema (fols. 204v-223); Amidah (fols. 223-284) • Torah reading (fols. 284v-291v) • Musaf (fols. 292-379v): end incomplete (missing end of Kaddish, and probably other text).odicology

Material:  Vellum. I + 379 (fols. 1-40, 101-102 are later additions)+ I leaves. The original parchment is very thin and it is hard to distinguish between the flesh and hair sides. The parchment of the later additions is thicker and the differences between the two sides are clearly discernible.



Full page: (225-228) x (149-151) mm

text space: (113-115) x (78-79) mm

Width of each text column of the Torah Readings (fols. 100-107, 284-291v): 34 mm



Scribe A

  Original part

fols. 41-100, 103-379v

Scribe B

Additions of missing parts

fols. 1-40v, 101-102v

Hand 1  

Additions of missing piyyutim in the margins (see: Content)

fols. 45, 78v-79, 134v-135, 144v



Scribe A: Square Ashkenazi script of various sizes in dark brown ink; red rubrication for repeated words in some piyyutim (e.g. fols. 259-262) and for emphasized words within the prayers, especially for the additions to be read on Shabbat (e.g. fols. 68, 69, 73, 76, 88, 90v-91, 92, 93, 94v, 111v, 112v, 113, 115, 116v, 119v, 153, 154, 155, 166v, 229, 231, 235, 238, 358v, 359).

Scribe B: square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink of different tonality than that used by Scribe A.

Hand 1: Additional piyyutim and prayers in the margins in small square script in light brown ink (e.g. fols. 78v-79, 134v-135) and in semi-cursive script in two different light brown inks (e.g. fols. 45, 144v).


Number of lines

Main text

12 lines per page in one column. Usually the first and last lines are longer and written in larger script.

  Torah readings (fols. 100-107, 284-291v)

 14 lines per column in two columns




Scribe A:

Ruling by plummet on both sides of the page, 13 horizontal and 2+2+2 vertical lines. Additional 1 + 1 vertical ruling along with the text space only for the arrangement of the main text included between the first and the last lines (e.g. fols. 43, 62). The two first and two last horizontal lines, as well as the 6th and 7th ones, are usually ruled across the full width of the page (e.g. fols. 212-213v, 218v-222). The Torah reading pages (fols. 100-107and 286-291) are ruled differently, with 3 + 15 + 4 horizontal lines and 2+2+2+2 vertical lines. The 3 and 4 horizontal lines in the margins were intended for the Masorah Magna, which was never written.

Scribe B:

Ruling by plummet on both sides of the page, 13 horizontal and 2+2+2 vertical lines. The 1st, the 7th, and the 13th lines are ruled across the full width of the page, e.g. fols. 26-30v.



Pricking by quire on the recto is discernible in the upper, lower and inner margins, corresponding to the ruled lines (e.g. fols. 296-305) for scribes A's quires. The 2nd, the 7th and 12th lines are double pricked with two pricks side by side to indicate the full-width lines.

Pricking by Scribe B is not discernable at all (fols. 1-40, 101-102).



Scribe A: 30 quires of 12 leaves each in the original part, except for VI12-3 (fols. 41-49v; fol. 49 is a widow, stub visible between fols. 40v-41, but no text is missing, while the original central bifolio between fols. 44v-45 is missing, which included the text copied in the margins on fol. 45), IX12-2 (fols.74-83v, lost the middle bifolium between fols. 78v-79, missing text copied there in the margins), XII12-2 (fols. 108-117v – missing central bifolium between fols. 112v-113, text was not recopied), XIV12-2 (fols. 130-139v, lost the middle bifolium between fols. 134v-135, missing text copied there in the margins), XV12-2 (fols. 140-149v, lost middle bifolium between fols. 144v-145, missing text copied in the margins on fol. 144v), XVI14 (fols. 150-163v), XX4 (fols. 200-203v), XXI10-2 (fols. 204-211v; two folios between fols. 203v-204 have been cut out, as clearly indicated by the two cut remains, as well as a cut in the parchment on fol. 203. The cut folios contained part of prayer preceding the Yozer. The stub of the first cut out page carries tiny traces of red ink, while the second stub has visible traces of the first horizontal line ruled by plummet, indicating that they were originally part of the manuscript and one had decoration), XXVII10 (fols. 272-281v, no text is missing), XXXIII14 (fols. 342-355v).

At the end of the manuscript, one quire and text is missing.

Scribe B: 5 quires of 8 leaves each (quires I-V8). (Bifolio 101-102 is the central one of quire XI which consists of 12 leaves.)



Scribe A: 26 vertical or horizontal catchwords for the quires, written in the lower left-hand corners of the last versos. The presence of the catchword on the last verso of the manuscript indicates that at least one quire is missing.

Scribe B: None.


Hebrew numeration



Blank leaves

Fols. 1, 1v, 2, 203v.


Number of Lines
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Façade (main)
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
None (see Remarks)
Scribal Notes
Fol. 222v: The scribe emphasized the name Moshe (משה) with red and dark brown dots forming a crown above the name. Believed by Schwartz to be the patron (see: Remarks.). Fol. 41: In the lower margin a graphic sign shaped as a letter "shin" (ש) is written in cursive brown ink (the same is found also in the Moskowitz Mahzor, JNUL, Hebr. 8º 5214, vol. I, fol. 3v). Hebrew instructions for the prayer within the text in smaller square script (e.g. fols. 98), in square script (e.g. fol. 99v, 107), or in semi-cursive script of "Gothic" type (e.g. fol. 203).
Trade Mark
Decoration Program


The decoration was made in two stages after the writing of the text. The first stage is the main one, and includes the decoration of the quires written by Scribe A (fols. 41-379). The second stage consists of only one miniature (fol. 2v), decorating the first page copied by Scribe B, and was clearly made by a different artist in a different style. On fol. 35v space was left for another initial word (ויושע) but was never completed: a different hand later added this missing word.


Stage A:

  1. Many pen-work initial words panels: of various sizes at the openings of the main passages of the prayer:

 I. Two large rectangular initial word panels, occupying almost the whole text space, opening the Yozer for the Morning Service for the first and second days (fols. 44, 205). II. Many horizontal initial word panels of two, three or four lines height, occupying the width of the text space, opening many prayers and piyyutim (e.g. fols. 41, 42v, 43, 61v, 93v, 125v, 135v, 138v, 141), sometimes fused to vertical panels in the right side for the initial letters of each verse (e.g. fol. 362, see type III below). One of these panels is trapezoid-shaped (fol. 204), and one is a larger one occupying five text lines (fol. 69v). III. Vertical panels along the right side of the text for the initial letters of each strophe of the piyyutim, as rectangular continuous panels (e.g. fols. 44v-47v, 77v-78v, 131v-134v, 146v, 205v-212, 214-216, 362) or as a vertical sequence of diamonds for the two first letters of the second verse of each strophe and small square panels for the initials of each first verse arranged in the same column (e.g. fols. 147-149v, see: fol. 148). IV. Many smaller horizontal panels in the right part of the text, within the text space, enclosing opening words for new passages in the prayer (e.g. fols. 61v, 62, 66v, 67, 67v, 68, 71, 71v, 73v, 78v, 89, 89v-92v, 93v, 95, 97-98, 103-103v, 107v-111v, 114, 117v, 121,122-124, 126v-127, 128v-129, 130v-131, 137, 139, 140v, 142, 143-143v, 145-145v, 216v, 217, 218v, 220v, 221, 223, 223v), sometimes fused together to form a larger panel (e.g. fols. 78v, 107v).

Most of the panels are filled with red, blue, green and magenta (To check from the priginal!)  pen-work filigree of delicate spiral scrolls, sometimes encircling palmettos, and sometimes divided in sections of different shapes (diagonal panels, triangles, diamonds) or colours. Types I-III are mostly interspersed with medallions encircling dragons (e.g. fols. 43, 44, 125v, 134v, 135v, 147, 148), two-legged hybrids (e.g. fols. 41, 43, 44, 44v, 45, 46, 47v, 61v, 74, 77-78v, 82, 94, 100, 109, 125v, 131v, 134v, 135v, 148, 204-204v, 205-211v), human faces (e.g. fols. 42v, 45v, 52, 54, 131), grotesques (e.g. fols. 52, 76v, 131, 211v), animals faces such as dogs (e.g. fols. 45v, 53, 54, 131, 215v), birds (e.g. fols. 46, 46v, 72, 100, 133v, 211v), eagles (e.g. fols. 42v, 215v), lambs (e.g. fols. 45v, 52), oxes (e.g. fols. 76v), cocks (e.g. fols. 53), one full dog (fol. 47), one full eagle with spread wings (fol. 135), one full lion (fol. 124v), lion mask motif (e.g. fols. 53, 54, 131, 135, 205, 211v), floral and foliate motifs (e.g. fols. 41v, 43, 43v, 46, 52, 61v, 64v, 72, 109, 128, 132, 134, 216), among them fleur de lys (e.g. fols. 206v-207) executed in spared-ground technique on a blue, red and green ground. The highlights of these images are sometimes emphasized in light brown, green or yellow colours (e.g. fols. 125v, 131v, 135v). All the types are mostly framed by a blue, red or green border, and sometimes surrounded by a continuous bow-shaped motif in alternating green, blue or red, (e.g. fol. 64), stylized trees and fringe-like motifs. Flourish motifs extend from the panels along either one or both sides of the text column, mostly stemming into the upper and lower margins. Colourful birds are perched or flying on the tendrils in the margins of some of types I-II (fols. 41, 43, 44).

  1. Three marginal drawings: one grotesque human head in red ink: illustrating the word "Man" (אדם) (fol. 137), one depiction of a  quadruped, illustrating the marginal note "Goats" (ושערים)(fol. 155), and a hybrid in brown ink on fol. 271v.
  2. Graphic signs  and emphasis of letters: by the scribe (see also Script), I. emphasizing lines, words and letters in red ink: criss-crosses (e.g. fols. 107, 249, 251, 284); a red circle above each letter (e.g. fols. 76, 81v, 99v, 135v, 168, 180, 196v-198, 243, 245, 250, 252v-255), vertical scrolls (e.g. fols. 216, 157, 158, 241-241v, 255v-256v, 257v, 311), three or four oblong dots (e.g. fols. 151-152, 233v, 234), flourishes (e.g. fols. 79, 107v, 252v-253).  Also in the additions, for the added piyyutim in the margins on fols. 134v-135, 144v. II. Emphasis of words and initials of alphabetic piyyutim or of the name of the payyitan, written in larger script than the main text, rubricated (e.g. fols. 231v-233v) or in dark brown ink (e.g. fol. 125v); of the initials signaling the rhythm and the number of sounds to be blown on the shofar (fol. 372v). III. “S”-shaped signs at the ending of the rows, rubricated by the scribe, e.g. fols. 66, 107v, 147-149, 230, 231v-233v, 244v-245. IV. Decoration of descenders and ascenders of the letters final "nun" ן (e.g. fols. 99v, 199v, 230v), final "khaf" ך (fols. 81v), "lamed" ל (fol. 257v: a bird’s head), and "kuf"  ק (e.g. fol. 250v).
  3. D.      Two decorated catchwords: with a bull's head (fol. 235v) and small circles (e.g. fols. 223v, 271v).
  4. Emphasis of name: Moshe (fol. 222v).
  5. Shaped texts: at the end of sections (e.g. fols. 43v, 68v, 125, 157v, 204v, 210, 230v); the text space is mainly structured with the first and the last line longer than the rest of the lines between them.


Stage B:

One painted initial word panel: the display letters are filled with hunting scenes in spared ground technique (fol. 2v) on a powdered gold ground, now faded.


Summary and Remarks

The Vienna New Year Mahzor is the first part of a two volume mahzor of the Western Ashkenazi rite. The second part, which includes Day of Atonement prayers, is now housed in Jerusalem and is known as the Moskowitz Rhein Mahzor (Jerusalem, JNUL, Heb. 8° 5214, in 3 vols. see: documentation in Index of Jewish Art, Ms.1995.43). Both parts are identical in size, script and decoration program and it seems that they were originally divided into at least two volumes, since they together comprise about 1020 folios. Both parts do not include a colophon, but the original scribe (Scribe A) emphasized the name Moshe(משה)  in both of them (Vienna, fol. 222v, the name "Moshe" emphasized with red and black dots above the name; Jerusalem, vol. I, fol. 72, a dotted scroll extending from the letter "mem" מ'). Schwartz thinks (no. 91) this is the patron’s name (although he does not explain his assumption), however it may well be the scribe’s name since in the majority of manuscripts the scribe’s name is emphasized (M. Beit-Arié, "How Scribes Disclosed their Names by Means of their Copied Text", in Me'ah She'arim: Studies in Medieval Jewish Spiritual Life in Memory of Isadore Twersky. ed. Ezra Fleischer, Gerald Blidstein, Carmi Horowitz, Bernard Septimus, The Hebrew University Magnes Press, Jerusalem 2001, p. 119. [in Hebrew]).

Sed-Rajna (Sed-Rajna, G., "Filigree Ornaments," 1986/87) claims that the scribe of this mahzor might be the same as of the Cambridge Hagiographa, signed by the scribe Hayyim in 1347 (England, Cambridge, University Library, Ms Ee 5.9) and that of the Vienna SeMaG  Strasbourg, 1344, (Austria, Vienna, ÖBN, Cod. Hebr. 34/I-II see Cat. …..). However, paleographic examination indicates that the script of these three manuscripts is not rendered by the same hand; we can only concur with Sed-Rajna's assumption that this manuscript might have been produced in the same workshop as the Vienna SeMaG and the Cambridge Hagiographa,  but was copied by a different scribe, that we believe to be Moshe.

Besides the original scribe, Moshe (Scribe A), another scribe (Scribe B) at the end of the 14th century or at the first half of the 15th century, copied the first five quires of the manuscript, which includes the Preliminary Morning Prayers (fols. 2v-40v) and part of the Reading of the Torah for the first day (fol. 101-102). The same Scribe B copied many entire quires which also complete missing text in the second part of the mahzor, located in Jerusalem. Even though this second scribe kept some of the codicological features of Scribe A (ruling by plummet on both sides, same number of lines and same text space), his quires count 8 leaves, he used a different, thicker parchment than Scribe A, and his pricking is not discernable at all (in the Jerusalem mahzor it is discernable in very few leaves, see: vol. II fols. 260, 271, 328). Moreover, quires by Scribe B present no decoration at all, besides one painted initial word panel (see below). Scribe B did not interfere with text copied by Scribe A.

Uncompleted or missing piyyutim on fols. 45, 78v-79, 134v-135, 144v were completed or copied  later by another hand (Hand 1) in smaller square and in semi-cursive (of "Gothic" type) script in the outer margins. It is interesting to note that the added texts are all in the margins of a central bifolium of  ten leaf quires. We assume that the missing text originally occupied 2 leaves in each quire, indicating that those quires originally included 12 leaves each, as do most of the quires of scribe A in this manuscript.  It seems that those bifolia were lost not long after the copying of the main text. We assume that those additions were done prior to the decoration of the whole manuscript because the flourishes which extend into the margins cover some letters of the added text (see fols. 78v and 134v).


The main decoration of the manuscipt is concentrated mainly in the first half of the original part of the manuscript, the part of prayer for the first day of New Year. It was executed in one stage apparently by one main artist. While the later stage of the manuscript which was copied by Scribe B was not decorated, in a later period one initial word panel was added on fol. 2v.

The decoration of the original part is mainly for initial word panels filled with filigree scrolls, interspersed with medallions encircling various motives such as human and animals' heads, hybrids, grotesques, floral and foliate motifs executed in spared-ground technique. Flourishes with tendrils extend from the panels, often framing the text and reaching the upper and lower margins, where flying and perched birds are sometimes located. It is interesting to note that the Jerusalempart of the mahzor is more elaborate in its decoration program, and it includes a larger and more sophisticated range of zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and vegetal motifs. Moreover it includes a splendid full-page Gothic façade with praying angels illustrating the prayer  (ברוך ..הפותח שערי רחמים)"Blessed is Thou…that opens the Gates of Mercy" recited in the Morning Service of the Day of Atonement (see: vol. I, fol. 83).

The filigree scrolls of the opening panel of the original manuscript (fol. 41) is somewhat of a schematized design and probably repainted later as a result of damage caused to the page. In fact, the style of this panel seems not to be the same as the other panels; the colours, composition and execution of the work are different. Similarly, the addition of the missing words "Melekh Elyon" in the outer margins of fol. 135, written by Hand 1, are decorated with red filigree scrolls, in a different tonality and a different style than that found in the other panels.


Stylistic similarity with our manuscript is to be found in the two manuscripts mentioned above, The Vienna SeMaG (Cat…..) and the Cambridge Hagiographa. As Sed-Rajna pointed out (Sed-Rajna, G., "Filigree Ornaments", 1986/87), these three manuscripts are related to the Latin Upper Rhine School of illumination of the first half of the 14th century. Ellen J. Beer, who identified this Latin School, proves that this style began at the end of the 13th century in north of France, and spread to the Upper Rhine, in the southwest of Germany until its decline at the first half of the 14th century (Beer, E. J., Öberrheinischen Buchmalerei, 1959). Out of the eight groups of this School that Beer identified, Sed- Rajna relates the three Hebrew manuscripts to the groups produced in Basel after 1330 (group 5) and Freiburg after 1340 (group 6). This assumption can be supported by the divorce formula in the The Vienna SeMaG (fol. 146v) with 1344 as date and Strasbourg as place and by the colophon in the Cambridge Hagiographa (fol. 555v) that mentions the year 1347 as the date of production of the manuscript by the scribe Hayyim. Thus we assume that the Vienna-Jerusalem mahzor was produced in theUpper Rhine between 1344 to 1347. 

Another manuscript to be attributed to theUpperRhineSchoolis Cod. Hebr. 71 (Cat…..), whose style of decoration is less accurate than the other manuscripts of the School, and was probably executed under the influence of another manuscript, held today in a Private Collection in France.


The later initial word panel decorating the first folio copied by Scribe B (Vienna, fol. 2v) is dated to the 15th century. The initial word is filled with zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and foliate motifs in spared ground technique typical of illuminated Ashkenazi manuscripts since around 1300. These kind of letters can also be found in many manuscripts written and illuminated by Joel ben Simeon, the Jewish scribe and artist who worked in Ashkenaz as well as in north-central Italy in the second half of the 15th century. For instance, the hooded human face in the letter "vav" (ו') in our manuscript should be compared to human faces in some initial letters of works of Joel ben Simeon such as in the First Nuremberg Haggadah, produced in Germany shortly before 1449 (Israel Museum,Jerusalem, previously in Jerusalem, Schocken Library, ms. 24086, fols. 8, 11v, 24), as well as in The First New York Joel ben Simeon Haggadah, produced in Germany, middle of the 15th century (New York, The Jewish Theological Seminary, ms. 4481, fol. 1v) and in The Second New York Joel ben Simeon Haggadah, Italy, 1454 (New York, The Jewish Theological Seminary, ms. 8279, fol. 54v). In addition, the tassels that decorate each corner of the panel in our manuscript should be compared with the panel on fol. 21 in the First Nuremberg Haggadah.

The manuscript reached Italyas indicated by the censor Domenico Gerosolomitano's erasures and signature (fol. 379v). Gerosolomitano was censor in Italyin the end of the 16th century and the first twenty years of the 17th century. It stayed in Italy for several centuries as indicated by an 18th-19th Italian inscription on the upper margin of fol. 43 below the hunting scene (“la benola,” meaning weasel) as well as by the Italian inscription on the front flyleaf. 

Suggested Reconsdivuction
Additions and corrections in the margins by different hands: Hand 1: (sometimes in square and sometimes in semi-cursive script) Fols. 78v-79, 134v-135 in the upper and lower margins, additions of missing text (see: content) in small square Ashkenazi script in light brown ink. To compare to addenda on fols. 85(?), 86v, 132v, 133, 143v, 245v, 246v, 247v, fol. 265v, 268 (where the hand indicates the addenda above the first text line), 268v and 272 (where a hand is drawn above the text where the addenda shall be inserted, indicating the outer margin). Fol. 45 (middle of quire VI), in the outer margin, addition of missing piyyut in (Gothic) semi-cursive script in faded brown ink; seems similar to the additions in the margins of fol. 144v. Fol. 144v (middle of quire XV), addition of missing piyyut in upper, outer and inner margins in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script. A few rubricated alphabetic initials, emphisized with a curl above the letter. Compare with the script of the added piyyut on fol. 45 and to the marginal addition on fols. 156v, 157, 157v, 181v, 192v, 193, 252v, 262v, 265, 268v. Hand 2: Fols. 76v, 243 in the outer margin in tiny semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink: "not to be recited" ( לא אומר' זה). Hand 3: Fols. 77, 78v, 79 in the outer margins instructions for prayers on Shabbat in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in light brown ink. The same hand appears in the margins also in other places, e.g. on fols. 54, 151, 155, 159, 245, 361. Hand 4: Fols. 54, small non-punctuated semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. Hand 5: Fols. 69, 71, 73v, 90v, 95v, 96, 112v, 118, 154v, 155v, 231, in small square punctuated Ashkenazi script in light brown ink. Hand 6: fols. 53v, 95, semi-cursive punctuated Ashkenazi script in the same brown ink as hand 6. Fol. 41, Upper margin: Sales inscription: “Rabbi Mordecai (the name is almost erased) bought this mahzor for the two days of the New Year and a small part of the Day of Atonement from R. Akivah (?) son of the late Ephraim for permanent [ownership]….”. בפני' ח"מ קנה ר' מרדכי ב"ר זה המחזור משני ימי' נוראי' וקצת מי"כ / מר' עקיבה ב"ר אפרים ז"ל לצמיתות ולחלוטי' / דלא בה שנא' ובלאלה שנא' ובלא לאהדר בה / מן יומ[א] דין ולעלם וקבל דמי המכיר[ה] משלם טו' [...] בה שנאמר). Fol. 2v, Upper margin: Owner's inscription: “… David Samuel, son of Isaac” (...ומלואה דוד שמואל בכמ"ר יצחק). Fols. 63v, 77v-78v, 90, 97v-98v, 110v, 151, 155v, 296v, 333-333v: censor’s erasures. Fol. 379v: Censor’s signature “Dominico Irosolomi[ta]no” (indicating that the manuscript was censored in Italy between 1596-1619). Fol. 1v: Partially faded pen-trials (the beginning of Adon Olam) by a later hand in brown ink. First front fly leaf: Flowery description of the manuscript and its decoration in Italian: “Questo manoscrito e’ assai bello in causa della sua pituri e molti figuri che si trova in esso e anche la scritura e di’ bell arte, come ille e' assai rare manuscrito che valgo assai danari”. [“This manuscript is especially beautiful because of its illustrations and many images that are contained in it, and also the script is a work of fine art and it is a very rare manuscript and valuable.”]. According to Schwartz, the manuscript was bought from N. Coronel for 60 fl. on July 9, 1864 (Schwartz, 1924, no. 91).
Main Surveys & Excavations
Beer, E. J., oberrheinischen Buchmalerei, 1959; Buchkunst des Morgenlandes, Wein, 1953, p. - (no. 23); Buchkunst des Morgenlandes. F. Unterkircher (ed.) Ausstellung in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Wein, 1953 Katalog Miniaturenausstellung, Wien3 1902, p. 58 (no. 359); Katalog Miniaturenausstellung der K. K. Hofbibliothek. Ausstellung in Wien. Wien3 1902 Metzger. T., & Metzger, M., Review, 1989, pp. 356-359; Metzger. T., & Metzger, M., Review on: M. Beit-Arié and collab., "The Only Dated Medieval Hebrew Manuscript Written in England (1189 CE) and the Problem of Pre-Expultion Anglo-Hebrew Manuscripts”, Londres, Valmadonna Trust Lib., 1985, 80, IX-56 pp., 10 fac.-sim., Cahiers de Civilisation Medievale 22 (1989) pp. 356-359 Monumenta Judaica, 1964, No. D9; Nadav and Weizer, 1985, no. 34; Schwartz, A. Z., hebräischen Hss., Wien, 1914, pp. 59-61 (no. 43); Schwartz, A. Z., hebräischen Hss., Wien (or Leipzig?), 1925, p. 91 (no. 91), pl. II; Schwartz, A, Z., jüdischen Wissenschaft, 1923, fig. 3; Schwartz, A. Z., Sitzungsberichte Handschriften, Wein 1965, p. 7 (no. 33); Die schönsten Handschriften der ehemaligen Hofbibliothek, Ausstellung in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Wein 1965 Sed-Rajna, G., Filigree Ornaments, 1986/87, pp. 45-54; Sed-Rajna, G., “Filigree Ornaments in 14th century Hebrew Manuscripts of the Upper Rhine”, Jewish Art, vol. 12/13, 1986/87, pp. 45-54.
Short Name
Full Name
Alissa Fried ;Yaffa Levy Michal Sternthal Anna Nizza 2.1998 8.1999 8.1999 7.2001 | 2.1998 8.1999 8.1999 7.2001
Author of description
Yaffa Levy Anna Nizza | 4.2002 4.2002
Architectural Drawings
Computer Reconstruction
Section Head
Michal Sternthal | 2002
Language Editor
Judy Cardozo | 6.2002
Negative/Photo. No.