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© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Radovan, Zev, 9.1990
Name/Title
Shmirah | Unknown
Object
Object Detail
Hallmark
Settings
Unknown
Date
1832
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Location
Unknown |
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period Detail
Collection
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Copper
Material Stucture
cast
Material Decoration
etching
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
etching
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
183 mm
Length
Width
125 mm
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Intact
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding
Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

Summary and Remarks
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880). Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913. Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006. Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966. Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249. Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Ruth Sudak | 09.90
Author of description
Ariella Amar | 12.92
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconstruction
|
Section Head
Ariella Amar | 06.07
Language Editor
Judith Cardozo | 06.07
Donor
UNESCO |
Negative/Photo. No.