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© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,
Name/Title
Kalonymus Bible | Unknown
Object
Object Detail
Date
1238
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Origin
Germany
| South
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Period Detail
Collection
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Pentateuch with Five Scrolls and Haftarot, with Aramaic Targum verse by verse, all punctuated and vocalized with masorah magna and parva. Genesis (fol. 1v), Exodus (fol. 55v), Leviticus (fol. 100v), Numbers (fol. 131v), Deuteronomy (fol. 169v), Haftarot (without Targum, fol. 209), Haftarot for special sabbaths and Holy days (fol. 231v), Ruth (fol. 245), Song of Songs (fol. 249v), Ecclesiastes (fol. 259v), Lamentations (fol. 272v), Esther (fol. 278v), Mordecai's Dream (in the first and third columns of fol. 303v-304), Psalms (fol. 305), Job (fol. 363), Proverbs (fol. 388v), Daniel (fol. 405), Ezra (no Targum, fol. 412v), Nehemiah (fol. 417v), Chronicles (fol. 425).
Codicology
Thick parchment, I 2 (additional bifolium) 456 I leaves. The 'modern' foliation is written twice from right to left on the recto: 1) in the upper margins in ink (the numbers are inverted); 2) in the lower margins where G. Weil numbered the leaves in pencil in the right Hebrew order. Measurements: (481-495) x (350-361) mm, text space (310-317) x (228-235) mm, height with masorah magna 400 mm. Written in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink, masorah in light brown ink; the Songs of Moses in sections. 35 lines in three columns; masorah magna 1-2 lines on top and 2-4 at the bottom. Ruling by stylus on the hair side of the bifoliums, 3 36 4 horizontal and 2 3 3 2 vertical lines. Pricking is evident on three outer margins. 60 quires of 8 leaves each, except for XX 2 (6 leaves and text (Num. 18:2-22:33) are missing), XXVII 6 (end of Pentateuch), XXXII 4, XL 4 (end of Esther), LII 4 (4 leaves and text (Prov. 11:14-17:8) are missing, LX 4. Fols. 1 and 456v are blank.
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Fol. 456: Masorator's colophon: "אני יוסף בר' קלונימוס הסופר נקדתי/ ומסרתי זה הספר לר' ]חיים ב"ר ישראל ז"ל[/ הנעים מעם עשה שמים עזרו. ושמרו/ כרועה עדרו. וכתבו ר' משלם בן דודי ר'/ יוסף הסופר אמרי שפרי על הספר בדיו בארץ/ אשכנז המתורגמת הדייב בשנת תתקצ"ח/ בעזר דודי צח ברוך זכרו וכבודו לנצח." "I, Joseph ben Rabbi Kalonimos Hasofer (the scribe), vocalized and masorated this book for Rabbi Hayim bar Rabbi Israel of blessed memory; and the book was written by Rabbi Meshulam, my cousin Rabbi Joseph the scribe, in Ashkenaz translated in the year (5)998 (1237/8)." Scribal notes of the masorator: Fol. 200 - "יתן יי' עלינו ברכה חיים ושלוה" "May the Lord grant us a blessing of life and well-being." Fol. 244v - located at the end of the text column - "ברוך הנותן ליעף כח )לפי ישעיהו מ: כט( יוסף ב'ר'ק' )בר ר' קלונימוס( נקדן. ]בכתב אחר )?([ ואני אגיד ואתה מרום לעולם חי' )?( מאסתי לא לעולם אחיה." "Blessed is He who giveth power to the faint (based on Isaiah 40:29), Joseph bar Rabbi Kalonimos vocalizer. [In another handwriting (?)] And I will tell and you are exalted forwver... I will live forever." Fol. 295v - "ויצא )?( כארי )?( בנחית )?( ציון בינין ירושלים אמן" "And he came out (?) like a lion (?) ... Zion the building of Jerusalem, Amen." Fol. 304 - located at the end of the left column, at the end of "Mordecai's Dream" (Aramaic) - "סליק ספר חלמיתייו דמרדכי יהודא וצלותיה עם צלותא דאסתר מלכתא)?(. סליק ספר תרגום של כהנים דתרגום רב יוסף." "The end of the book, the Dream of Mordecai the Jew and its prayers with the prayers of Esther the Queen (?). The end of the book the Priest's Translation translated by Rabbi Joseph." Fol. 358v - "כי לעולם חסדו בבנין" Fol. 379v - "קוה קויתי השם ויט אלי וישמע שועתי." תהלים מ:2. "He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet up on a rock, and established my goings".
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding
18th century brown leather on wood; decorated on the front and back covers with gold-tooled double frame with floral corner-pieces and a central piece enclosing the figure of a soldier; the spine is divided into ten portions by nine raised bands; two metal clasps (one is missing).
Decoration Program
A. 10 text illustrations (fols. 1v, 100v, 141, 169v, 259v, 272v, 278v, 301v, 305, 412v - see cards) in burnished gold and red, blue, green and brown. Fol. 301v is by another hand. B. 6 decorated initial word panels for each book (fols. 55v, 131v, 245 249v, 405, 425 - see cards), in burnished gold and red, blue and white. Space was left for initial word panels for the books, Job (fol. 363) and Proverbs (fol. 388v) but the space was not filled in. The text in both books starts with the second word. In the empty space on fol. 388v there is a pencil sketch of a frame and the word "משלי " "Proverbs". These initial word panels occupy the width of two columns and the height of 7-8 lines, except for fol. 1v (three columns, 11 lines) and fol. 249v (one column, 7-8 lines). Vocalization and punctuation of the initial words, appears above and below the panels. C. Decorated mid-book indications (e.g. fol. 78, see card, 295) in brown ink. D. Text shaped in the form of goblets (fols. 55, see cards, 100, 244v, 272v, 455v, fols. 303v-304 - Mordecai's Dream). E. Decoration at the end of each book in the form of micrography (e.g. fols. 208v, see card 404v, 455v). F. Decorative masorah magna in micrography in geometrical forms (e.g. fols. 1v, 101, 131v, 141, 169v, 205, 305, 405 - see cards). Occasionally the masorah parva is decorated with lines comprised of the letter 'lamed' (e.g. fols. 150, 295, see card). G. Catchwords decorated with a cluster of dots (e.g. fols. 202v, 312v, 412v - see card). H. The armorial device of Ferdinand von Murdach (fol. 2v') consists of a floral form surmounted by a crown. The lower part of the device also includes a shield divided into two sections. The upper part of the shield contains the half figure of a rampant lion. The lower part of the shield is divided into alternating diagonal strips of yellow and black.
Summary and Remarks
In 1238 Joseph ben Kalonimos the scribe, vocalized and masorated part of the Ambrosian Bible (Ambroziana Bib. B30 inf. - B32 inf.), which was written by the scribe Jacob ben Samuel for Joseph ben Moses of Ulm, in 1236 (see also commentary in bib. references Tyloch, 1987, p. 5).
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Fols. 1'-2' include a Latin dedication which indicates that Ferdinand von Mudrach donated the manuscript to the Protestant School 'Maria Magdalena' in Wroclaw on September 14, 1703. In 1865 the manuscript was transferred to the Wroclaw City Library and from 1945 it was kept in the University Library. Fol. 2'v includes the donor's coat of arms. According to W. Tyloch (1987, p. 4, n. 6) a page dated Decenber 9, 1891 was stuck to fol.1r, with a note by a Dr. Konigsberger. The note deals with missing texts and pagination. G. E. Weil wrote on a number of the folios that certain parts of the manuscript are missing. Fol. 153v: "Fehlt Nun. 18,2 - Targum Num. 22,23."; 2) Fol. 154: "Fehlt drei folii des Targum (?) (6 blutter) ", signed G. E. Weil; 3) Fol. 395: "Fehlt Prv. 11, 13 trg.(2) - Prv. 17,8 trg. Zwei Bogen des quoternion."
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Brockelmann, c., >Verzeichnis aus arabischen, persischen, turkischen und hebraischen Handschriften den Stadtbibliothek 34, Brwslau>, Breslau 1903, pp. 45-46, no. 1; אורבך, א. א.,>ספר ערוגת הבשם לר' אברהם ב"ר עזריאל>, ירושלים תשכ"ג )3691(, עמ' 121-221 Kataloge 368a, Stadtbibliothek Breslau, Handschriften der Kirchenbibliothek zu fr. Maria Magdalena, Ms. AKL.1967/4, fol. 19r. Garell, M. "Manuscrits hebreux en Pologne.", >Revue d'Histoire des Textes> 5 (1975): 365-367. Falenciak, J. >A Hebrew Bible from the XIIIth Century in the Manuscripts of the University Library in Wroclaw: Cod. M. 1106>, Wroclaw 1986 (Biblioteka Uniwersytecka we Wroclawiu, Komunikat 1). Tyloch. W., Najstarszy Hebrajski rekopis Biblii w Polsce, >Euhemer - Przeglad Religioznawczy>, 1987, nr 3-4 (145-146). טילוך, ו., "כתב יד המקרא העתיק ביותר המצוי בפולין", >ברית עברית עולמית: כנס 7 )תש"ן(>, עמ' 011-311.
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
| Y.L., K.K.S., 1995
Researcher
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Architectural Drawings
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Computer Reconsdivuction
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Section Head
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Language Editor
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Donor
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Negative/Photo. No.
004062