Hebrew University  
A Catalogue of Wall Paintings in Central and East European Synagogues
  CJA
3 image(s)
Object Alone
(XI* Edit) Obj. ID: 10802
Great Synagogue in Rashkov, .
Hierarchical List of Objects:
Object Detail
Date
1749
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Community
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Baroque| Rococo
Period Detail
Collection
Unknown |
Category
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Material/Technique
Material Sdivucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
West
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
East
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Center, between pillars (not preserved)
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
West upper floor, attached sections on south and north
Direction Prayer
East
Direction Toward Jerusalem
South
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Subgroup
Hallmark Identification
Hallmark Group Classification
Hallmark Reference
Trade Mark
Binding
Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Main Surveys & Excavations
Condition
Biography
Bibliography
Efim Goldshmidt, Igor Teper, Michael Finckel, History in Stone: Monuments of the Jewish Material Culture in Moldova (XVII-XXI centuries) (Chisinau, 2007), p. 75-76, 91;
Samuel D. Gruber, Jewish Heritage Sites and Monuments in Moldova. United States Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad (Washington D.C., 2010);
http://www.jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2017/02/26/will-or-can-the-great-synagogue-in-rascov-be-conserved

Unknown
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Photographer
Photograph Date
2014
Negative/ Photo. No.
digital
Documenter
|
Researcher
Sergey Kravtsov, Vladimir Levin | 2017
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconsdivuction
|
Section Head
|
Language Editor
|
Donor
|
Description

The Great Synagogue of Rashkov – a noticeable monument of regional baroque architecture – was constructed presumably in 1749, during the rabbinical tenure (1748–52) of R. Yaakov Yosef of Polonne (d. 1783), the author of the first hasidic book Toldot Yaakov Yosef. We may only suggest that some features of the Great Synagogue in Rashkov, like the central cupola, the vaults’ brackets, and the oval windows where “imported” by R. Yaakov Yosef from his previous seat in the Great Synagogue of Sharhorod.

The synagogue was ruined in 1930s, during an anti-religious campaign in the USSR. Since then only its roofless, unprotected walls remain, while some elements of its historical shape and decoration may be virtually reconstructed from the old photographs, drawings, and the memories of the prewar gabai’s son Mikhail Voronsky (1914–2014). His memories were recorded in word and drawing by another Rashkov fellow, an Israeli architect Moris Kleinerman, who recently produced a meticulous graphical reconstruction of the synagogue in its better days.

The synagogue was a monumental masonry edifice under a saddle roof, shielded by a shaped gable on its main, western front (the gable is not preserved). According to Voronsky’s testimony, the main interior space of the synagogue was a lofty prayer hall with four pillars (also not extant) supporting eight perimeter bays of groined vaults; the central bay above the bimah was spanned by a cupola hidden in the roof space. The synagogue was decorated with interior paintings, representations of the Signs of Zodiac, real and fantastic birds and animals, and panels inscribed with prayers; the hall was lit by stained glass windows. In addition to the main hall, there were a western vestibule with a minute “winter synagogue” on the north, a council room on the south, and a women’s area on the upper floor. A staircase inside the western wall lead from the council room to the attic.

What makes this synagogue outstanding is its decoration with carved stone panels on exterior and interior. The carved central cartouche of the western elevation, the window hoods, the main Torah ark and that of the “winter synagogue,” the niche for ner tamid and small niches in the eastern wall are masterful examples of local baroque. Especially interesting was a carved bas-relief seven-branched Menorah attached to the southern wall of the prayer hall: it echoed the ancient Menorah, likewise located on the southern side of the Tabernacle and theTemple ofJerusalem.

Another important feature is that the entire synagogue compound – the shulhoyf – is preserved. It still includes three smaller synagogues (two of them blocked together) and a well, while the Talmud-Torah school, the rabbi’s house, and the communal bathhouse with a mikveh are no longer existent.