Hebrew University  
A Catalogue of Wall Paintings in Central and East European Synagogues
  CJA
3 image(s)
Object Alone
(XI* Edit) Obj. ID: 10438
Rebbe's Kloyz in Sadhora, .
Hierarchical List of Objects:
Object Detail
Subject
Unknown |
Date
Between 1864 and 1881
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Community
Location
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Period Detail
Collection
Unknown |
Category
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Material/Technique
Material Sdivucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Subgroup
Hallmark Identification
Hallmark Group Classification
Hallmark Reference
Trade Mark
Binding
Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks

This Kloiz is one of the most important buildings of the Hassidic courts.  It represents and embodies the "royal" way of behavior, which characterized the Ruzhin-Sadgora dynasty. The Sadgora Kloiz served as a model for other buildings built by the members of the dynasty, especially the Kloiz in Chortkov, and also by members of rival dynasties, for example, Vizhnits.  Several Hassidic stories compare this building to theJerusalemTemple.

The Tzaddiks of the Ruzhin-Sadgora dynasty did not pray with their Hassidim, but had a separate prayer room near the main prayer hall.  This arrangement was started by R. Israel of Ruzhin and is noteworthy in all Kloizes of his descendants (Assaf, pp. 372-3, Even, pp. 3, 83, 153).

Since the women did not take part in the Hassidic rituals at all and especially in the "pilgrimages" to the Tzaddiks during Saturdays and Holidays, the women's section of the Kloiz, if it existed, served only women living in the court, i.e. the family members and servants.

Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
The building was a part of the court compound of the Tzaddiks of Ruzhin - Sadgora. Rabbi Israel Friedman of Ruzhin (1796-1850) established his court in the town in 1842, after his flight from Russia. This building is probably the New Kloiz, which was planned in the last years of R. Israel and was built by his son, Rabbi Avraham Yaakov of Sadgora (1819-1883).

Hassidic legend tells, that when R. Israel of Ruzhin showed the plan of the building to the Tzaddik of Skvira, Rabbi Moshe, the latter became white as a wall and shouted: "Be merciful, Rebbe, and do not build this Kloiz." After R. Israel's death, the Skvirer Tzaddik explained his plea: He saw in the plan, that the Ruzhiner had in mind the same intentions (כוונות) as Moses when he was building the Tabernacle. He feared that after the inauguration of the Kloiz the same tragedy (קידוש השם) would befall them, as when the two elder sons of Aharon suddenly died. Rabbi Israel indeed did not built the Kloiz. His son, Rabbi Avraham Yaakov hoped, that with the power of his father and with his own power he would be able to protect his children from that fate. Nonetheless, the good deeds (זכות) of the two great Tzaddiks could not protect them. Within two years, 1882 and 1883, two elder children of R. Avraham Yaakov, R. Shlomenu and R. Nahum Berenu died. Several months later the old Tzaddik also died (Even, pp. 84-85).

There are other legends, stating that the Kloiz was previously the palace of Baron Mustatza, the owner of Sadgora, and that R. Israel of Ruzhin received it as a present or bought it (Asaf, p. 370).

In 1882, a new steel Torah ark was made, following the desecration of the Torah scrolls during a robbery attempt of the Kloiz (Even, p. 216-7).

The building also served the successive Sadgora Tzaddiks. In 1883-1886, two sons of R. Abraham Yaakov tried to live together in the town, but in 1886 Rabbi Itzhak (1850-1917) removed his seat to Boian, and Rabbi Israel (1852-1907) stayed in Sadgora. After his death, his sons Rabbi Aharon (1877-1913), Rabbi Abraham Yaakov (1884-1961) and Rabbi Shlomo Hayiim (1887-1972) became the Tzaddiks. The two latter left Sadgora at the beginning of the First World War and moved to Vienna. According to the testimony of Semion An-sky, the residence of the Tzaddiks was not damaged during the Russian occupation, although the town itself was plundered and destroyed.
After World War II, the building was nationalized, and used for local purposes. In the 1960s-1990s, it was used as a workshop for repairing vehicles. Consequently, an industrial structure was attached to its east side, and new doors, walls and staircases were added. Since the late 1990s, the building has been abandoned and is deteriorating rapidly.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Condition
Restored in 2016
Biography
Bibliography
Sergey R. Kravtsov, “Jewish Identities in Synagogue Architecture of Galicia and Bukovina,” Ars Judaica 6 (2010), p. 94.
Assaf, David, Derekh hamalkhut: r. israel miruzhin umekomo betoldot hahasidut (Jerusalem, 1997), pp. 367-373;
Bruckenthal, Leo, "Sadagura" in Hugo Gold (ed.), Geschichte der Juden in der Bukowina, vol. 2 (Tel Aviv, 1962), pp. 98-105.
Even, Itzhak, Funem rebens hoif: zikhroines un maises (New York, 1922; reprint: Israel, 1970).
http://jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2016/11/06/synagogue-in-sadhora-ukraine-rededicated
Unknown
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Photograph Date
1992
Negative/ Photo. No.
Documenter
S. Sirota, S. Hlynka | 1992
Researcher
Vladimir Levin | 2001
Architectural Drawings
S. Sirota, S. Hlynka |
Computer Reconsdivuction
|
Section Head
|
Language Editor
Sally Oren | 2001
Donor
|
Description

Situation
The building of the New Kloiz was part of the court of Rabbi Israel of Ruzhin and of his son, Rabbi Avraham Yaakov of Sadgora.  The complex of the court included four buildings – the Old Kloiz, the New Kloiz, the mansion of the Tzaddik and the large assembly hall, called "Salash" (Assaf, p. 367-370). Of all these buildings, only the New Kloiz and the manson remained. The court was situated in the southern part of the town of Sadgora, on the main road leading into the Bessarabian townlet Novoselitsa (Even, p. 82).

General description

The building of the New Kloiz consists of a two-storey high central volume, which includes a prayer hall with a vestibule, flanked by one-storey lateral wings in the south and north, each with a two double-storied tower in its west corner.  Under the building there is a cellar, only a small part of which is accessible. A new industrial structure is attached to its east facade.

Description of the exterior:

The central volume is two storeys high and has elaborate architectural forms and decorations. 

The eastern part of the volume comprises a rectangular prayer hall (its north-south dimension is 2 meters greater than its east-west dimension). The hall has twelve windows: four in each of the east, north and south walls.  On the west side, the volume is divided into two floors.  Situated on the first floor is a vestibule and two rooms.  On the second floor, there are three rooms, probably a women's section.  The prayer hall is broader than the vestibule section; in its eastern corners are two spiral staircases, which lead to the attics of the lateral wings and to the central volume.  The entire central volume is covered by a composite hipped roof.

All facades of this volume are made of red unplastered bricks.  They are decorated by an elaborate cornice, which consists of a ceramic arcade of interlaced arches with large rosettes in their centre, and a ceramic geometrical strip and a moulding above. The facade is surmounted by crenellation, and each of its merlons is decorated with miniature crenellation-like projections. 

The main, west facade is 9.44 m high.  It is cut by three large and high niches spanned by round arches; the central niche contains the main entrance, two side ones contain biforate windows.  The arches of the niches are accentuated by two ceramic decorative strips, and a similar single strip interconnecting the niches on the level of the arches' imposts.  The empty field above the arches is punctuated by four ceramic rosettes in square brick frames.  The jambs of the high double door in the central arch are pilasters with stylized block capitals.  The window tympanum above the lintel is framed in the form of a rosette.  The original door and tympanum have been replaced.  The biforate windows consist of three attached columns with stylized block capitals; the tympanum above the windows is covered by decorative ceramic tiles.

The corners of the facade are emphasized by pilasters, which are surmounted by square turrets with miniature crenellations.  Two similar rectangular turrets stand out of the row of merlons and emphasize the space between the arches.

The back, east facade of the central volume has four round-arched windows.  The arches, now damaged, were emphasized by a decorative white ceramic strip, and a similar strip interconnecting the windows on the level of their imposts.  The window sills are interconnected by a row of brick edges.  Currently, only the north window is intact, three others have been blocked by the attached industrial building and converted into passageways, and the southern window became a doorway.  The corners of the facade are marked by pilasters, which are emphasized on top by square turrets with miniature crenellation.

The north and south side facades of the central volume also have four large windows, which are set very close to one another.  Currently one of the windows on the north facade has been converted into a doorway.  The decoration of the windows is similar to that on the east facade.  The eastern towers, where the spiral staircases are situated, are square, their three outer corners are decorated with pilasters, which finish with square turrets decorated with miniature crenellation.

Lateral wings

Flanking the western part of the central volume, are two lateral wings.  They are one-storied and almost square in plan, and all their facades are plastered.  All the openings are arched: two windows and a door in their western walls, two windows on the corresponding southern and northern walls, three windows on the eastern wall of the north wing and two windows in the eastern wall of the south wing.  Later alterations in that wall are the southern window, since it is cut into the pilaster, and the wide door which is rectangular.  Other changes are the western window on the south wall of the south wing which is remodelled into a wide rectangular window, and the door on the east wall which is bricked up.  Beneath the windows, there are panels of two depressed square fields with dentils above them.  The decoration of the wings is more modest than that of the central volume.  Between the windows and on the corners there are pilasters, which are emphasized by turrets on the roof.  However, there is no crenellation, and the cornice is decorated only by small consoles.  Each wing is covered by a hipped roof with three slopes.  A chimney protrudes from the centre of each roof.

On the western edges of the wings, two two-storied octagonal towers are attached.  The towers have one octagonal room on each floor. They are not connected to the premises of the wings, and are entered from the outside.  The walls of the towers are made of red bricks and are unplastered.  Each tower has five narrow arched openings on each floor; on the first floor, one of them is a door (currently, several openings are bricked up).  Small doors with segmented arches lead from the wing's roof onto the second floor of the towers.  The arches of the openings are decorated with white ceramic strips.  Under each window, there is a composition of sunken panels with dentils above them.  Each floor has a cornice with consoles, like that of the wings.  The towers are crowned with narrow merlons, four on each facet of the octagon (now lost).  Each tower has a tent roof.

Description of the Interior:

The prayer hall.

The prayer hall is a broadhouse (18.90 m x 16.70 m) with twelve windows.  The eastern longer wall has four windows; a high niche for the Torah ark is situated in its centre, between two central windows.  The north and south walls have four large windows each (see description of the south and north facades) and, in their western part, a niche of similar form.  Currently, the doors to the wings are cut into the niches.  The western wall of the hall preserved the most elaborate decoration.  The wall is divided into two tiers.  The wide and high main entrance to the hall is situated in the centre of the first tier (currently, in the southern part of the wall there is an additional entrance door).  The second tier is decorated by nine arches, and by two half-arches next to the south and north walls.  Six of them spring from pilasters, which rest on the horizontal moulding, and instead of two central pilasters, there are corbel capitals.  A window from the women's section is situated in the central arch (currently blocked).  In the three southern arches, there are small arcades of three arches each.  The arcades consist of octagonal engaged columns with stylized block capitals.  In the lower part of the arcades' niches, there are panels articulated by cornices.  (Currently, the most northern arcade is destroyed and a door is placed there).  The walls were decorated by paintings (see below).

The Torah ark, situated in the central niche of the east wall was made of steel (Even, pp. 216-217). It was covered by a parokhet embroidered with pearls and jewels; in the Hassidic tradition, this parokhet originated fromSpain and was previously used in Bukhara (Even, p. 214, Bruckenthal, p. 100).

According to eyewitness reports, a large bronze chandelier with seventy-two lights hung from the centre of the ceiling, in addition to many crystal chandeliers (Even, pp. 82, 216, Bruckenthal, p. 100).

Currently, the decoration of the walls and ceiling, as well as the Torah ark and the bimah are lost.

The walls and ceiling of the prayer hall were covered with murals and wooden carvings (Even, p. 82).  At present, only remnants of murals on the southern part of the west wall are visible.  The murals reflected the architectural forms, i.e. arches and niches, with coloured or white frames.  The fields inside the frames included foliage ornamentation, as is seen in the remaining parts, and also mentioned by an eyewitness ("fruits and vegetables," Bruckenthal, p. 100).  According to the same eyewitness, the murals were made by "a famous Russian-Jewish artist" (Bruckenthal, p. 100).

Other premises:

On the west side of the prayer hall, there are three rooms on the first floor, which served as a vestibule and three rooms on the second floor, which probably served as a women's section.  The location of the staircase is unknown.

Each wing consists of two rooms, one facing west and another facing east.  The private prayer room of the Tzaddik was probably situated in the eastern room of the southern wing.  It was connected to the prayer room through a door and was richly decorated (Assaf, p. 372-73, Even, pp. 83, 153, Bruckenthal, p. 100).