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  (XI) Obj. ID: 6052 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim,Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886. // Unknown edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

To the main object: Great Synagogue in Slonim, Belarus


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
9b Documentation/
Research project
Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19 Remarks
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.


More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
6052
48 Temp: Addenda
batch=&batch_num=&OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

Less Details


Object's images (18 image(s))

     

(XXII) ID: 38751 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38751 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173012
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38751
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38752 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38752 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173013
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38752
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38753 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38753 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173014
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38753
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38754 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38754 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173015
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38754
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38755 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38755 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173016
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38755
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38756 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38756 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173017
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38756
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38757 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38757 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173018
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38757
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38758 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38758 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173019
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38758
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38759 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38759 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173020
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38759
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38760 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38760 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173021
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38760
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38761 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38761 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173022
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38761
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38762 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38762 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173023
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38762
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38763 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38763 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173024
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38763
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38764 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38764 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173025
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38764
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38765 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38765 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173026
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38765
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 38766 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 38766 Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim, Description, Slonim (Słonim), 1635 - 1642, 1886 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Description of the Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Description
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635 - 1642, 1886
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2003
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A173027
20 Description

Slonim was one of the most important Jewish communities in the territory of the modern Republic of Belarus. Jews began to settle in Slonim in the 14th century and Jewish life flourished there until the Holocaust.

Of the 24 synagogues that existed in town before WWII, only three buildings, all of them documented by the Center for Jewish Art still exist. Fortunately, the Great Synagogue of Slonim is among them. It is one of the most impressive and splendid synagogues in Belarus and the whole of Eastern Europe.

The synagogue was built in 1635 and in the eighteenth century it acquired its Baroque high gable. The core rectangular prayer hall had a central Bimah, built as so-called Bimah-support construction. Its four massive pillars supported the vaults of the hall; a richly decorated inner vault was situated above the place of Torah reading. The prayer hall was flanked on north and south by lower attachments, comprising the women’s sections. These were connected to the main hall through small windows allowing women mainly to listen to the prayers. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century additional attachments were added to the western and eastern façades. The existence of the attachment on the eastern side, where the Torah ark was situated, is quite unusual in synagogue architecture of Eastern Europe.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the synagogue was reconstructed: the side women’s sections were abandoned, their windows blocked and a new metal gallery for women was introduced to the space of the prayer hall. This move reflected the changing status of women in the community and the attempt to emulate the large synagogues in Europe, where women’s galleries were situated inside the main prayer halls. At that time the beautiful murals were produced; they were especially prominent on the eastern wall, framing the Torah Ark.

The Great Synagogue survived the Holocaust. During the Communist regime it was used as a warehouse for a furniture store, and thus the majority of its original features, including the murals in the upper register of walls were preserved.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the establishment of independent Republic of Belarus, the building was returned to the Belorussian Jewish community, and since then it stands abandoned.  Moreover, a segment of the building was used as a public outhouse for visitors of the town’s market situated on the synagogue's western side.

Unfortunately, the Jewish community is unable to take care of the magnificent synagogue. The only "progress" in the 1990s and 2000s was partial demolition of the side attachments, which constituted an original and inseparable feature of the synagogue. The main prayer hall still stands, but the murals are fading out in a process of quick destruction.

The documentation of the building by the Center for Jewish Art in 2003 now allows a virtual reconstruction and preservation of this magnificent synagogue, and eventually, also its physical restoration.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
38766
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 160924 Great Synagogue in Slonim, Field documentation, Slonim (Słonim), 1635-1642 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 160924 Great Synagogue in Slonim, Field documentation, Slonim (Słonim), 1635-1642 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635-1642
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Khaimovich, Boris
18 Photograph Date 1993
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S124089
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
160924
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 160925 Great Synagogue in Slonim, Field documentation, Slonim (Słonim), 1635-1642 edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 160925 Great Synagogue in Slonim, Field documentation, Slonim (Słonim), 1635-1642 edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Great Synagogue in Slonim | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1635-1642
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim (Słonim)
| Shkol'naia St.
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Belarus | Hrodzienskaia vobl. | Slonim
| 1 Sovetskaia St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Khaimovich, Boris
18 Photograph Date 1993
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S124090
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
160925
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor Carmen Echevarria 2016 54a
55 Donor 55a