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  (XI) Obj. ID: 4094 Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor ,, Franconia, Third quarter of the 13th century . // Unknown edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts


2 Name/Title Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor | Unknown
3a Object Mahzor
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date Third quarter of the 13th century
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Germany | Franconia
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 21 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 21)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Franconian scribal art of the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19 Remarks
20 Description

More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
Mahzor for the whole year according to the eastern Ashkenazi or central German rite includes some marginal commentary. Most text is vocalised. The beginning and end are missing.
I. Summer Festivals and Sabbaths:
Special Sabbaths (fols. 1-22): Shabbat Shekalim (fol. 1: the yotzer and ofan for the morning service are
missing), beginning with ומתמידים לרוממך in the middle of the liturgical poem (zulat)אתה אהבת . (Text is
also missing after fol. 2). First Shabbat Hafsakah (fol. 3), opens with בשבת ראש מניינו from the yozer
אור זרוע זרוח ; Shabbat Zakhor (fol. 4: text is missing after fol. 4); Purim (fol. 6v); Shabbat Parah (fol. 9);
Shabbat Hahodesh (fol. 12); Second Shabbat Hafsakah (fol. 15); Shabbat Hagadol (fol. 17).
Passover (fols. 22-56v): evening services for the first and second days (fols. 22-24v); first day morning
service and musaf (fol. 25); second day morning service (fol. 31); Shabbat Holhamoed morning service
(fol. 35); seventh and eighth days evening services (fols. 37-39); seventh day morning service (fol. 39)
and musaf (fol. 46); eighth day morning service (fol. 50).
Sabbaths between Passover and Shavuot: sixth Sabbaths after Passover (fols. 57-66).
Shavuot (fols. 66-99v): first and second days evening services (fols. 66-68); morning services and musaf
for the first day (fol. 68v), and the second day (fol. 91v).
Sabbaths between Shavuot and Ninth of Ab (fols. 99v-102).
Ninth of Ab (fols. 102v-116v): lamentations (kinot), (two leaves with kinot missing after fol. 104).
Three Sabbaths of the month of Ab (fols. 117-119v).
II. Sabbath of the Bridegroom: morning service (fols. 120-122v).
III. Winter Festivals and Sabbaths:
Selihot before New Year (fols. 123-160): opens with the selihah for the first day of the Ten Days of
Repentance לך יי' הצדקה ולנו בושת הפנים, (two leaves with selihot are missing after fol. 124 and 126, as
well as one leaf before fol. 147). Fol. 146v includes an imprecatory poem for the Day of Atonement תתנם
לחרפה added by a later hand (see History).
Sabbath before New Year (fols. 160-161v): morning service (fol. 160).
New Year (fols. 162-187): first day morning service and musaf (fol. 162) including the silluq ונתנה תוקף
קדושת היום; evening service before second day (fol. 176); second day morning service and musaf
(fol. 177) including ונתנה תוקף.
Sabbath between New Year and the Day of Atonement (Shabbat Shuvah): morning service
(fols. 187-188v).
Day of Atonement (fols. 189-257): Kol nidre (fol. 189); evening service (fol. 189); morning service and
musaf (fol. 191) including ונתנה תוקף; afternoon service (fol. 239v); neilah (fol. 250).
Sabbath between Day of Atonement and Sukkot: morning service (fols. 257-258v).
Sukkot (fols. 258v-280): Shabbat Holhamoed Sukkot morning service (fols. 258v-259v); first day
evening service (fol. 261) and morning service (fol. 263); second day morning service (fol. 265): the
beginning of the yozer אאמיץ לנורא ואיום missing, opens with ;שכמיכם תרונו ותחוגו musaf (fol. 267).
Shemini Azeret (fols. 259v-260v, 270v-275): evening service (fol. 259v); morning service and musaf
(fol. 270v) including the Prayer for Rain אף ברי.
Simhat Torah (fols. 260v-261, 275-280): evening service (fol. 260v); morning service (fol. 275); reshut
for Hatan Torah (fol. 277v); reshut for Hatan Bereshit (fol. 278).
IV. Other Sabbaths and events (fols. 280-293v):
Yozerot: for the First Sabbath Hanukkah (fol. 280); Shabbat Bereshit (fol. 283) and Shabbat Roshhodesh
(fol. 284); Ahava for Shabbat Vayera (fol. 285); Yozer for Sabbath of Circumcision (fol. 286); Selihot
for 10th of Tevet (fol. 287v) and Fast of Esther (fol. 288v); Yozer for the Second Sabbath Hanukkah
(fol. 291v, ends: (הנותן אמרי שפר מופתי בת.
24 Codicology
Sheepskin, I + 295 (wrongly foliated 293) + II leaves. 2 flyleaves with 15th-century woodcuts were detached from the manuscript by a BSB librarian (see History and Illuminated Documents). Erroneous foliation: VII10 (fols. 45-56): the numbers 48-49 were skipped; XXVI8 (fols. 186-193): fol. 194 was numbered 190 etc., thus the second set of fols. 190-193 is referred to as 190a, 191a, 192a, 193a. Both sides of the sheepskin are similarly treated, turning grey. Some hair follicles are visible (fols. 55v, 67, 70v). The quires are arranged according to Gregory's rule. Watermarks of flyleaves: Hand with a cuff and a flower attached to its middle finger (on first back flyleaf, 88 mm), similar to Piccard, No. 210 (Nuremberg, 1492).
24a Scribes The text is written by a single scribe.
24b Script The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. The commentary accompanying the Aramaic piyyutim for Shavuot is written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script (fols. 76v-86v).
24c Number of Lines The text is written in 25-29 lines per page mostly in one column.
24d Ruling The ruling is mostly in plummet, but sometimes also by stylus (e.g. fols. 38v, 136v): 29 horizontal and 1+1 vertical lines. Sometimes there is additional ruling for separate sections of text (e.g. fols. 37v-38, 81).
24e Pricking Inner and outer margins are pricked for horizontal lines; upper and lower margins are pricked for verticals.
24f Quires 40 quires of 8 leaves each except for I4, VII10, XIV8-4, XVI6, XVII8-2, XX2, XXI8-1, XXX4, XXXVI4. Quire structure: I8-4 (1-4: first 2 leaves missing and also 1 leaf between fols. 2-3 & 4-5); II8 (5-12); III8 (13-20); IV8 (21-28); V8 (29-36); VI8 (37-44); VII10 (45-56: see Material: Erroneous foliation); VIII8 (57-64); IX8 (65-72); X8 (73-80); XI8 (81-88); XII8 (89-96); XIII8 (97-104); XIV8-4 (105-108: first four leaves missing with text); XV8 (109-116); XVI6 (117-122); XVII8-2 (123-128: 2 leaves with text missing between 124-125 and 126-127); XVIII8 (129-136); XIX8 (137-144); XX2 (145-146); XXI8-1 (147-153: first leaf missing with text); XXII8 (154-161); XXIII8 (162-169); XXIV8 (170-177); XXV8 (178-185); XXVI8 (186-193); XXVII8 (190a-197: see Material: Erroneous foliation); XXVIII8 (198-205); XXIX8 (206-213); XXX4 (214-217); XXXI8 (218-225); XXXII8 (226-233); XXXIII8 (234-241); XXXIV8 (242-249); XXXV8 (250-257); XXXVI4 (258-261); XXXVII8 (262-269: one leaf with text missing between fols. 264-265); XXXVIII8 (270-277); XXXIX8 (278-285); XL8 (286-293).
24g Catchwords Catchwords for the quires are written horizontally in the lower left corner in square Ashkenazi script by the text scribe, some in red (e.g. fol. 36v) or decorated with dots (e.g. fol. 28v). The catchword on fol. 267v is now out of place. Ends of quires preceding new sections have no catchwords.
24h Hebrew Numeration None
24i Blank Leaves None

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Full page: (331-333) x (235-245) mm.
Text space: (252-254) x (182-185) mm.
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
None
31 Scribal Notes
None
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding

 

Fig. 1: Front cover with pigskin strip

of  70 mmwide

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21

 

Fig. 2: Back cover, strip of c.70 mm wide (detail)

Red Dragon Pentateuch

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 14

 

15th-century binding (fig. 1). The spine and part of the wooden boards (345 x245 mm) are covered with a strip of white pigskin (width: 70 mm) decorated with a blind-tooled chain of floral ornament (fig. 2). The spine has three double cords and head and tail bands. Holes and the remnants of nails are situated along the upper and lower edges of the front cover and denote the place of two clasps. They correspond to the carved squares on the back cover where the straps were attached.

The binding was probably done in the Augustinian Eremiten monastery of St. Vitus inNuremberg(Munich, EBDB p001297; Hernad 1990:66; Kyriss 1951/58, No. 19).

This binding is similar to that of other Hebrew manuscripts from Harmann Schedel's collection (see History: also CJA Documentations of BSB Cod.hebr. 14 - fig. 2; Cod.hebr. 69 and 90).

36 Decoration Program

The decoration was executed by the scribe and five illuminators (see: Remarks):

  1. Text illustration of the Gate of Mercy by Illuminator E opening the first benediction before the morning Shema for the Day of Atonement (fol. 191a).
  2. Initial word panels by Illuminators A-D opening yozrot and other piyyutim are decorated with fish, birds, dragons, other creatures and floral motifs (fols. 12, 25, 31, 39, 50, 68v, 91v, 123, 162, 177, 189, 191a, 213v, 218, 239v, 250, 263, 270v).    
  3. Initial words by the scribe opening the yozrot are surrounded by wrigglework and decorated with a red and green saw-tooth motif and stripes (fols. 4, 6v, 9, 17 and). Some of the smaller initial words, mostly opening other piyyutim such as ofan and zulat, are written in red or red and black ink on a dotted rectangular ground (e.g. fols. 3v, 4v, 8).
  4. Smaller initial and other words, sometimes even sentences on almost every page are written in red, blue or green.

Note: Green folio number denotes it is described under "Illuminated Documents".

36 Summary and Remarks

The Mahzor for whole year, probably intended for the use of a cantor in the synagogue, is according to the eastern Ashkenazi rite, widely used in the territories east of theRhine(Fleischer 2008, p. 6). It opens with prayers for the Special Sabbaths which fall before and after Purim and ends with the piyyutim for Hanukkah.

The Mahzor belongs to the abbreviated version of early Ashkenazi mahzorim which comprised the piyyutim, entirely omitting the usual prayers and the readings from the Torah, Prophets and the Megillot (Fleischer 1985, p. 36).

The text of the Mahzor is not commented upon, except for the commentary accompanying the Aramaic piyyutim for Shavuot (fols. 76v-86v), and it does not include ritual instructions, except for those preceding the Passover Seder (fol. 21).

The decoration programme of our manuscript follows the pattern found in many other Ashkenazi mahzorim from the 13th century onwards, for example in the Michael Mahzor (Oxford, Bodl. Lib. Mich. 617) produced inFranconiain 1258. The initial words opening the yozrot, and also those opening some other sections, are enclosed within rectangular panels decorated with various motifs which are mostly unrelated to the text.

The text was copied and vocalised by a single scribe, who also wrote well as the initial words in display script. Some omitted initial words were added by hands emulating the scribe (fols. 275 and 280). In the first three quires the scribe decorated the initial words using a saw-tooth motif and wrigglework (fols. 4 - fig. 4, 6v, 9, 17). The rest of the manuscript was decorated by five illuminators, except for the initial word on

fol. 35 (fig. 3) which remained undecorated.

In contrast to the scribal decoration, the illuminators enclosed the initial words within framed panels and decorated them, mainly with dragons, fish, hybrids and birds. They preserved the main features of the scribe's initial letters: the shape of א (aleph), joining the left stem of ה (hei) to its roof and adding roundels in the middle of the letters' stems. On the other hand, some words were partly covered by a panel (fol. 213v-

fig. 9) or by the ascender of a ל (lamed; fol. 177 – fig. 8); even the vocalisation of the initial words was rendered barely visible because of the colours, and therefore Illuminator D added it below the panels he painted (fols. 162, 177 – fig. 8).

The main stylistic differences between the five illuminators are found in their compositions, range of colours, and treatment of letters, as well as the execution of the decorative motifs.

The two panels of Illuminator A (fols. 12, 263 – figs. 5, 14) are unframed and decorated with a dragon, dog, heraldic eagle, lion and ox in spared-ground technique, also within the letters of the second panel. The acanthus scrolls springing from either a tail of a dragon or a lion split into elongated leaves divided into three lobes. The colours are blue for the panel and red for the letters.

The compositions of Illuminator B (fols. 25 – fig. 6; 31, 68v - fig. 10) are denser than those of the other illuminators: the dragons and fish are large, detailed and connected with each other. In between appear a monkey, a double-headed bird, a bucranium and a dog. The border consists of two freehand lines: the inner is in black ink; the outer, in brown, was added during colouring. The acanthus scrolls which emerge from the mouths of the creatures split into rounded, serrated leaves. The colours are yellowish for the panel, and green and magenta for parts of the motifs, which are mostly in spared-ground technique.

Illuminator C (fols. 39 – fig. 7, 50, 91v) inserts his human hybrids, dragons and bucranium motifs between the letter stems. The scroll of rounded, serrated leaves surrounds the composition and fills the spaces. The background colours and motifs have a few elements in spared-ground technique and the letters are in silver on a brown ground. The ruled double frame is in black ink and uncoloured.  

Illuminator D (fols. 162, 177 – fig. 8) draws only a few large motifs between the stems of the letters, such as a dragon and fish or human and animal hybrids. His style recalls that of Illuminator A but the composition is more spacious and framed by an acanthus scroll with three-lobed leaves. The ground is green, mostly washed off, whereas the motifs are in spared-ground technique. The letters are in silver, mostly flaked off to show the brown ground. The ruled double frame is in black ink and uncoloured.

Illuminator E (fols. 123, 189, 191a, 213v – fig. 9; 218, 239v, 250 and 270v) has the most spacious compositions. His motifs are fish, birds or bird and animal heads. He uses simple three-lobed segments of flowers as fillers, mostly attached to the frame. The motifs have a clear, wide ink outline and are sparsely articulated. They are in spared-ground technique, mostly on a red ground, but also on a washed-off green and parchment ground, with yellow, red or green frames. The letters are in flaked-off silver, revealing the brown ground.

It seems that the similar though distinguishable hands who decorated the manuscript were randomly allotted different quires. Illuminator A received quires II and XXXVII; Illuminator B quires IV, V and IX; Illuminator C quires VI, VII and XII; Illuminator D quires XXIII and XXIV; and Illuminator E quires XVI, XXVI, XXVII, XXIX, XXXI, XXXIII, XXXV and XXXVIII. In addition the text scribe decorated four initial words in quires I-III.

 

Fig. 3: Initial word

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 35

 

Fig. 4: Initial word by the text scribe

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 4

 

Fig. 5: Initial word panel by Illuminator A

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 12

 

Fig. 6: Initial word panel by Illuminator B

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 25

 

Fig. 7: Initial word panel by Illuminator C

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 39

 

 

Fig. 8: Initial word panel by Illuminator D

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 177

 

 

Fig. 9: Initial word panel by Illuminator E

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol.  213v

 

The dating and localisation of our manuscript can be established by comparison with the Laud Mahzor

(fig. 11) and Michael Mahzor (fig. 13). The style of Illuminator B, especially in his animal heads, is similar to that of the artist of the Laud Mahzor (cf. figs. 10-11). The heads depicted in profile are flattened, with a wide mouth and big eyes under a long eyebrow. The forehead is short and convex, and they have small, rounded ears.

 

Fig. 10: Initial word by Illuminator B

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 68v

 

 

Fig. 11: Laud Mahzor

Franconia, c.1260

Oxford, Bodl. Lib. Laud Or. 321, fol. 165v

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

Fig. 12: Initial word panel by Illuminator C

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 91v

 

 

Fig. 13: Initial word panel

Michael Mahzor

Franconia, 1258

Oxford, Bodl. Lib.Mich.617, fol. 52

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

In spite of these similarities, the composition of the panels in the Laud Mahzor and our manuscript is not very similar. A closer example is found in the Michael Mahzor (fig. 13). Its panels are decorated with similar motifs such as dragons, fish, heraldic eagles and animals which are placed within the letters and the frame, similarly to our Mahzor, while the scroll on the upper part of the panel creates an additional border

(cf. figs. 12-13).

 

 

Fig. 14: Initial word panel by Illuminator A

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21, fol. 263

 

 

Fig. 15: Initial word

Laud Mahzor

Franconia, c.1260

Oxford, Bodl. Lib. Laud Or. 321, fol. 171

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

Fig. 16: Initial letter

Graduale Ordinis Praedicatorum

St. Katharinental, 1312

Zurich, Landesmuseum (olim Malvern),

Dyson Perrins Coll., Ms 128, fol. 194

(Beer 1959, pl. 17, fig. 23)    

 

 

The letters decorated with dragons and acanthus scrolls in spared-ground technique (fig. 14) likewise appear in the Laud and Michael Mahzorim (fig. 15). However, in Latin manuscripts of German origin this type of decoration in spared-ground technique within letters appears about half a century later. Its earliest examples, such as the Graduale Ordinis Praedicatorum from St. Katharinental dated 1312 (fig. 16), are from theUpper Rhine region (see Beer 1959: Kat. Nos. 20, 23, 30), in contrast to Hebrew manuscripts which are mainly of Franconian origin.

 

       

Fig.17: Head between legs

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21,

fol. 177

Fig. 18: Head between legs

Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor

Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 21,

fol. 39

 

Fig. 19: Head between legs

Jacques de Longuyon:

Voeux du Paon

Franco-Flemish mid-14th century

New York, PML Glazier 24,

fol. 93

(Randall 1966, pl. CXI, fig. 536)

Fig. 20: Head between legs

Biblia Latina

Engelberg, c.1400-1420

Engelberg, Stiftsbibliothek Cod. 6, fol. 102v

(Jerusalem, CJA Sed-Rajna Archive)

 

Other motifs, especially outstanding ones such as that of a head between two legs (figs. 17, 18), are found in later Latin manuscripts. One example is a Franco-Flemish codex of the mid-14th century and another

from Engelberg at the beginning of the 15th century (figs. 19, 20). Originating apparently in Bestiaries and Marvels of the East (Wittkover 1942: 159-197; Randall 1957: 97-107), such motifs often appear in the margins or around initial letters.

In order to date our manuscript, its codicological features should also be considered: the pricking in the outer margins only and the ruling by stylus point to a transitional period for these techniques occurring during the second half of the 13th century (Beit-Arié 1976:22-25, 70-71, 74).

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
Annotations and corrections:
In the margins, mostly written by several later hands (e.g. fols. 10v, 70v and especially fols. 124v-125). Some are liturgical, relating to the order of reciting different parts, others are annotations pertaining directly to the text or added prayers (e.g. fols. 123, 133 and 242v-243, 249).
Fol. 146v, a later hand added an imprecatory poem תתנם לחרפה for the Day of Atonement preceded by the passage שפוך חמתך (Pour out Thy wrath, Ps. 79:6; see Goldschmidt 1970, II:מד; Freimann 1940/41:71-72; Yeivin 1970:285-286; Merhaviah 1971-1972, pp. 95-135, and p. 107, n. 61).
Fol. 162v, lower margin, written by a later hand: the piyyut אחלה פניך יוצר נשמתי by Eleazar Hakaliri.
Owners' Inscriptions:
Fol. 40v, lower margin: אשר משה (Asher Moshe) in smaller script.
Fol. 41, lower margin: אשר בן משה ענביי (Asher Moshe Anabii (in smaller script.
Fol. 71, outer margin: אהרן בר חנניה(?) (Aharon bar Hannaniah?).
Fol. 96, lower margin: אמר יצחק ... אברהם (Said Itzhak … Abraham).
Fol. 160v, upper margin: קלונימוס בר' אברהם (Kalonymos bar Abraham).
Fol. 163v, outer and lower margins: יצחק בן משה (Itzhak ben Moshe).
Fol. 225v, outer margin: אברהם (Abraham).
Fol. 253, lower margin: משה בר' שלמה אל אשר קולמוס (Moshe bar Shlomo to Asher Kolmus).
Front cover, inside, stuck on pastedown, a Latin inscription by H. Schedel: Ducet te dominus et regem/ tuum quem constitueris super te/ in gentem quam ignoras/ et patres (Vulgate, Deut. 28:36; The Lord shall bring thee and thy king which thou shalt set over thee, unto a nation which neither thou nor thy fathers have known).
Second back flyleaf, verso, also by H. Schedel: Prophetam de medio tui de fratri/ bus tuis sicut me sustitabit tibi/ dominus deus tuus ipsum audies (Vulgate, Deut. 18:15; The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee of thy brethren, like unto me: him thou shalt hear).
Between the leaves of the Mahzor, a separate leaf was found containing a letter from Fr. Nonnosus to H. Schedel. The letter discusses a damaged manuscript which Schedel sent to Fr. Nonnosus to be restored but which was returned to him untouched. From the description of its physical condition, which says that many of the manuscript's leaves were stuck together and stained, it can hardly be our Mahzor. Fr. Nonnosus, like Schedel, was a Hebraist interested in Hebrew manuscripts (Walde 1916, pp. 188-189).
Librarians' inscriptions:
Front cover pastedown, an inscription by Librarian 1a (1552-1571), in brown ink:
קצת תפילות היהודים במועדים/ ובימים טובים גם סליחות לתענית
(Some Jewish prayers for festivals and holidays and penitential prayers for fast days).
Below it by librarian 2 (cf. BSB Cod.hebr. 69), the contents are listed in Hebrew in Latin characters as well as in Latin in brown ink: Kezas tephilos h[aiehudi]m bemoedim vbeiamim Thouim slihos/ lethanais.// Liber seu pars [...] Iudaicarum super praecipuis/ festis et quibus tante precationibus pro remissionem peccatorum.
Signatures:
Front cover, upper part, in black ink: •C•, signature of Schedel's library.
Back cover, upper right corner, in black ink: St. 8 n. 73, signature of Fugger's library.
Front cover, lower part of the narrow pigskin strip, in black ink: [J.] n. 55 (J is partly cropped), signature of the Duke's library by Prommer.
Front cover pastedown, lower part, in red ink: J. 45, Prommer's revision in 1582-1583 of signatures in the Duke's library.
Front cover pastedown, upper right corner, in black ink: MS. Hebr. 17.
Back inner cover, upper left, the library's sticker: Cod. Hebr. 21
Exlibris and stamps:
Front pastedown: the exlibris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (230 x 175 mm) with the arms of Elector Maximilian I from 1638 (Dressler 1972: B3ab). It is stuck over the Duke's earlier exlibris (178 x 135 mm) from 1618 (Dressler 1972: A3a-f), before he became Elector in 1623 (see BSB Cod.hebr. 14, 90).
On fol. 1, lower margin, and on fol. 293v, outer margin, is an oval stamp of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek from the 19th century: BIBLIOTHECA/ REGIA/ MONACENSIS.
Two woodcuts which served as front and back flyleaves, now in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung in Munich (Inv. Nr. 171524 and 171525), were removed by a BSB librarian.
In 1552 Hartmann Schedel's collection of Hebrew manuscripts together with other manuscripts and printed books from his library was sold by his grandson Melchior to Johann Jacob Fugger of Augsburg. Later, in 1571, Fugger's library was acquired by Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria and incorporated into his Hofbibliothek in Munich (Hartig 1917:261; Stauber 1908:146).
Restoration: 17.12.1951.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
The beginning, the end and some leaves within the quires are missing. A few leaves at the beginning
(fols. 1-2) and end (fols. 268-290) are damaged and stained.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Abbreviations
Bodl. Lib. Oxford, Bodleian Library
BSB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
CJA Jerusalem, Center for Jewish Art, The Hebrew University:
• Narkiss Archive
• Schubert Archive
• Sed-Rajna Archive
• CJA Documentation
EBDB Munich, Die Bayerische Staatsbibliothek: Einbanddatenbank
JTS New York, Theological Seminary of America
NLI Jerusalem, National Library of Israel (olim JNUL)
PML New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
SGS Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung



Beer 1959 E. J. Beer, Beiträge zur Oberrheinischen Buchmalerei in der ersten Hälfte des 14.
Jahrhunderts unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Initialornamentik, Basel und Stuttgart 1959.
Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985 M. Beit-Arié (ed.), The Worms Mahzor: MS Jewish National and University
Library Heb. 4°781, Vaduz 1985.
Beit-Arié 1976 M. Beit-Arié, Hebrew Codicology, Paris 1976.
Davidson 1924–1933 I. Davidson, Thesaurus of Medieval Hebrew Poetry, New York 1924–1933.
Dressler 1972 F. Dressler and B. Schröder, Die Exlibris der Bayerischen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek 17.
bis 20. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden 1972.
Fleischer 1985 E. Fleischer, "Prayer and Piyyut in the Worms Mahzor", Worms Mahzor (Facsimile
Edition), M. Beit-Arié (ed.), Jerusalem 1985.
Fleischer 2008 ע' פליישר, התפילה והפיוט במחזור נירנברג, ירושלים 2008 (E. Fleischer, The Prayer and Piyyut in
the Nuremberg Mahzor, Jerusalem 2008).
Freimann 1940/41 א' פריימן, "תתנם לחרפה, תוכחה לרש"י ז"ל (הו"ל עפ"י כ"י)", תרביץ יב תש"א, עמ' 70-74
(A. H. Freimann, "תתנם לחרפה, An Imprecatory Poem by Rashi (edited from MS.)", Tarbiz 12
(1940/1941), pp. 70-74).
Goldschmidt 1970, I&II ד' גולדשמידט, מחזור לימים הנוראים לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1970:
כרך א, ראש השנה; כרך ב, יום כיפור
(D. Goldschmidt, Mahzor for Days of Awe according to all Ashkenazi Rites, 2 vols. Jerusalem 1970).
Hartig 1917 O. Hartig, Die Gründung der Münchener Hofbibliothek durch Albrecht V. und Johann Jakob
Fugger, Munich 1917.
Hernad 1990 B. Hernad (ed.), Die Graphiksammlung des Humanisten Hartmann Schedel, Munich 1990.
Kyriss 1951/58 E. Kyriss, Verzierte gotische Einbände im alten deutschen Sprachgebiet, Stuttgart
1951-1958.
Merhaviah 1971-1972 ח' מרחביה, "ה'שמתא' בספרות-הפולמוס הנוצרית בימי הביניים", תרביץ מא (תשל"א), עמ' 95-135
(H. Merhaviah, "The 'Shamta': Medieval Polemic Christian Literature", Tarbiz 41 (1971-1972): pp.
95-135).
Randall 1957 L. M. C. Randall, "Exempla as a Source of Gothic Marginal Illumination," The Art Bulletin,
39/2 (1957): 97-107.
Randall 1966 L. M. C. Randall, Images in the Margins of Gothic Manuscripts, Berkeley and Los Angeles
1966.
Stauber 1908 R. Stauber, Die Schedelsche Bibliothek, Freiburg 1908.
Shalev-Eyni 2001 S. Shalev-Eyni, Hamahzor Hameshulash (The Tripartite Mahzor), Ph.D. Thesis, The
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2001 (Hebrew, unpublished).
Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K.Hof- und Staatsbibliothek
in München, Munich 1895.
Walde 1916 B. Walde, Christliche Hebräisten Deutschlands am Ausgang des Mittelalters, Münster 1916.
Wittkover 1942 R. Wittkover, "Marvels of the East. A Study in the History of Monsters," Journal of the
Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 5 (1942): 159-197.
Yeivin 1970 י' ייבין, "על ניקוד ה"שמתא" לר' אברהם בן יעקב בכ"י מינכן 21", תרביץ לט, עמ' 285-286
(I. Yeivin, "On Vocalisation of the 'Shamta' in MS Munich 21", Tarbiz 39 (1970), pp. 285-286).
Ziemlich 2009 ב' צימליך, מחזור נירנברג, תרומה לחקר מנהג התפילה וספרות הפרשנות של המחזור הגרמני, תרגמה לעברית
אסתר גוגנהיים עבור בית הספרים הלאומי והאוניברסיטאי, ירושלים, (2007), גרסה סופית אוגוסט 2009, ירושלים 2009
(B. Ziemlich, Das Machsor Nürnberg – Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung des Ritus und der
Commentarliteratur des Deutschen Machsor, Berlin 1886).
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
4094
48 Temp: Addenda
OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 2008; 2009 49a
50 Researcher Ilona Steimann; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Yaffa levy 2008; 2014; 2014 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal; Project head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 2014 53a
54 Editor Christine Evans 2014 54a
55 Donor Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation 2008-2012 55a

Less Details


Object's images (21 image(s))

      [1] [2]

(XXII) ID: 25220 Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor , Former flyleaf woodcut in BSB Cod.hebr. 21, originally printed in Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer des Heils by S. Fridolin, Franconia, Third quarter of the 13th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 25220 Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor , Former flyleaf woodcut in BSB Cod.hebr. 21, originally printed in Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer des Heils by S. Fridolin, Franconia, Third quarter of the 13th century edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor | Unknown
3a Object Mahzor
3b Object Detail Former flyleaf woodcut in BSB Cod.hebr. 21, originally printed in Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer des Heils by S. Fridolin
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date Third quarter of the 13th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Franconia
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 21 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 21)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Franconian scribal art of the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Joseph, sold to Ishmaelites (Gen. 37:28) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

 

   

Fig. 1: Selling Joseph to the Ishmaelites

Formerly the second front or first back flyleaf woodcut in the Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor  BSB Cod.hebr. 21)

Munich, SGS Inv. Nr. 171524

 

 

Fig. 2: Selling Joseph to the Ishmaelites, woodcut

Stephen Fridolin, Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer

des Heils, fig. 14

Nuremberg, 1491

Munich, BSB Rar. 293, text, fols. 46v, 48r

 Formerly the second front or first back flyleaf of BSB, Cod.hebr. 21 (now SGS, Inv. Nr. 171524).        

Joseph wearing a short red garment and boots, is being pulled up from the well, probably by Judah who suggested selling him to the passing Ishmaelites, who are seen at the back with their two laden camels     (fig. 1). Behind the well a second brother, his left hand filled with coins, demands with his right index finger the last coin from a dignified merchant wearing a red hat and robe, and with a purse hanging from his belt. The other seven brothers of Joseph are looking on the right. They are wearing shepherd's cloths, boots and various headgear. In front of the well their herd of sheep is grazing. Framing the scene is an acanthus scroll inhabited by men with dogs hunting a bear, a deer and two monkeys.

 

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Woodcut coloured with red, green, pink, yellow and brown.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 332 x 234 mm; without border: 249 x 178 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
None
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The text in the Schatzbehalter (BSB Rar. 293, fols. 46v, 48r), corresponding to this image (figs. 1, 2), belongs to the eleventh counter-design (Gegenwurf), which appears with the same title as above: No. 5 Alle Wirdigkeit hat Cristum bedeut. It deals with Christ’s dignity, prefigured in the firstborn persons of the Old Testament. In his text relating to this image (fig. 2), Fridolin discusses the matter of sale of the first-born in the Old and New Testaments. Since the first-born males belong to God (Num.18:15) and therefore to the priests, Christ was redeemed by being sold to his mother as seen in the thirteenth depiction (Redemption of the firstborn). Later, he was sold by Judas Iscariot and handed over to the priests. In the fourteenth depiction, of the sale of Joseph (Gen. 37:28), Fridolin compares the sale of Christ to that of Joseph, who was first sold by his brothers and then by the Midianites and Ishmaelites in Egypt. Christ, the son of God, born before all creatures, recalls Joseph, who was the actual firstborn son of the beloved Rachel and Jacob. Thus, according to Fridolin's reference (see his note 103) to the Sermon of Leo the Great Pascali sacramento, he is the prefiguration of Christ. 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Hernad 1990 B. Hernad (ed.), Die Graphiksammlung des Humanisten Hartmann Schedel, Munich 1990.
Schramm 1934: A. Schramm, "Der Bilderschmuck der Frühdrucke, fortgeführt von der Kommission für
den Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke", vol. 17, Leipzig 1934.
Schreiber 1969 W. L. Schreiber, Handbuch der Holz- und Metallschnitte des XV. Jahrhunderts, vol.
10/2, Leipzig 1969.
Stadler 1913 F. J. Stadler, Michael Wolgemut und der Nürnberger Holzschnitt im letzten Drittel des XV.
Jahrhunderts, Strasbourg 1913.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25220
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a



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