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  (XI) Obj. ID: 26165 Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot,, Ashkenaz, 15th century. // Unknown edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts


2 Name/Title Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot | Unknown
3a Object Pentateuch
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 15th century
5a Activity Dates
5b Reconstruction Dates
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Ashkenaz
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 25 (Schwartz 10)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
20 Remarks
20 Description

More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
Genesis and Exodus with Rashi commentary and Haftarot.
Inscriptions and pen trials (fol. 1)
The Song of the Sea and assorted verses from Exodus (fol. 1v)
Genesis: (fols. 2-72)
Exodus: (fols. 72v-137v)
Rashi commentary: (fols. 2-137v except for fols. 128v-129 and fols. 130v-131v) in the upper, lower and outer margins.
Blessings for reading the Scroll of Esther on Purim (fols. 138-138v)
Haftarot for Genesis: (fols. 139-153)
Haftarot for Exodus: (fols. 153-167v)
Special Haftarot (fols. 168-170) including for Shabbat Shekalim (fol. 168); for the second day of Sukkot; for a wedding (fol. 168v-169); the New Moon (fol. 169); the Sabbath of the New Moon (fols. 169v-170)
24 Codicology

Vellum, II+170+II leaves Measurements Full page: 310 x 230 mm Main text: c. 190 x 105mm Rashi commentary: (210-265) x (50-60)mm Scribes The main text was written by one main scribe and two other scribes who each wrote several sections. The punctuation and the inscriptions on the opening page were written by an additional hand: Scribe A Inscriptions and pen trials Fol. 1 Scribe B Text of Genesis and Exodus Fols. 2-137v Scribe C Text of blessings for Fol. 138 the reading of Esther Scroll; Special Haftarot. Fols. 168-170; Scribe D Haftarot for Genesis and Exodus.Fols. 139-167v; The Rashi commentary was written by three hands: Hand 1: fols. 2-8v (till חסלת בראשית) Hand 2: fols. 8v-106 Hand 3: fols. 106v-137v Script Main text written in square Ashkenazi script in brown ink Rashi commentary written in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink Number of lines Main text of Pentateuch: 21 lines in one column Haftarot (fols. 139-167v): 19 lines in two text columns Special Haftarot (fols. 168-170):34-35 lines in one text column Rashi commentary: 39-50 lines Ruling Ruling in plummet (on either side). 2+2 vertical lines for main text. 3+2 or 2+2 or 2+1 or 1+1 vertical lines for commentary. For Pentateuch, usually 22 horizonal lines. Haftarot: 20 horizontal lines. Commentary: 39-52 horizontal lines. Pricking Discernable in all the margins. Quires 21 quires of 8 leaves each, except for quire XVIII8+2 (fols. 137, 138 are single leaves) Catchwords Catchwords for quires are set at in the left hand corner of the final verso of almost all the quires (e.g. quire XIV, fol. 112v where the quire was probably cut off by a later binder) Hebrew numeration None Blank leaves None

24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Vellum
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors
25k Construction Material

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
Colophon of the punctuator, today only legible under ultra-violet light:
Fol. 1: אני בורי(?) הנקו' לעצמי ברבי' חסדא בר דוד הכהן ספר בראשית ספר שמות והמגלה הכל בירח תמוז ב ימים בחודש שזה קס"ו לפרט חזק על כן ברך השם את יום השבת ויקדשהו.
Translation: "I, ? the punctuation, for myself, Rabbi Hisda son of David the Cohen the book of Genesis, the book of Exodus and the scroll all in the month of Tammuz, on the second day of the month which is the year 1406 (according to Shwartz – 1407. Perhaps he read the date as the year קס"ז.), strength…"
31 Scribal Notes
Indications of the punctuator's name, Barukh (copied from Shwartz):

• Fol. 1: several inscriptions including different variations on the name Barukh son of David the Cohen (May he rest in Peace), which seems to be the name of the punctuator written in the colophon on the same folio. The first of the inscriptions includes the dates of the 25th of Shevat, 1443 and Monday, the 20th of Kislev, 1445.
כ"ה שבט פרט ר"ג בירך כ' כסליו י מנקו' יום ב' קעהל ברך בר דוד הכהן זצ"ל תנב"ע
ברכי' כהן
וגם מחזור קטן צדקה
בריך כהן
וכשיהיו ביחד אילו שני פרשיות תרומה ואתה תצוה כהן קור'...

• Fol. 29v: The word "bless" (which can be read as the name Baruch) ( ברך), appearing in the text, is marked above by a sign resembling the letter "shin" (ש). The same sign appears in the inner margin and below it is written "Barukh (and also "bless") the punctuator" ( ברך נקדן).
• Fol. 100v: written in the inner margin by dots: "Barukh (also "bless") the punctuator" ( ברך נקדן).
Additional scribal notes:
• Fol. 1v: includes passages from the Song of the Sea and other assorted verses from Exodus, possibly by the hand of the punctuator.
• Upper part of fol. 2: Written in a crude hand: בית גדו' בראש החומש ולמה שהיא תחילה מקרא. It is possible that the person who wrote this was the punctuator of the manuscript, or perhaps a later annotator. It is also possible that this hand was also the hand responsible for the crude decoration which surrounds the initial word on this folio. This note refers to a "large letter bet at the opening of the Pentateuch because it is the beginning of the Bible".
• Fol. 17: (copied from Shwartz): ראיתי בתק' סופר': ברך שיכולי' לכתו' כדר לעמר/לעמך בשתי שורו' ובכל המדויקי' ר' כדר' אינה נקוד ולא מצא' כך כתוב ונקוד יוסף
Perhaps this note is of the punctuator, explaining that he saw in the תקון סופרים that the word Barukh can be written without the letter Vav.
• Fol. 1v, above the text of the Song of the Sea which is written in brick formation is a scribal note informing that this form is the correct manner of writing this section of text in a Torah scroll: כך הוא צריך להיות בספר תורה. Within the text of the manuscript itself, when the Song of the Sea appears in Exodus, it is written in a different form of alternating longer and shorter lines.
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

The decoration was executed by a very crude hand, mostly in black ink (perhaps by the punctuator or by the annotator, who wrote in a crude hand the inscription at the top of fol. 2, see: History).

 

  1. Two initial words, for the opening of each book.  Both words are written in large display letters with circles set on the junctions of the letter.  One is written in ersatz gold and surrounded by crude wriggly work which forms a panel around the word and extends below the initial word, framing the entire main text of the page and incorporating within the wriggly work two simple busts (fol. 2) while the other is written in black ink and is undecorated (fol. 72v).
  2. Shaped text of Rashi commentary (e.g., fols. 8v- 9v, 10, 12, 14, 30, 31, 31v, 32, 33, 34v-37v, 39-40, 43, 44, 44v, 46, 47, 47v, 48, 49, 49v, 50, 50v, 51, 53v, 55v, 56, 56v, 57, 57v, 58-60v, 61, 63, 63v, 64, 64v, 65, 66, 66v, 67, 67v, 68, 71, 71v, 72, 74, 74v, 75, 75v, 76, 76v, 77, 77v, 78v, 80v, 81, 81v, 86v, 87, 88v, 89, 90, 90v, 92, , 106, 114, 114v, 115, 115v, 117v, 118v, 119, 119v, 126, 126v, 127v, 128, 130, 132, 136, 137).  The text forms mostly the shapes of triangles, diamonds, columns or circles.

 

36 Summary and Remarks

The Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot contains the books of Genesis and Exodus surrounded by Rashi's commentary as well as the haftarot readings for both of these books, all written in square Ashkenazi script in several sizes, by one main scribe and two other additional scribes.  In addition, the Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot also includes two single leaves, preceding the haftarot, on which are written the blessings accompanying the reading of the scroll of Esther on Purim.  The punctuator of the manuscript mentions in his colophon that he completed his work on "Genesis, Exodus, The Scroll and the Haftarot" (fol. 1, See: Colophon) and so it would seem that the manuscript originally also included the Scroll of Esther, and this was either lost or removed at some point in time, and only the two leaves of the blessings accompanying the reading of the scroll remained. 

It remains unclear what the function of such a manuscript containing only these specific texts might have been, since in most cases a manuscript of this type would tend to include all five books of the Pentateuch rather than only the first two as appear in our Viennamanuscript.  Also surprising is the addition of only the Scroll of Esther, rather than all five scrolls, as typically found in manuscripts of this type.  It is rare to find medieval Ashkenazi manuscripts containing only these specific texts, among which can be found the Copenhagen Ashkenazi Pentateuch (Copenhagen, The Royal Library, Cod. Hebr. 14) dating to the 14th-15th century. This manuscript contains the texts of Genesis, Exodus, Haftarot and the Scroll of Esther, with Rashi commentary.  Besides these texts, the Copenhagen manuscript also contains the Massorah Magna, Massorah Parva and the translation to Aramaic of Unkelus, all of which do not appear in the Vienna manuscript.  Another manuscript, dating to 1246 containing similar texts is housed in Moscow (Russian State Library, Ms. Guenzburg 1504).  However, this manuscript also contains the Massorah Magna, Massorah Parva and the translation to Aramaic of Unkelus but does not contain Rashi's commentary.

The portions of the Bible appearing in the haftarot of the Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot reveal that they mostly follow the Ashkenazi rite, with a few slight variations.  It is interesting to note that the haftarah reading for a wedding and the haftarah reading for the second day of Sukkot both follow the Italian rite. Both of these haftarot are p art of the sections written by scribe B who was responsible for the copying of the blessings accompanying the reading of the Scroll of Esther on Purim (fol. 138) and the special haftarot (fols. 168-170).

The manuscript includes several inscriptions indicating that the punctuator was Barukh (perhaps also with the name Hisda) son of David the Cohen.  One of the inscriptions (fol. 1) mentions the date of 1406 (according to Shwartz's reading, 1407) and another the date of 1443.  It would seem then that the manuscript was written sometime either during, or after the year 1406, and most probably either before the end of the 14th or beginning of the 15th century.

The decoration of the Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot is simple, including two initial words written in large display letters, one of which is surrounded by crude wriggly work which forms a panel around the word and extends below the initial word, framing the entire main text of the page (fol. 2).  This crude decoration may have been executed by the punctuator, Barukh, or by a different later hand.  Two?? simple faces are incorporated within the wriggly work. The decoration also includes the text of the Rashi commentary formed in different geometrical shapes.


 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
Previously housed in the Ancient University of Vienn
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good. Fols. 139-167 are slightly damaged by dampness (Shwartz)
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Unknown
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
26165
48 Temp: Addenda
OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3A%2Cphoto_date%3A%2Cphotographer_copyright%3A%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Estherlee Kanon; Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 49a
50 Researcher Estherlee Kanon August, 2005 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

Less Details


Object's images (1 image(s))

     

(XXII) ID: 261342 Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot, , Ashkenaz, 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 261342 Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot, , Ashkenaz, 15th century edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Genesis, Exodus and Haftarot | Unknown
3a Object Pentateuch
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
4c Maker Detail
5 Date 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Ashkenaz
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 25 (Schwartz 10)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M001149
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
261342
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a



     

 

 

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