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  (XI) Obj. ID: 2191 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible ,, Würzburg, 1232/33. // Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19 Remarks See: Additional Remarks, below
20 Description

More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
Commentaries on the Bible (without Proverbs) by Rashi and others: Joseph Kara: Major Prophets (Isaiah and Jeremiah; Ezekiel by a disciple of Kara) and Hagiography (Lamentations); Benjamin ben Yehudah of Rome (בנימין בן יהודה מרומה): Ezra and Nehemiah; the commentaries on Job by Rashi (1-40:25) and Jacob Nazir alternating with Rashbam (Job 40:26-end); Rashbam on Genesis 1; the commentary on Chronicles is anonymous.
The text mentions many other commentators, for example Elazar ben Meshulam, Dosa ben Elazar, Isaac ben Asher Halevy (Riva,( Shlomo ben Itzhak of Montil, Yaakov ben Menahem, Shemaiah Hashoshani; Menahem bar Halabo, Meir Shliah Tzibur, Baruch of Mainz, Meshulam Rofe, Saadia Gaon, Shmuel ben Meir (Rashbam(, and Yaakov ben Shabetai (see Buber 1898, pp. IV-V, note (ו); Steinschneider 1895, p. 2).
Contents in detail:
Vol. I: commentary on the Pentateuch and the Former Prophets:
1. Pentateuch (I:2-170) by Scribe A: Genesis (I:1v-44), Exodus (fols. 44v-83v), Leviticus (I:84-110),
Numbers (I:110v-141), Deuteronomy (I:141v-170). I:1, a single leaf with the beginning of Genesis, was
supplied by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549; the initial word decorated with a folded ribbon motif is by Meir.
Both scribes belong to Hans-Jacob Fugger's team in Venice.
2. Former Prophets (I:170v-217v; II:1r) by Scribe A, except for I:216-217 by B: Joshua (I:170v-177),
Judges (I:177v-184v), I and II Samuel (I:185-201), I and II Kings (I:201 - the abrupt end on 217v).
I:218, a single leaf at the end of the volume, the last page of II Kings was copied by Yishai ben Yehiel
in 1549. The original page had a title page by Meir pasted on to it and was transferred with two other
leaves to the beginning of the second volume starting with Isaiah (II:1v). This was done in order to
divide the pandect into two volumes.
Vol. II: commentary on Latter Prophets and Hagiography:
1. Major Prophets (II:1v-92) by Scribe B, except for II:1r, a 16th-century title page: Isaiah (II:1v-43),
Jeremiah (II:43, 3rd column-62v), Ezekiel (II:62v, 3rd column-92).
2. Minor Prophets (II:92v-122) by Scribe A, except for II:120v, 3rd column-122 by B: Hosea (II:92v-98v),
Joel (II:99-100), Amos (II:100-103v), Obadiah (II:104-104v), Jonah (II:105-105v), Micah (II:106-108v),
Nahum (II:109-110v), Habakkuk (II:110v-112v), Zephaniah (II:112v-113v), Haggai (II:113v-114v),
Zechariah (II:114v-120), Malachi (II:120v-122).
3. Five Scrolls (II:122v-158) by Scribe A, except for II:145r, 2nd column-149a and 152-158 by B: Ruth
(II:122v-124v), Song of Songs (II:125-141v), Ecclesiastes (II:142-149a), Esther (II:149a verso-152v),
Lamentations (II:153-158).
4. Hagiography (II:158v-256) by Scribe A, except for II:158v-182v, 221-226v by B: Psalms (II:158v-
182v), Job (II:183-208v), Daniel (II:209-220), Ezra (II:220v-226v), Chronicles (II:226a-255v).
II:252v-255v; the running colophon is written in roundels in the corners of the text space.
5. Fol. 256: Colophon repeated twice.
6. Fol. 257v (a single leaf at the end of volume II): The beginning of a commentary by Rashbam on the
Pentateuch, by Scribe A.
24 Codicology
Material Sheepskin (e.g. II:116, 117v, 118, 119v, 120, 121v). Originally the manuscript was one pandect; today it is separated into two volumes, each with a new numeration starting on the verso of the page, in the first volume in the bottom left corner and in the second at top left. Vol. I: 1 + 220 (mistakenly foliated 218 - fols. 56 and 63 numbered twice) + 1 leaves. Fol. 218 is a 1549 addition (end of II Kings) by Yishai ben Yehiel. Vol. II: 1 + 263 (mistakenly foliated 257 - fols. 131, 143, 144, 149, 226, 242 numbered twice) + 1 leaves. Fol. 1 is a 1549 title page by Meir stuck on the original text which ends II Kings of vol. I. Both sides of the parchment are treated similarly. The quires are arranged according to Gregory's rule, each starting with the yellowish hair side. Measurements Full page: Vol. I: (394-400) x (289-295) mm. Vol. II: (390-393) x (291-294) mm. Text space: Vol. I: Shlomo: (275-283) x 190 mm. Joseph (?): (285-286) x (185-190) mm. Vol. II: Shlomo: (274-278) x (191-194) mm. Joseph (?): (272-285) x (193-194) mm. Scribes I. The text is copied by two scribes: the main Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel, and Scribe B, probably Joseph (II: 4, 30v), who copied 15 full quires and shared 4 other quires with the main scribe: Scribe A: I:2-215v; II:92v-120v, 1st and middle columns; II:122v-145, 1st column; II:149a verso-151v; II:183-220v; II:226a recto-256; II:257v Genesis 1, commentary by Rashbam. Scribe B: I:216-217v; II:1 with the 1549 title page stuck on top -92; II:120v, 3rd column-22; II:182v; II:221- 226v. II. 14th-century hands inserted book and section titles in the blank spaces allocated by Scribes A and B: 1. Book titles in display script: Leviticus (I:84), Numbers (I:110v), Deuteronomy (I:141v), I Kings (I:201); Isaiah (II:1v), Hosea (II:92v), Joel (II:99), Ruth (II:122v), Esther (II:149v), Chronicles (II:226a). 2. Parashot in built-up letters: Exodus (I:50, 53, 56a, 59, 72, 75v, 81v, 82). 3. Parashot and haftarot by another hand in semi-cursive script: Exodus (I:96, 133v), Isaiah (II:25v, 33). III. Two scribes of the Fugger team writing in Venice in 1549: 1. Yishai ben Yehiel supplied the first lost leaf of the commentary to Genesis and the last leaf of II Kings (I:1v, 218), the original of which was transferred to the second volume (II:1). This was done when the manuscript, originally a single volume, was divided into two for Fugger's Library. 2. Meir decorated the initial word of Genesis (I:1v) with a folded ribbon motif and executed the title page of the Latter Prophets in the second volume (II:1r) with drawings of a deer and a hound. Script The text is written in a semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. Columns Vols. I and II: three columns (width of one: 50 mm.), except for leaves with shaped text at the ends of books, and II:257v in two columns (a final single leaf with Rashbam's commentary on Genesis). Number of lines Vols. I and II: the main text is written in 43-44 lines per column by both scribes, except for II:257v in 70 lines per column by Scribe A. Ruling Vols. I and II: by stylus on hair side, 45 horizontal (last line blank) and 2+2+2+2 vertical lines, for both scribes. The two top and bottom lines are ruled across the entire page. Pricking Pricking is noticeable for both scribes in the upper, lower and outer margins (e.g. I:13, 71-72; II:44-46, 68-89). Pricking in the inner margin is discernible wherever Scribe A writes: in all of vol. I (e.g. I:95-102, 172-185) and in vol. II (e.g. II:1-92, 158-182). However, no inner margin pricking is discernible (II:92-121) where Scribe A follows Scribe B (II:92v-120v); but there is inner margin pricking (II:122-157) where Scribe B follows Scribe A (II:120v-122, 145-149a, 152-157). It can thus be assumed that each scribe did his own pricking and ruling, including some extra leaves which were copied by the following scribe. Quires Vol. I: 28 quires of 8 leaves each except for I(8-1)+1 (original first folio with text lost, supplied by a 16th-century hand (fol. 1); XVIII6 (no text is missing); XXVIII(8-3)+1 (three final written leaves were cut off and transferred to vol. II (quire I3+8, beginning of Isaiah); thus fols. 213-215 are single leaves with stubs. The last original folio with text, 218, was moved to the second volume (now II:1) and a new single leaf was added by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549, recopying the end of II Kings. Quires structhure: I(8-1)+1 (1-8v, fol.1 is an added single leaf of 1549 replacing a lost one); II8 (9-16v); III8 (17-24v); IV8 (25-32v); V8 (33-40v); VI8 (41-48v); VII8 (49-56v); VIII8 (56a-63v, fol. 56 numbered twice: 56, 56a); IX8 (63a-70v, fol. 63 numbered twice: 63, 63a); X8 (71-78v); XI8 (79-86v); XII8 (87-94v); XIII8 (95-102v); XIV8 (103-110v); XV8 (111-118v); XVI8 (119-126v); XVII8 (127-134v); XVIII6 (135-140v); XIX8 (141-148v); XX8 (149-156v); XXI8 (157 164v); XXII8 (165-172v); XXIII8 (173-180v); XXIV8 (181-188v); XXV8 (189-196v); XXVI8 (197-204v); XXVII8 (205-212v); XXVIII(8-3)+1 (213-218v, II Kings ends abruptly on fol. 217v; fol. 218, an added leaf with the end of II Kings, was copied by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549; the original leaf (with Isaiah on the verso) and two other leaves were transferred to the beginning of the second volume). Vol. II: 33 quires of 8 leaves each except for I3+8 (the first three, fols. 1-3, are single leaves transferred from vol. I, last quire XXVIII(8-3)+1. The original text of fol. II:1r - end of II Kings, is covered by a single title page executed by Meir in 1549); XV6 (no text missing); XXIV1+8 (the first leaf with stub); XXVII6 (no text missing); XXIX6 (no text missing); XXXIII8+1 (the single leaf contains the beginning Rashbam's commentary on the Pentateuch, Genesis 1, copied by Scribe A). Quires structhure: I3+8 (1-11v, beginning of Major Prophets; beginning of Isaiah fol. 1v; fol. 1r is a title page of 1549 by Meir, stuck onto the original recto of fol. 1v); II8 (12-19v); III8 (20-27v); IV8 (28-35v); V8 (36-43v); VI8 (44-51v); VII8 (52-59v); VIII8 (60-67v); IX8 (68-75v); X8 (76-83v); XI8 (84-91v); XII8 (92-99v); XIII8 (100-107v); XIV8 (108-115v); XV6 (116-121v, no text missing); XVI8 (122-129v); XVII8 (130-136v, fol. 131 numbered twice: 131, 131a); XVIII8 (137-143a verso, fol. 143 numbered twice: 143, 143a); XIX8 (144-149a verso, fols. 144 and 149 numbered twice: 144, 144a and 149, 149a); XX8 (150-157v); XXI8 (158-165v); XXII8 (166-173v); XXIII8 (174-181v); XXIV1+8 (182-190v, fol. 182, single first leaf added to end the Psalms, fol. 182v, beginning of Job fol. 183). According to Klemm (1998, Nos. 194-195), Proverbs was written between fol. 182 (end of Psalms by Scribe B) and fol. 183 (beginning of Job by Scribe A) as one quire; XXV8 (191-198v); XXVI8 (199-206v); XXVII6 (207-212v); XXVIII8 (213-220v); XXIX6 (221-226v); XXX8 (226a-233v, fol. 226 numbered twice: 226, 226a); XXXI8 (234-241v); XXXII8 (242-248v, fol. 242 numbered twice: 242, 242a); XXIII8+1 (249-257v; fol. 256v is blank; fol. 257 is a single leaf attached to the last quire: the recto is blank, the verso has Rashbam's commentary on Genesis 1). Catchwords For both scribes in the bottom left-hand corner of the last page of quires, decorated with lines, dots and spirals. Blank leaves Vol. I: fol. 218v (16th-century addition). Vol. II: fols. 256v, 257.
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
Two colophons of the main Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel:
1. Vol. II:252v-255v, in the corners of the text space are twenty-eight roundels, four to a page, each
enclosing one word on a black ink ground:
אני שלמה ברבי שמואל (fol. 252v)/ כתבתי אילו פירושי עשרים (fol. 253)/ וארבעה ספרים לרבי יוסף (fol. 253v)/ ברבי משה בשנת ארבעת (fol. 254)/ אלפים ותשע מאות ותשעים (fol. 254v)/ ושלשה לבריאת עולם וזה (fol. 255)/ יהיה זכרי בשובי לעפרי (fol. 255v).
I, Solomon son of R. Samuel, wrote these commentaries on the twenty-four books [of the Bible] for R.
Joseph son of R. Moses in the year four thousand nine hundred and ninety-three from the creation of
the world (1232/3). And this will be my memorial when I return to dust.
2. Vol. II:256, last leaf:
אני שלמה ברבי שמואל ממדינת וירצבורק כתבתי/ אילו פירושים של עשרים וארבעה ספרים לרבי יוסף/ בר' משה בשנת
ארבעת אלפים ותשע מאות ותשעים/ ושלשה לבריאת עולם והמקום יזכהו להגות בהם/ ולהורישם לבניו ולבני בניו עד סוף כל הדורות אמן./ ורוח ממרום יערה עלינו. ובתורתו יאיר עינינו./ ויביא משיח צדקינו. ויבנה בית מקדשינו./ ושם תצמיח קרן אלינו. אמן במהרה בימינו
I, Solomon son of R. Samuel from the city of Würzburg have written these commentaries on the
twenty-four books for R. Joseph son of R. Moses in the year four thousand nine hundred and ninety-
three from the creation of the world (1232/3). The Lord will let him consult them and bequeath them to
his sons and sons' sons to the end of generations. Amen. And may the heavenly spirit be poured out
upon us (paraphrase of Is. 32:15). And His Law will enlighten our eyes and bring the Messiah of justice.
And will build our Temple. And there you will make the horn [of David] sprout up for us
(paraphrase of Psalm 132:17). Amen, speedily in our own days.
31 Scribal Notes
Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel:
The scribe marked his name, Shlomo, with spirals or flowers (I:13v, 24, 25v, 33v, 69v, 163v, 201v, 202v; II:125v, 127v, 133, 136v, 143, 228v, 233v, 243, 250v).
Vol. I:75v, the name Shlomo (שלמה) is written in acrostic.
Vol. II:243, the words בר שמואל (son of Shmuel) are added in the cartouche which decorates the name Shlomo.
Vol. I:170, at the end of the Pentateuch, above the word strength (חזק), an inscription reads:
אילו פירושי חומש יסוד המאור הגדול רבינו שלמה ברבי יצחק ויש בתוכן טעמים ומדרשים שאינן מיסודו ונוספים על פתרונו
ועין לא ראתה זולתם ואזן לא שמעה דוגמתן והמשכיל בהם יזהיר כזוהר הרקיע (דניאל יב:3) ואורו לא ישקיע, וברוך הנותן
ליעף כח (ישעיהו מ:29), א'ס' (=אמן סלה).
These are the commentaries on the Pentateuch from the source of our great light, Rabbi Solomon ben
Rabbi Isaac, and among them are commentaries (טעמים) and midrashim not by him but additions to his
interpretation which no eye has seen and no ear has heard; and "the wise shall shine as the brightness
of the firmanent" (Daniel 12:3) and its light will not set, and blessed be "He [who] giveth power to the
faint" (Is. 40:29), Amen. Selah.
The scribe writes elaborate rhymed verses at the ends and beginnings of books (e.g. I:170-170v; I:98v-99, 103v-106).
Scribe B: Joseph (?):
The name Joseph is discreetly marked by Scribe B with dots in vol. II only (e.g. II:4, 30v). Although it could be the scribe's name, the colophon mentions Joseph as the owner of the manuscript (II:256).
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding

Fig. 1:

Front cover Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, vol. I

Fig. 2: Back cover Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, vol. I Both volumes have a similar binding (vol. I: 395 x 285 mm.; vol. II: 399 x 275 mm,): green morocco faded to brown on wooden boards, gold-tooled similarly on front and back with a central roundel in an undulating floral rhomboid within a large rectangle. The latter is decorated with foliate motifs at the corners and with a flower at the centre of each side of the frame (figs. 1-2). The central front roundel is inscribed פירושים (Commentaries). Above and below it is Fugger's shelf mark in Hebrew and Latin respectively: ת and Y for volume I (fig. 1), and ש (sic) and Z for volume II. The roundel on the back encloses a shield-like motif. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching has five hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands: two on the fore-edge and one each at top and bottom, corresponding to holes from four missing nails on the edges of the back cover (see e.g. Cod. hebr. 301). The edges of leaves are goffered. The binding was done by the Fugger Binder (also called Venetian Apple Binder) in Venice in 1549 (Le Bars 2004, pp. 56-59; Hobson 1999, p. 119 and n. 65, 120-129, 255-259; Schunke 1964, pp. 173-176; figs. XVII-XIX; Tiftixoglu 2004, pp. 63, 94 and figs. 5-8; Wagner 2006, pp. 84-85). See also Introduction to Fugger manuscripts. Flyleaves: the bindings of both volumes have flyleaves torn from 13th-century German Latin manuscripts: 1. Text from a Passional: vols. I and II front pastedown and flyleaves; 2. Texts from two different Homiliary manuscripts: vol. I and II back pastedowns and flyleaves, one Homiliary for each (cf. Cod. hebr. 80, which previously belonged to Cardinal Domenico Grimani, has flyleaves similar to the back of vol. II. Indeed, its position in Fugger's Library followed our two volumes). See also History.

36 Decoration Program
The painted decoration of the two-volume commentary on the Bible was done by a single unknown artist, who illustrated the text of the main Scribe A at the beginnings of books (Genesis, Exodus, Joshua, Job, Daniel) and parashot (Genesis, Exodus), and decorated the ends of books with bands (Genesis, Pentateuch and Job). The two scribes decorated the text they wrote with pen drawings: Scribe A at the beginnings of haftarot (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Minor Prophets); some text illustrations (Exodus and I Kings); mid-book divisions; headings and ends of sections; floral decorations to ascenders and stems of other letters, and a decorated colophon; Scribe B sparingly decorated the word haftarah (Ezekiel), and decorated ends of books (Malachi, Ecclesiastes and Ezra). However, for most books, parashot and haftarot empty spaces were allocated for initial words and text illustrations which were not executed. Some initial words were added in the blank spaces by a 14th-century hand. In 1549 Meir of the Fugger team decorated a title page to vol. II and the first initial word of vol. I on additional leaves. The colours are white, green, red, deep blue, magenta, yellow ochre, light brown and gold leaf on a yellow ground (e.g. I:9v, 13v). Some motifs were left uncoloured showing the parchment (e.g. a horse on I:29v), and scrolls were not inscribed. Decoration Program in detail: I. Painted text illustrations and decorations by the artist: 1. Four panels each across two columns at the beginning of books (height: 11-14 lines): Exodus, Joshua, Job, Daniel, three illustrated: Exodus (I:44v, ואלה: Joseph with Jacob and his brothers), Job (II:183, איש: Job lamenting before his four friends and his wife), Daniel (II:209, :בשנת Daniel and the three Hebrews). The Joshua panel (I:170v, (ויהי is written in gold. 2. Thirteen small illustrated panels at the beginnings of parashot within the text columns (height: 7-8 lines, width of one text column) placed directly below the explicit of the previous one: a. Eleven for Genesis: I:6 ( ,תיבהNoah's ark); I:9v (לך לך, Abraham leaving Haran; the destruction of Sodom); I:13v (,וירא Abraham greeting the angels); I:18v (ויהיו, the sacrifice of Isaac); I:21v (ואלה, Isaac blessing Jacob and Esau); I:25v (וייצא, Jacob's dream); I:29v (וישלח, Jacob meeting Esau); I:34 (וישב, the selling of Joseph); I:37 (,ויהי Pharaoh's first dream); I:39 (ויגש, Joseph and his brothers); I:40v (ויהי, Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh). b. Two for Exodus: I:47v (,וידבר God establishes his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob); I:63a (ויקחו, bringing donation to the Tabernacle). 3. One full-page text illustration of the seven-branched menorah next to the relevant text (Ex. 25:31-40; I:65). 4. Three decorated ends of books with X or V-shaped bands framing text: Genesis (I:43v-44: end medallions with a lion flanked by two lionesses (fol. 44); Pentateuch (I:168v-169v: their two bases are prostrate giants (fol. 168v), lion masks (fol. 169), or dormant lions (fol. 169v); as well as Job (II:207v-208v). II. Illustrations and decorations in brown ink and red colour by Scribe A: 1. Nine pen drawings illustrating Exodus, Numbers and I Kings: a. Three inscribed diagrammatic maps, two representing the Land of Canaan (Numb. 34:1-12) with north (I:139v) and east (I:140) at the top. The third (I:184v) shows the town of Shiloh in relation to Bethel, Lebonah and Shechem (Judg. 21:19). b. Two small pen drawings illustrating the movement of a finger or hand coating a wafer with oil or anointing a king are inserted within the text and decorated with acanthus scrolls in red or spared-ground technique (Ex. 29:2, I:74; I Kings, 1:33-34, I:201v). c. Four drawings refer to the building of Solomon's Temple. An inverted V denoting a lintel is decorated with spared-ground scrolls (I Kings, 6:31, I:204v); three drawings illustrating various componentes which form the capitals of the columns Jachin and Boaz (I Kings, 7:15-23, I:205v), one resembles a palm branch and two are decorated with spared-ground acanthus scrolls. 2. Thirty-one decorated beginnings of haftarot (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Minor Prophets; 7-8 lines high, the width of one text column): the first words in built-up ink letters are placed within double outlined roundels (d.50 mm.) decorated with acanthus scrolls (e.g. I:171v), chequered patterning (e.g. I:213), hatching (e.g. I:206v, 210, 212v, 214v; II:107v), at times on a black and red ground (e.g. I:171v, 182, 190, 203), with additional fleurs-de-lis (I:179, 182) or enclosed in red arches (e.g. I:171v, 182v). 3. Mid-book (חצי) divisions, headings and ends of sections: a. Large display script decorated with scrolls in spared-ground technique: mid-book across two text columns for Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Job and Daniel (II:123v, 134v, 144a, 196, 213); the initial word Vayelech (וילך in Parashat Nizavim) in similar large display script (Deut. 31:1; I:161v); the word strength (חזק), though smaller, marks the end of the Pentateuch (I:170). b. Small framed built-up letters in brown ink (height: 3 lines): Names of books in the space between two columns (e.g. Judges (שפטים), Samuel (שמואל), Kings (מלכים) (I:177v, 185, 201) and the Minor Prophets (תרי עשר) (II:92v); section headings (I:56a verso-61 passim), as well as explicits and incipits (I:184v-185; II:226a). Some headings are built-up in vermilion (I:171, 186v; II:124v-125v). c. Explicits and incipits: names of books are mentioned in florid rhymed verses from the end of Exodus on (e.g. I:170v, 84, 201; II:122v, 208v, 209v. 4. Shaped and accentuated texts: a. At the ends of books in triangular, diamond, conical and trapezoidal forms, framed by X or V- shaped bands. Some were coloured and decorated by the artist (see above): Genesis (I:43v-44), Pentateuch (I:168v-169v), Job (II:207v-208v). Other similar shapes with uncoloured bands: Exodus (I:82v-83v); Leviticus (I:109v-110); Numbers (I:140v-141); Joshua (I:176v-177v); Judges (I:184v, roundel); Samuel (I:200v-201, roundels flanking an hour-glass shape); Minor Prophets (II:98v, 100, 103v, 104v, 105v, 108v, 110v, 112v, 113v, 114v, 119v-120), Ruth (II:124v), Song of Songs (II:140v-141v), Daniel (II:218v-220), Chronicles (II:252v-255v, decorated in the apexes with fleurs-de-lis). b. Certain text passages or references to some Rabbis are marked by flanking scroll bands in spared-ground technique (II:193, 199 - אלעזר הקליר, 209v, 242v-244, 250v), have similarly decorated frames (II:252), in the form of fleurs-de-lis (I:135; II:247 - ודוד זקן ושבע ימים; ודוד זקן, 248-248v). 5. Floral decoration to the ascender of lamed (ל) and to stems of other letters: (II:236v, 238v, 240, 241v-242v). 6. Emphasizing the name of Scribe A: a. Floral decoration of the name Shlomo in the text (I:201v; II:136, 233v, 240, 241v-242v, 250v); b. Colophon of Shlomo ben Shmuel within a decorated cartouche (II:243); c. Colophon of Shlomo ben Shmuel within 28 roundels: the end of Chronicles (II:252v-255v) is written in triangular shapes framed by uncoloured bands decorated with fleurs-de-lis in the apexes. In the corners between the triangles of text are twenty eight roundels, four to a page, each enclosing one word of Scribe A's colophon on a black ground. On the last leaf (II:256) the scribe repeats the colophon, adding further information. III. Decoration in ink by Scribe B: 1. Ends of books in shaped text: Ezekiel (II:92, triangles), Malachi (II:121v-122, roundels, scalloped frame and an arch), Ecclesiastes (II:148v-149, 149a, scalloped frames) and Ezra (II:226v, roundels). The frames are uncoloured. 2. The word haftarah is sparingly decorated in Ezekiel (II:88v, 89v). IV. 14th-century hands inserted book and section titles in the blank spaces allocated by Scribes A and B: 1. Book titles in display script for some books, written across two text columns filled in with ink, at times crudely decorated: Leviticus (I:84, ויקרא), Numbers (I:110v, וידבר), Deuteronomy (I:141v, אלה), I Kings (I:201, והמלך), Isaiah (II:1v, חזון), Hosea (II:92v, דבר), Joel (II:99, דבר), Ruth (II:122v, ויהי), Esther (II:149a verso, ויהי), Chronicles (II:226a, אדם). Leviticus (I:84, ויקרא ) is decorated with wriggle work and foliate extensions, with a hunting scene above. A similar hunt is depicted above the opening word of Ruth (II:122v, ויהי) and within the letters in spared-ground technique. The opening word of Numbers (I:110v,וידבר ) is surrounded by wriggle work and some foliate extensions; and that of Chronicles (II:226a, אדם) has an incomplete chequer pattern decoration. The other opening words are plain, one incomplete (I:141v). 2. For parashot, in built-up ink letters, the width of one text column: I:50 (ויאמר), 53 (ויהי), 56a (וישמע), 59 (ואלה), 72 (ואתה), 75v (כי תשא), 81v (ויקהל), 82 (אלה); 3. By other hands in semi-cursive script for parashot: (I:96 (וידבר), 133v (פנחס); and haftarot in spaces allocated by Scribe B: II:25v (הפטרה ואלה שמות), II:33 (הפטרה לך לך). V. Decoration of an initial word (I:1v) and title page (II:1r) by Meir, in 1549: three leaves were added when the manuscript was divided into two volumes in Venice for Fugger's Library: two text pages written by Yishai ben Yehiel (I:1v, 218); and one initial word בראשית (I:1v) and a title page נביאים אחרונים decorated by Meir (II:1r, stuck onto an original leaf).
36 Summary and Remarks

Cod. hebr. 5, originally produced as a sumptuous single volume, was divided into two around 1549 after its acquisition by Johann-Jakob Fugger (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Each volume was bound by the Fugger Binder (see Binding). The lost first leaf of vol. I, as well as its last leaf were replaced, copied anew (I:1v, I:218r) by Yishai ben Yehiel and decorated by Meir. Both scribes worked for Fugger in Venice during 1549 and 1552 (see Illuminated Documents of vol. I:1v and vol. II:1r). Before the manuscript was acquired by Fugger in 1549, it was sold in Venice in 1526 by Rabbi Hiya Meir ben David to Yekutiel ben David (cf. inscription below the colophon, II:256). Rabbi Hiya Meir worked with the Venetian printer Daniel Bomberg (Amram 1909:169; Raz-Krakotzkin 2007:105), with whom Fugger had some relations (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Thus it is possible that Fugger acquired this manuscript through Bomberg's printing house. It should be noted that in 1516-17 and 1524-26 Bomberg printed in Venice the first two editions of the Great Scriptures ((מקראות גדולות with Rashi's commentary, from which Yishai could have copied that for Genesis (vol. I:1v). The Style Despite the small illustrated panels, the composition is fairly spacious, even when there is a conflation of scenes, such as Abraham leaving Haran and the destruction of Sodom, Isaac blessing Esau while Jacob leaves the house, Joseph being thrown into the pit and sold to the Ishmaelites, Job with his four friends and his wife, and Nebuchadnezzar and the three Hebrews (I:9v, 21v, 34; II:183, 209). At times our artist used similar compositions where a group of people stands before an authoritative figure, either seated or standing (I:39, 44v, 63a). He also used similar postures and gestures in three other scenes where, in a group of three figures standing in a row, the first is looking ahead while the second turns to the third, all making hand gestures. The style and motifs of our manuscript show close affinities with Latin book illumination produced in Würzburg in the 13th century. This was first mentioned by H. Swarzenski (1936) and reiterated by Narkiss (1967), Engelhart (1987), Suckale (1988) and Klemm (1998, Nos. 194-195).

Fig. 3: Evangelistary Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11) Indeed, there are many stylistic elements which appear in our manuscript and are common to a Latin Evangelistary of c.1250 (clm 23256) and a Psalter of 1260-1265 (clm 3900), which suggest these manuscripts were produced in the same workshop. Compare for example the sitting Joseph with Augustus ordering the census (clm 23256:2; see Illuminated Document of I:39) with one hand outstretched in command and the other resting on his thigh (see also clm 3900:2v, 63; Engelhart 1987, figs. 91, 107); or the seated Moses (see Illuminated Document Documentat of I:63a) with the seated Evangelists (clm 23256:1v - fig. 3), especially Luke in the bottom right medallion (fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Luke Evangelistary Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11) The faces are similarly rendered in light yellow ochre, with round eyes, arched eyebrows, a straight mouth and concave lower lip at times tinged with red (see Illuminated Documents of I:29v, I:47v; cf. clm 23256:1v - fig. 3). Another example is the profile of Jacob (see Illuminated Document of I:47v – fig. 5a) and that of the soldier (see Illuminated Document of II:209) which resemble that of Matthew in the bottom left medallion (clm 23256:1v - figs. 3, 5b): note the articulation of the hair and the upturned curl which also appear in the left-hand figure of the Psalter (clm 3900:2v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 91). Fig. 5a: Jacob Fig. 5b: Matthew Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Evangelistary Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:47v Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11) As noted above, there are also similar motifs. The giants supporting the decorated bands in our manuscript (see Illuminated Document of I:168v) are similar to that supporting the letter P in the Evangelistary (clm 23256:3v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 167); the angel's wings are similarly rendered in both manuscripts (see Illuminated Document of I:9v; clm 23256:4; Engelhart 1987, fig. 172) and articulated in ink; and the lion at the end of Genesis (I:44) is comparable to those in the Evangelistary (clm 23256:7) and the Psalter (clm 3900:4v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 95). Despite the resemblance of both manuscripts especially in stylistic motifs, there is a difference in composition when compared with the calendar scenes of the Psalter (see Illuminated Documents of I:39 and I:63a for clm 3900:3; Engelhart 1987, figs. 89-100; chm 5, Engelhart 1987, figs. 173-174): in our manuscript the composition is more compact, the figures are mostly turning and gesturing, and the flying scrolls contribute to the movement. The colours used in our manuscript resemble those in the Evangelistary (clm 23256 – fig. 1). However, the latter's colour gradation is finer for highlights and shadows. To sum up, if a development in the style of the workshop could be sketched, it seems that the early stages are reflected in our manuscript, intermediate ones in the Evangelistary of c.1250, and still later ones in the Psalter of 1250-65 (Klemm 1998, Cat.195, p. 202). This suggestion is reinforced when the relationship between the Christian artist and the Jewish main scribe is considered. The Christian Artist and the Jewish Scribe A The iconography of most illustrated panels can be traced to Mosan art in north France and south Germany, sometimes with Byzantine antecedents such as Monreale, Palermo and St. Mark's, e.g. Noah's ark, the sacrifice of Isaac, Isaac blessing Jacob and Esau, Jacob's dream, the selling of Joseph, Pharaoh's first dream, and Job (I:6, 18v, 21v, 25v, 34, 37; II:183; Turner 1970, pp. 133-168; Frazer 1970, pp. 185-189). Exemplars with similar iconography apparently existed in the Würzburg workshop which decorated our manuscript. All the illuminated quires with panels and ends of books which were executed by the artist of the workshop were written by Scribe A: In vol. I, quires I-VI of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus (fols. 1-48v), quires IX of Exodus (fols. 63a-70v) and XXII, end of the Pentateuch and beginning of Joshua (fols. 165-172v). In vol. II the scribe had to hand two quires over to the artist: XXIV (fols. 183 Job -190; fol. 182 is an attached single leaf), and XXVII (fols. 207-212, end of Job and Daniel). All in all, the artist received from Scribe A ten of the 61 quires; the rest were partly illustrated and decorated in ink and red colour by Scribe A whenever he wrote the text. Scribe B did not decorate the text he copied, except three ends of books in ink (vol. II:121v-122; 148v-149a; 226v). In several cases the artist of the Würzburg workshop illustrated the Rashi commentary rather than the biblical text: Abraham leaving Haran and the destruction of Sodom, Jacob's dream, Jacob and Esau meeting, God reaffirms his covenant with the patriarchs, and lastly the seven-branched menorah (I:9v, 25v, 29v, 47v, 65). In two cases the panel heading one parashah illustrates Rashi's succinct reference to a story told in the previous one: the sacrifice of Isaac and Joseph meeting his father and brothers (I:18v, 44v); and in Haran and Sodom, the stories of two consecutive parashot are combined in one illustration (I:9v). It is significant to note that next to eight illustrated panels (I:9v, 13v, 21v, 29v, 34, 37; II:183, 209) there are still barely discernible inscriptions in Latin written in plummet by a 13th-century hand. There are no such inscriptions in the unpainted spaces allocated by Scribe A. Apparently these inscriptions are by the artist. Since these consist of short biblical captions and do not elaborate on the intricate iconography which was painted, it seems that Scribe A verbally explained the Rashi commentary to the painter, who noted general captions in Latin without specific iconographical details. Such co-operation, apparently in the Würzburg workshop, means that the illumination was done at the time of writing, namely in 1233, and not in the mid-13th century as suggested by scholars, when the style of the Evangelistary and Psalter reached its developed stage. It seems that our scribe did not give specific instructions about details which are common in Christian iconography, though they are also found at times in Hebrew books. One such example is Abraham and the three angels, where Michael raises his right hand in the Christian two-fingered blessing (see Illuminated Document of I:13v). Another example is God's covenant with the patriarchs, where the radical erasure of the piece of sky suggests that it included his image (see Illuminated Document I:47v). It is surprising that for the image of the seven-branched menorah (I:65) Rashi's commentary was followed for the flames bending towards the centre and the three-legged base, motifs prevalent in Jewish and Christian iconography. However, in contrast to Rashi's branches of equal height, likewise a common motif, our artist used an unusual exemplar with pairs of branches diminishing in size outwards from the central shaft, not as described in the commentary (see Illuminated Document of I:65). Later hands, presumably of owners, have scratched out the facial features of most images (Metzger 1974, pp. 549-551). Next to twelve illustrated panels (I:9v, 13v, 18v, 21v, 25v, 29v, 34, 37, 39, 40v, 63a; II:183) one hand has written in Hebrew square script the opening word of the parashot. Since the panels' original letters were distorted by the gold laid on by an artist who knew no Hebrew, and since the inscriptions were written only next to painted panels, it stands to reason that the later hand has deciphered the Hebrew opening words and rendered them legible. The patron of our manuscript, R. Joseph son of R. Moshe, commissioned another manuscript a few years after our commentary was completed, the Ambrosian Bible of 1236-1238 (see Illuminated Document of I:18v), perhaps from Würzburg. It is interesting to note that neither the iconography nor the style is comparable.

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
Annotations:
Latin inscriptions and Hebrew parashot names next to some illustrated panels in faint plummet:
1. A 13th-century hand wrote Latin captions next to some parashot panels in Genesis (I:9v, 13v, 18v, 21v,
25v – illegible, 29v, 34, 37, 39, 40v – illegible), as well as in Job and Daniel (II:183, 209).
2. A later hand (14th century?) added names to some parashot in Genesis in square Hebrew script.
3. Several later hands have added, in the margins and intercolumnar space, various versions of Rashi's
commentary (e.g. I:6, 9v, 22v, 23, 25v) drawn from other manuscripts or printed books.
Signatures:
1. At the top of the back cover in black ink, vols. I and II: Stat I. n. 9 and Stat I. n. 10 respectively (second
signature of Fugger's Library).
2. At the bottom of the front cover in black ink, vols. I and II: I. n. 65 and I. n. 66 (Duke's Library,
Prommer's signature).
3. Front flyleaf in red ink, vols. I and II: I. 55 and I. 56 (Duke's Library, Prommer's revision in 1583).
4. On the ex-libris stuck on the front pastedown of each volume, written in pencil on the right: Cod. hebr.
5; and on the left the book's contents in Latin: Shlomo Ben Isaac (Raschi)/ Vol. I compendium in/
Pentateuchum et propheteas priores. Vol. II Compendium in Prophetas Posteriores/ et Hagiographos
Würceburg scriptor 4993 (1233)/ a R. Salomone/ B. Samuel.
5. Stickers on the back pastedown of each volume: Cod. hebr. 5; and on the spine: Cod. hebr. 5/I and Cod.
hebr. 5/II respectively.
6. On the front pastedown of vols. I and II: an ex-libris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x 155
mm.) with the coat-of-arms of Elector Maximilian I from 1639 (Dressler 1972:B3ab). It is stuck on
the earlier ex-libris of 1618, which is that of Duke Maximilian I before he became Elector in 1623
(Dressler 1972:A3a-f).
7. Oval stamp of the library, Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis, on front and back fly-leaves of both volumes,
and vol. II:1, 257.
8. Vols. I and II restored in 1957 (IBR Nos. 1832, 1833).
Inscriptions:
Vol. I, fol. 1 in brown ink:
1. Librarian 1 in square script (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts):
פירושים של רבינו שלמָה וקצת תלמוד קצר/ על חמשה חומשי תורה ועל ההפטרות/ מכל השנה./ חלק ראשון
Commentaries of Rabbi Shlomo and abbreviated Talmud/ on the five books of Moses and haftarot for
the entire year. Part One.
2. Samuel Quichelberg (librarian of Fugger and Duke Albrecht V):
In quinque libros Mosis commentarij/ Rabbi Solomonis nemque in Prophetas/ priores ut
Iosuam, Iudices, Samuelem et/ libros Regum. distinctis Sabbathorum lectioni/ bus.
Vol. II, fol.1 in brown ink:
1. Librarian 1 in square script:
נביאים אחרונים/ עם פירוש רְבִי שלמָה וגם רְבִי דוד קמחי/ המְפורשים וקצת תרגום יונתן על/ ההפטרות מכל השנה./ חלק שני
Latter Prophets with commentaries by Rabbi Shlomo and Rabbi David Kimchi and some Targum
Jonathan on haftarot for the entire year. Part Two.
2. Samuel Quichelberg:
Aliorum prophetarum seu secondorum / commetarij tantum, sine ipso contextu / Rabbi David Kimhj.
3. On verso of front flyleaf by a shaky hand in square script:
נביאים אחרונים / עם פירוש רְבִי שלמָה וגם רבי דוד קמחי / המָפורֻשים וק [צת]
Latter Prophets with commentaries by Rabbi Shlomo and Rabbi David Kimchi.
Owners' inscriptions:
Vol. I:2, in Ashkenazi semi-cursive script of the 15th century (?): נפל לחלקי נאם גר אברם ויך בך (?), Fell unto
my lot, says the convert (גר) Avram Weich Bach (?).
This inscription was written after the loss of the first leaf and before its replacement in 1549 (I:1).
Vol. II:256, in Ashkenazi semi-cursive script, below the colophon, a signed inscription from Venice in the
year 1526, in Ashkenazi cursive script:
זה הפירוש מכ"ד ספרים [נמ]כר לכמ"ר (לכבוד מעלת רבינו) יקותיאל בכמ"ר דוד ז"ל בהכרזת ב"ד (בית דין) היום יום ה'
י"ג טבת רפ"ו לפ"ק פה ווניזייה. נאם הקטן שב[תלמי]דים חיא מאיר בכהר"ר דוד זצ"ל
This commentary on the twenty-four books was sold to Rabbi Yekutiel son of the late David in a court declaration today Thursday, 13th of Tevet 5286 (29.12.1526) here in Venice, so says the
smallest (i.e. humblest) amongst scholars Hiya Meir ben David of blessed memory (see Remarks).
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
The gold leaf is laid on a yellow ground which is revealed wherever the leaf has flaked off (e.g. I:13v, 29v, 39, 65). All exposed body parts such as faces, hands, legs and necks, as well as blank scrolls, seem to have been of a diluted yellowish-ochre colour which has turned grey (e.g. I:37, 47v; cf. clm 23256:1v).
Despite the deliberate damage to faces (I:34, 37, 39), the underdrawing of features in light brown ink in many scenes is discernible (I:39, 40v, 44v, 47v, 63a; II:183, 209); or in dark brown ink over the colour (I:18v, 29v, 40v; II:183, 209). The segment of sky in I:47v is completely scraped off; it probably enclosed the head of Christ. The faces on I:18v were not damaged.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Abbreviations
BAV Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica
BL London, British Library
BM London, British Museum
BNE Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional
BnF Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France
Bodl. Lib. Oxford, Bodleian Library
BSB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
CJA Jerusalem, Center for Jewish Art, The Hebrew University:
• Narkiss Archive
• Schubert Archive
• Sed-Rajna Archive
• CJA Documentation
HUC Cincinnati, Hebrew Union Collage
ICA Princeton, Index of Christian Art
IMHM Jerusalem, Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts at the National Library of Israel
IM Jerusalem, Israel Museum
JTS New York, Theological Seminary of America
MMT Paris, Musée Marmottan Monet
MTAK Budapest, Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
NLI (olim JNUL) Jerusalem, National Library of Israel
PML New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
ÖNB Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
VadSlg St. Gall, Kantonsbibliothek Vadianische Sammlung
Wroclaw Univ. Lib. Wroclaw, University Library








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R. J. A. Albert and R.W Unger (ed.), Leiden, 2008, p. 155-168.
Kedar 2009 B. Z. Kedar, "Rashi's Map of the Land of Canaan and Its Cartographic Background", From
Sages to Savants, Studies Presented to Avraham Grossman, J.R. Hacker et al. (ed.), Jerusalem
2009, pp. 111-128 (Hebrew).
Kessler 2010 E. Kessler, An Introduction to Jewish-Christian Relations, Cambridge University Press
2010.
Kitzinger 1960 E. Kitzinger, The Mosaics of Monreale, Palermo 1960.
Klein 2002 P. K. Klein, Beatus of Liebana: The Beatus Illustration and the Codex in Manchester,
Valencia 2002.
Klemm 1973 E. Klemm, Eine romanischer Miniaturzyklus aus dem Maasgebiet, Vienna 1973.
Klemm 1980 E. Klemm, Die romanischen Handschriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, (Katalog der
illuminierten Handschriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in München, vol. 3/I), Wiesbaden
1980.
Klemm 1998 E. Klemm, Die illuminierten Handschriften des 13. Jahrhunderts Deutscher Herkunft in der
Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek (Katalog der illuminierten Handschriften der Bayerischen
Staatsbibliothek in München, vol. 4), Wiesbaden 1998.
Kötzsche 1973 II D. Kötzsche, "Zum Stand der Forschung der Goldschmiedekunst des 12. Jahrhunderts
im Rhein-Maas-Gebiet", Rhein und Maas: Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400 (exhibition catalogue II)
Cologne 1973, pp. 191-236.
Kugel 2000 J. Kugel, Joyaux Renaissance, Une plendeurvée, Paris 2000.
Kühnel 1999 B. Kühnel, "The Menorah and the Cross", In the Light of the Menorah, Jerusalem 1999, pp.
117-121.
Le Bars 2004 F. Le Bars, "Histoire de la reliure: à propos de trois publications récentes et de reliures
vénitiennes du XVIe siècle inédites", Bulletin du Bibliophile 1 (2004), pp. 7-62.
Lowden 2003 J. Lowden, Early Christian & Byzantine Art, London, 2003.
Ludwigs Psalter, facsimile 1985 Der Psalter Ludwigs des Heiligen (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Ms.
Lat.10535), (Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt), Graz 1985.
Mack 2000 ח' מאק, "'עם לבן גרתי ותרי"ג מצוות שמרתי' – דרכה של הדרשה מספרו של ר' משה הדרשן אל פירוש רש"י
לתורה", תרביץ סה, ב (2000), עמ' 251-261.
Mellinkoff 1993 R. Mellinkoff, Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late
Middle Ages, Berkeley-Los Angeles-Oxford 1993.
Metzger 1974 Th. Metzger, "Le manuscrit enluminé Cod. Hebr. 5 de la Bibliothèque à Munich",
Études de civilisations médiévales (IXe-XIIe siècles): Mélanges Offerts à Edmond-René Labande,
Poitiers 1974, pp. 537-552.
Metzger 1985 Th. Metzger, "Enluminures du MS. Add. 11639", Wiener Jahrbuch für
Kunstgeschichte, XXXVIII (1985), pp. 542-43.
Millstätter Genesis, facsimile 1967 Millstätter Genesis- und Physiologus-Handschrift, (Codices Selecti
X, Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt), Graz 1967.
Monumenta Judaica 1963-64 Monumenta Judaica: 2000 Jahre Geschichte und Kultur der Juden am
Rhein, Handbuch und Katalog, Ausstellung im Kölnischen Stadtmuseum, K. Schilling (ed.), 3 vols.,
Cologne 1963-64.
Morgan 1973 N. J. Morgan, "Iconography of Twelfth Century Mosan Enamels", Rhein und Maas
(exhibition catalogue II), Cologne 1973.
Morgan 1982 N. J. Morgan, Early Gothic Manuscripts I, 1190-1250, Oxford 1982.
Morgan Library Exhibition 2007 Apocalypse Then: Medieval Illuminations from the Morgan
(Exhibition: March 23-June 17), New York 2007.
Nachama and Sievernich 1991 A. Nachama and G. Sievernich (ed.), Jüdische Lebenswelten. Katalog,
Berlin 1991, Nos. 6/44, 6/45.
Narkiss, facsimile 1964 B. Narkiss, "Introduction to Mahzor Lipsiae", ed. E. Katz Machzor Lipsiae, I-II
Facsimile and Introduction, Leipzig 1964.
Narkiss 1967 B. Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, Jerusalem 1967 (Hebrew).
Narkiss, facsimile 1970 B. Narkiss, The Golden Haggadah, Introductory Volume to Facsimile
(Eugrammia Press and British Museum), London 1970.
Narkiss 1979 B. Narkiss, Armenian Art Treasures of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 1979.
Narkiss 1982 B. Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts in the British Isles: A Catalogue Raisonné,
Vol. I: Spanish and Portuguese Manuscripts, in collaboration with A. Cohen-Mushlin and A.
Tcherikover, Jerusalem and London 1982.
Narkiss 1984 B. Narkiss, "Rashi's Maps", Zev Vilnay's Jubilee Volume, E. Schiller (ed.), Jerusalem 1984,
vol. I, p. 435-439 (Hebrew).
Narkiss 1985 B. Narkiss, "Illustrations of the Ten Commandments in the thirteenth century Minute
Mahzor", The Ten Commandments in History and Tradition, G. Levi (ed.), Jerusalem 1985, pp.
419-440.
Narkiss 1997 B. Narkiss, The Golden Haggadah, London 1997.
Narkiss 1999 B. Narkiss, "The Menorah in Illuminated Hebrew Manuscripts in the Middle Ages", In the
Light of the Menorah, Jerusalem 1999, pp. 81-86.
Narkiss, facsimile 2007 B. Narkiss, El Pentateuco Ashburnham (Patrimonio, Introduction and
Facsimile), Valencia 2007.
Neuss 1922 W. Neuss, Katalanische Bibelillustration um die Wende des ersten Jahrtausends und die
altspanische Buchmalerei, Bonn-Leipzig 1922.
Nordenfalk 1973 C. Nordenfalk, "Outdoors-Indoors: A 2000-Year-Old Space Problem in Western Art",
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 117, No. 4 (1973), pp. 233-258.
Ofer 2007 Y. Ofer, "The Maps of the Land of Israel in Rashi’s Commentary on the Torah and the Status
of MS Leipzig 1", Tarbiz 76, 3-4 (2007), pp. 435-443 (Hebrew).
Penkower 2003 J. S. Penkower, "The End of Rashi's Commentary on Job. The Manuscripts and the
Printed Editions", Jewish Studies Quarterly 10 (2003), pp. 18-48.
Pirker-Aurenhammer 1998 V. Pirker-Aurenhammer, Die Gumbertusbibel (Cod. 1 der Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen; Regensburger Studien und Quellen zur Kulturgeschichte 7),
Regensburg, 1998.
Raz-Krakotzkin 2007 A. Raz-Krakotzkin, The Censor, the Editor, and the Text: The Catholic Church
and the Shaping of the Jewish Canon in the Sixteenth Century, Pennsylvania 2007.
Rhein und Maas 1972 I Rhein und Maas: Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400 (exhibition catalogue I), Cologne
1972.
Rhein und Maas 1973 II Rhein und Maas: Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400 (exhibition catalogue II),
Cologne 1973.
Ronig 1973 F. J. Ronig, "Zur Romanischen Buchmalerei in Verdun und ihrer Stellung zwischen Rhein
und Maas", Rhein und Maas II, Cologne 1973, pp. 333-342.
Rudolf von Ems, facsimile 1982 Rudolf von Ems: Weltchronik. (Faksimile der Handschrift 302 der
Kantonsbibliothek (Vadiana) St. Gallen), Lucerne 1982.
Saint-Sever Beatus, facsimile 2012 P. K. Klein and O. K. Werckmeister, The Saint-Sever Beatus
(Patrimonio, Introduction and Facsimile), Valencia 2012.
Scheiber 1984 A. Scheiber (ed.), Codex Maimuni, Hungary 1984.
Scheller 1995 R. W. Scheller, Exemplum, Amsterdam 1995.
Schonfield, facsimi
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
Original Manuscript
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
2191
48 Temp: Addenda
OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Ilona Steimann 2008; 2008 49a
50 Researcher Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Dr. Andreina Contessa; Ilona Steimann; Michal Sternthal ;Yaffa Levy 2008-2013; 2010; 2011; 2011-2012; 2011-2013 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal. Project head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 53a
54 Editor Christine Evans 2013 54a
55 Donor Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation 55a

Less Details


Object's images (99 image(s))

      [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

(XXII) ID: 20440 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 139v, 140, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 20440 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 139v, 140, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fols. 139v, 140
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Israel, Map of |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
Fig. 1a: Rashi's map of the Land of, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible,                                                                     Canaan and its neighbouring countries             
Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:139v

Fig. 1b: The map in English

(Wajntraub 1992, fig. 1b)

 

Vol. I, fols.139v, 140: A pair of maps of the Landof Canaan, executed by scribe A, illustrate Rashi's commentary (I:139-139v; 139v-140) on a section (Num. 34:2-12) of Parashat Masei (Num. 33:1 - 36:13).     Both maps are rectangular schematic diagrams surrounded by compartments framed in red and inscribed with names of places mentioned in the Bible and Rashi. The first map (figs. 1a, b) refers to the countries bordering the Landof Canaan, and has north at the top, while the second (figs. 2a, b) reconstructs the boundaries of the Land of Canaan, from "the Southern Wind that between East to West" (Rashi on Num. 34:3) until the North, but has east at the top (Rashi on Num. 34:11).                    

The first map (figs. 1a, b) is set in the centre of the right text column near the word כזה (thus), illustrating Rashi's commentary (I:139-139v – figs. 1a, b). The four cardinal points (except for south) are inscribed outside the map. To the west is theGreatSea, to the east are the River Jordan, the Dead Sea and the countries ofEdom,Moab, the plains ofMoaband Sihon, and to the south is the River Nile andEgypt. Below them is an inverted inscription of Jephthah's answer to the King of Ammon (Judg. 11:12, 18), succinctly describing the Israelites' route when they came up from Egypt: "Then they went through the wilderness, and compassed the land of Edom, and the land of Moab, and came by the east side of the Land of Moab". Indeed, the diagram illustrates this route.                                                                      

           

 

Fig. 2a: Rashi's map of the Land of Canaan and its boundries                                          

Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:140                  

 Fig. 2b: The map in English

(Wajntraub 1992, fig. 1a)          

                   

The second of the two maps (figs. 2a, b) is a larger rectangle set in the centre of a wide text column, illustrating Rashi's commentary (I:139v-140). East is at the top, and the 

Contribute a better translation centre of the rectangle denotes theLand of Canaan. The eastern border includes the River Jordan, the Sea of Galilee and theDead Sea as well as Shepham and Riblah. In the west is theGreatSea. In the north-west: "…from the Great Sea ye shall point out for you Mount Hor" (Num. 34:7), identified in the map as Turei Amnon (BT Gittin 8a). The northern border is defined by Hazar-enan, Ziphron, Zedad and the entrance to Hamath (Num. 34:8-12). The southern border include: the River Nile, Kadesh-barnea, the ascent of Akrabbim, Azmon, Hazar-addar and Zin (Num. 34:3-5). The paragraph in the centre discusses the situation ofMountHor, called Turei Amnon, in the north-west (cf. Rashi on Gittin 8a), which is not identical with the burial site of Aaron situated in the south, nearEdom.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown ink and red.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements Fol. 139v: 90 x (119-127) mm. Fol. 140: 153 x 190 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

Various copies of Rashi's commentary on the Bible include maps illustrating the texts of Numbers 34 and Judges 21, as well as Ezekiel 41 and 48. Scholars ascribe these maps to Rashi (Shneor 2009, pp. 371-374; Kedar 2009). Indeed, the maps of the Land of Canaan are found in the Leipzig manuscript of about the same time as our Rashi (figs. 3a-b, 4a). 

Fig. 3a: Rashi's map of the Land of Canaan

and its neighbouring countries                                                                                     

LeipzigRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Franconia (?), second quarter of the 13th century

Leipzig, University Liberary B.H.1, fol. 160v                                        

(Kedar 2008, fig. 3)

 

Fig. 3b: The map in English

It was copied by the scribe Makhir (מכיר בר קרשביא) from an exemplar written by R. Shema'ya, Rashi's pupil (Ofer 2007,pp. 435-443). Both maps in the Leipzig manuscript are similarly oriented to ours.and its boundaries Leipzig Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Franconia (?), second quarter of the 13th century Leipzig, University Liberary B.H.1, fol. 161 (Ofer 2007, fig. 1). 

Fig. 4a: Rashi's map of the Land of Canaan   Fig. 4b: The map in English (see fig. 2b)

In another Rashi copy of the 13th century in Paris (fig. 5), the map of the boundaries of Canaan is oriented to the east as in the Leipzig and Munich manuscripts. However, the enclosed paragraph is written upside down. Makhir, the scribe of the Leipzig manuscript states at the bottom of his map (fig. 4a) that "in order to avoid turning the book I wrote it this way", i.e. the right way up. This suggests that a map with an inverted paragraph in the centre reflects Rashi's original (Shneor 2009, pp. 377-381). Fig. 5: Rashi's Map of the Land of Canaan and its boundaries Franconia, before 1250 Paris Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Paris, BnF hébr. 155, fol. 170v (Ofer 2007, fig. 2).

Fig. 5: Rashi's Map of the Land of Canaan and its boundaries

Franconia, before 1250 

Paris Rashi's Commentary on the Bible

Paris, BnF hébr. 155, fol. 170v

(Ofer 2007, fig. 2)

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
20440
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 20441 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 161v, 170; vol. II, fol. 196, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 20441 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 161v, 170; vol. II, fol. 196, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fols. 161v, 170; vol. II, fol. 196
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Mid-book indication, decorated
Decorated letters in spared ground technique |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fols. 161v, 170; vol. II, fol. 196: Mid-book divisions, headings and ends of sections are written in large display script filled with scrolls in spared-ground technique. The mid-book division (חצי) is written across two text columns for Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Job and Daniel (II:123v, 134v, 144a, 196 - fig. 1, 213).

The initial word Vayelech (וילך in Parashat Nizavim) is written in similar large display script (Deut. 31:1; I:161v - fig. 2).

The word hazaq חזק), strength) though small, marks the end of Pentateuch (I:170 – fig. 3).

Fig. 1: Decorated half-book divisionת Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bibleת Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:196 Fig. 2: Decorated headingת MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bibleת Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:161v

Fig. 3: Decorated end of section

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:170

                           

                       

                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown ink.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
20441
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 20442 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 168v, 169v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 20442 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 168v, 169v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fols. 168v, 169v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Shaped text
Naked figure
Full page framed |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fols. 168v-169v: The last three pages at the end of the Pentateuch, written by Scribe A in triangular and conical forms, are accentuated by bands coloured and decorated by the artist with various running geometrical and foliate motifs (figs. 1, 2, 3; cf. I:43v-44, end of Genesis and II:207v-208v, end of Job). The bases of the bands include two grey prostrate giants holding gold masts (fig. 1), two grey lion masks (fig. 2), and four small gold panels enclosing at the bottom two lions dormant and at the top two lions passant guardant (fig. 3).

The diagonal bands (fig. 3) are decorated with the so-called pseudo-Kufic script in gold on a blue and green ground (Nachama and Sievernich 1991, No. 6/44).

 

Figs. 1, 2, 3: Decorative diagonal bands, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:168v,169, 169v

   
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and powder, yellow ochre, red, magenta, blue and green.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The supporting giant figures and the dormant lions (figs. 4, 6) are similar to the figures supporting the letters P in the Würzburg Evangelistary of c.1250 (figs. 5, 7; Klemm 1998, Cat. 196).A comparable example to our lions passant guardant (fig. 8) is found in the later Würzburg Psalter (fig. 9; Klemm 1998, Cat. 197).

 

Fig. 4: Supporting giantsת Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible,

 Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:168v

Fig. 5: Supporting giant,

Evangelistary, Würzburg, c.1250                                                         Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 3v

(H. Swarzenski 1936, pl. 180, fig. 988)

 
Fig. 6: Lions dormant, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Fig. 7: Lion couchant, 

Evangelistary, 

Würzburg, c.1250

Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 7

(H. Swarzenski 1936, pl. 180, fig. 987)

Fig. 8: Lions passant guardant , Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible, 

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:169v

Fig. 9: Lions passant guardant , 

Psalter, Würzburg, 1260-65

 BSB clm 3900, fol. 4v

 (Engelhart 1987, fig. 95)

 

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
The blue and magenta are mostly faded.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
20442
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 20443 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 170v, 201, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 20443 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 170v, 201, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fols. 170v, 201
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fols. 170v, 201: Explicits and incipits: names of books are mentioned in florid rhymed verses from the end of Exodus on, for example the beginning of Joshua (fig. 1) and the end of Samuel (fig. 2).

Fig. 1: Decorated name of book                           Fig.2: Decorated name of book

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible                MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:170v                           Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:201

 

 

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and red ink.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
20443
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 20446 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , vol. I, fols. 204v, 205v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 20446 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , vol. I, fols. 204v, 205v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail vol. I, fols. 204v, 205v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Parasha sign, decorated |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No. pics/BSB_005/.jpg
19a Scan No.
20 Description

 

Fig. 1: The Temple's pediment      

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:204v

  

Fig. 2: Decoration of the capitals of Jachin and Boaz

 MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:205v

                                       

                     

                                  

Fig. 3: Lower bowl of the capital 

Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible 

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:205v   

 Fig. 4: Upper bowl of the capital

Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:205v 

 Vol. I, fols. 204v and 205v: Four small pen drawings within the text columns refer to Solomon'sTemple(Gruber 1994, pp. 34-38).

The inverted V denotes a pediment decorated with spared-ground scrolls. It illustrates Rashi's commentary: "and the upper lintel (sic) is made in two [parts] like this drawing" (fig.1; והמשקוף העליון עשוי כשתיים כזה הציור; I Kings, 6:31, I:204v). 

The three other drawings (figs. 2-4) illustrate the various components of the capitals crowning the twin brass pillars Jachin and Boaz (I Kings, 7:15-20; I:205v):

"they [the capitals] were surrounded by lattice-work in the form of palm branches, like this" (fig. 2; מעשה שבכה כמין לולבין של דקל היו מוקפות, כזה).

Each [capital] consisted of "two bowls, like this" (כמין שני אגנים היתה כל אחת, כזה):

the lower bowl was the right way up (fig. 3; ;(אגן התחתון בית קיבולו למעלה

the upper bowl was inverted on top of the lower one, like this" (fig.4; העליון כפוי על התחתון בית קיבולו למטה, כזה).

Both bowls are inscribed at the centre agan (bowl) and decorated with spared-ground scrolls.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown ink.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
For other pen drawings in our manuscript, see I:74 (anointing the wafer); I:139v-140 (two maps of the Land of Canaan); I:184v (map of Shiloh); and I:201v (Solomon anointed king).
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
20446
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 25086 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , vol. I, fol. 1v; vol. II, fol. 1r , Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 25086 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , vol. I, fol. 1v; vol. II, fol. 1r , Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail vol. I, fol. 1v; vol. II, fol. 1r
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Ribbon-like letters |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 1v; Vol. II, fol. 1r

 

   

Fig. 1: Initial word Genesis

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:1v

Fig. 2: Title page of Latter Prophets

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:1r

 

Vol. I, fol. 1v: The page opening the text of the manuscript begins with the initial word בראשית (Gen. 1:1) written in display script and decorated with a folded ribbon motif by the scribe Meir (figs. 1 and 3), who decorated other manuscripts (fig. 4). However, the text of this page (fig. 3) was copied by Yishai ben Yehiel in his typical semi-cursive script (fig. 5).

 

   

 

               

Fig. 3:MunichRashi's Commentary                  Fig. 4: Fugger MS, drawn by Meir

on the Bible, written by Yishai ben Yehiel        Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 50, fol. 330         

drawn by Meir                                                    (Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)     

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:1v                           

 

 

Fig. 5: Fugger MS, written by Yishai ben Yehiel

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 47, fol. 110

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

Vol. II, fol. 1r: The title Latter Prophets (נביאים אחרונים) at the beginning of the second volume is written by the scribe Meir in ink display script (figs. 2 and 6) with a hand clasping the stem of the aleph (א) and foliate motifs extending from the yod (י). Meir also executed the pen-drawn animals to the left of the title. Next to נביאים lies a deer with leaves in its mouth; a large hound is lying next to אחרונים.

The clasping hand in the title appears in other manuscripts by Meir (e.g. BSB Cod. hebr. 7, fol. 1 and 15, fol. 1), as do the foliate motifs extending from the yod. The style of the animals closely resembles that of other drawings executed by Meir (fig. 7).

 
   
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The Würzburg Biblical Commentaries, which was originally produced as a sumptuous single volume in 1232/3, was divided into two around 1549, after its acquisition by Johann-Jakob Fugger. Each volume was bound by the Fugger Binder (see General Document: Binding). The first leaf of volume I, which was lost, was replaced by a new leaf with the text of the commentary to Genesis copied on the verso (I:1v).

The codex was divided according to text and not quires: the second volume starts with the Isaiah commentary on the verso (II:1v), but with the end of II Kings on the recto (II:1r). To separate the volumes a final leaf was added to vol. I with II Kings copied anew (I:128r) from the original (II:1r), before the latter was covered by a new leaf inscribed with the title of Latter Prophtets (II:1r).

The replacement commentaries for Genesis (I:1v) and II Kings (I:128r) were copied by Yishai ben Yehiel. Meir decorated the initial word בראשית (Genesis; I:1v - fig. 3) and executed the title page of the Latter Prophets נביאים אחרונים); II:1r - fig. 6) in the second volume.

 The two scribes belonged to the Fugger group who worked for him inVeniceduring 1549 and 1552 (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Meir and Yishai also shared their work as scribes in several other manuscripts in Fugger's Venetian group. For example, in Cod. hebr. 26 they changed hands every few pages, though the marginal decoration was always executed by Meir. Meir and Yishai were also responsible for the work of other scribes in the Venetian group, and thus it is not surprising that they were responsible for the replacement leaves in our Cod. hebr. 5.

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25086
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 25083 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, fols. 92, 149, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 25083 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, fols. 92, 149, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, fols. 92, 149
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Shaped text
End of book, decorated |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. II, fols. 92, 149:  Shaped text for ends of books in ink by Scribe B: Ezekiel (II:92 – fig. 1, triangles), Malachi (II:121v-122, roundels, scalloped frame and arch), Ecclesiastes (II:148v, 149 - fig. 2, 149a, scalloped frames) and Ezra (II:226v, roundels). The frames are uncoloured.

 

Fig.1: Shaped text, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible,

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:92  

 Fig. 2: Shaped text, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible, 

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:149

 

                                                                      

             

                       

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25083
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 20444 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 171v, 179, 182, 182v , Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 20444 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fols. 171v, 179, 182, 182v , Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fols. 171v, 179, 182, 182v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word, decorative |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
   
 Fig. 1  Fig. 2    

 

Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4: Decorated beginnings of haftarah, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:171v, 179, 182, 182v

Fig. 3 Fig. 4

 

Vol. I, fols. 171v, 179, 182, 182v: Thirty-one decorated beginnings of haftarot (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Minor Prophets; 7-8 lines high, the width of a text column): the first words in built-up ink letters are placed within double outlined roundels (d.50 mm.), decorated with acanthus scrolls (e.g. fig. 1), a chequered pattern (e.g. I:213), hatching (e.g. I:206v, 210, 212v, 214v; II:107v), at times on a black and red ground (e.g. figs. 1, 3 and I:182, 190, 203), with additional fleurs-de-lis (figs. 2, 3) or enclosed in red arches (e.g. figs. 1, 2, 4).

 

 

 

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
20444
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 25103 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , vol. I, fol. 84, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 25103 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , vol. I, fol. 84, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail vol. I, fol. 84
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Deer hunt
Initial word, decorative |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I:84; vol. II:122v: Initial words for some books were inserted by a 14th-century hand in the blank spaces allocated by scribes A and B. The initial words are written across two text columns in large display letters in brown ink, some crudely decorated.

The initial words at the beginning of the books of Leviticus and Ruth are decorated with hunting scenes. The first word of Leviticus (I:84 ויקרא) is surrounded by wriggle work and foliate extensions, decorated above by two dogs chasing a deer, with a hunter behind blowing a horn and brandishing a sword. Another horn is tucked in his girdle and he wears a plumed hat. A similar hunting scene of a dog chasing a deer is depicted above the opening word of Ruth (II:122v ויהי). Within the letters, in spared-ground technique, three dogs are chasing a hare, and two grotesque faces.

Two other decorated initial words are for Numbers (I:110v וידבר), surrounded by wriggle work and some foliate extensions, and Chronicles (II:226a אדם), partly decorated with a chequered pattern. The other initial words are plain (I:201; II:1v, 92v, 99, 122v, 150); one is incomplete (I:141v).

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique

The Würzburg Biblical Commentaries, which was originally produced as a sumptuous single volume in 1232/3, was divided into two around 1549, after its acquisition by Johann-Jakob Fugger. Each volume was bound by the Fugger Binder (see General Document: Binding). The first leaf of volume I, which was lost, was replaced by a new leaf with the text of the commentary to Genesis copied on the verso (I:1v). The codex was divided according to text and not quires: the second volume starts with the Isaiah commentary on the verso (II:1v), but with the end of II Kings on the recto (II:1r). To separate the volumes a final leaf was added to vol. I with II Kings copied anew (I:128r) from the original (II:1r), before the latter was covered by a new leaf inscribed with the title of Latter Prophtets (II:1r). The replacement commentaries for Genesis (I:1v) and II Kings (I:128r) were copied by Yishai ben Yehiel. Meir decorated the initial word בראשית (Genesis; I:1v - fig. 3) and executed the title page of the Latter Prophets נביאים אחרונים); II:1r - fig. 6) in the second volume.  The two scribes belonged to the Fugger group who worked for him inVeniceduring 1549 and 1552 (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Meir and Yishai also shared their work as scribes in several other manuscripts in Fugger's Venetian group. For example, in Cod. hebr. 26 they changed hands every few pages, though the marginal decoration was always executed by Meir. Meir and Yishai were also responsible for the work of other scribes in the Venetian group, and thus it is not surprising that they were responsible for the replacement leaves in our Cod. hebr. 5.  

25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

According to our research the initial words in the Munich Rashi were inserted by a 14th-century hand. The decoration follows an established tradition of illuminated Ashkenazi manuscripts of the 13th and 14th centuries from south and centralGermany. Two types of decoration are noticeable in our manuscript: the letters are each surrounded by wriggle work (ויקרא I:84 – fig. 1, and וידבר I:110v) or decorated in spared-ground technique enclosing a hare hunt and grotesque faces (ויהי II:122v – fig. 2). Both types have pen-drawn hunting scenes on top.

 

   

 

                                  

Fig. 1: Leviticus, decorated initial word                             Fig. 2: Ruth, inhabited initial word

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible                       MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:84                                     Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:122v

 

   

                       

Fig. 3: Decorated initial word                                          Fig. 4: Decorated initial word

Worms Mahzor, Würzburg 1272                         Munich Ashkenazi Mahzor for the whole Year

Jerusalem, NLI Heb. 40781, 1:11                               South Germany, last quarter 13th century

(Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985)                                              Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 4, II:43                                   

(Cf. Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 4, fig. 2)                           (Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

 

Fig. 5: Inhabited initial word

David Siddur

Germany,Franconia, 1308

London, BL Add. 26970, fol. 50

http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=44850

(Cf. Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 4, fig. 10)

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

Examples of initial words resembling the wriggle work in our manuscript are found in the Worms Mahzor from Würzburg of 1272 (fig. 3) and the Munich Ashkenazi Mahzor for the Whole Year from south Germany of the last quarter of the 13th century (fig. 4). The spared-ground technique occurs in the David Siddur fromFranconiaof 1308 (fig. 5).

Among the various motifs placed around or within the initial words, a hare hunt, a deer hunt or both frequently appear either as decoration or as text illustrations. An early decorative example in Hebrew manuscripts is found in the Michael Mahzor fromRegensburgof 1258 (fig. 6), in which the initial word panel contains the deer hunt and other animals. A similar example is the Munich Ashkenazi Mahzor of the 13th century, which includes a deer being hunted in the base of the last letter (fig. 7).

 

   

Fig. 6: Deer hunt                                                       Fig. 7: Deer hunt

Michael Mahzor                                                                    MunichAshkenazi Mahzor for the Whole Year

Regensburg, 1258                                                      South Germany, last quarter of the 13th century

Oxford, Bodl. Lib. Mich. 627, fol. 48                          Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 4, I:37

(Narkiss 1967, p. 44, fig. 38)                                     (Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

In our Munich Rashi (figs. 1, 2 and 8), the hunting scenes of the hare and deer are used as decoration.

However, the similar composition of the deer hunt in the Franconian Siddur and Haggadah of the early 14th century (fig. 9), is an illustration for the prayer for salvation, which alludes to the persecuted Jewish

nation.

 

   

Fig. 8: Leviticus: Deer hunt                                  Fig. 9: Deer hunt                        

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible            Franconian Siddur and Haggadah

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:84                        Franconia, early 14th century

Oxford, Bodl. Lib. Opp. 645, fol. 30

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

The hunted buck or doe, symbolising the congregation ofIsrael, also appears in the Worms Mahzor of 1272 mentioned above (fig. 10) as an illustration for the piyyut "Beloved Doe" (Shalev-Eyni 2010, pp. 71-86, fig. 44). This hunt also includes a hunter blowing a horn as in our manuscript, though our depiction is purely decorative. A somewhat later example (late 13th century) from central Germany is the deer hunt in the Minute Mahzor (fig. 11). It complements the depiction in the upper register showing the battle of Leviathan with the Wild Ox at the end of days, and symbolises the Jewish people hunted by the nations.

 

   

Fig. 10: The "Beloved Doe"                                             Fig. 11: Lower register: Deer hunt

Worms Mahzor                                                             Upper register: Leviathan and Wild Ox

Würzburg, 1272                                                The Minute Mahzor      

Jerusalem, NLI Heb. 4°781, 1:130v                                 Franconia, late 13th century

(Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985)                                             New York, JTS Mic. 8972, fol. 114v                                       

            (Narkiss 1985, pl. 17c; Jerusalem, CJA Narkiss Archive)

 

 

Fig. 12: Deer and hare hunts

Trebitsch Mahzor

Franconia, 14th century

Jerusalem, NLI Heb. 40682, fol. 170v

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

&nbs

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25103
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 25084 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, fol. 183, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 25084 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, fol. 183, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, fol. 183
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Job and his friends
Job and his wife
Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. II, fol. 183: The initial word (איש, A man) of the Book of Job is written above the illustration in gold leaf on a magenta ground set across two text columns.

The panel depicts Job with his four friends and his wife on a faded blue and green ground, illustrating the biblical text (Job 2:9-11 and 32:2) and the following commentary (II:184v, 3rd column, II:200v, 3rd column).

Job, naked and covered with red boils, is on the right, seated on a blue mattress. His head rests on his right hand in which he holds a scroll, and his left hand is stretched out towards his wife, who is seated cross-legged on the ground. With both hands she is lifting the transparent veil which covers Job's lower body, pointing with the index finger of her left hand. She wears a white headdress and a magenta pallium which does not quite cover her left breast.

Approaching Job from the left are the four friends: Eliphaz, Bildad, Zophar (Job 2:11) and Elihu (Job 32:2). Three are carrying scrolls with their arms outstretched towards him. Two have blond hair and travelling hats. They are wearing green, magenta, red and white tunics, two bordered with gold, and three also have chlamydes in magenta, green, and yellow ochre.

Inscriptions in plummet in Latin by the 13th-century hand, and by a later hand in Hebrew display script:

In the upper margin above the panel: איש (Ish) in Hebrew display letters.

Next to it: Job et uxo[r] [cu]m amicis (Job 2:11).

 

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 83 x 120 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The Munich illustration (fig. 1) has some unusual elements, such as a fourth friend; and the mattress Job is lying on also features in other scenes (I:21v and I:40v) instead of a dung or ash heap.

The three friends, Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar (Job 2:11) were the first to bewail Job's condition and then to condemn him. Elihu, the youngest (Job 32:2-5), reprimands his friends and answers Job. The four friends do not often appear together. However, they do appear in Byzantine manuscripts, such as a 9th-century Book of Job with commentary in theVatican(fig. 2). The three older friends sit next to the hill where the suffering Job bewails his condition, with their crowns next to them. Elihu, a small standing figure, turns to speak to Job. His chlamys suggests that he has just arrived, similar to the standing four in our depiction who wear chlamydes and travelling hats.

 

Fig. 1: Job, his wife and his four friends

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:183

           

Fig. 2: Job and his four friends, Rome (?) 9th century,

Vatican, BAV Vat. gr. 749, fol. 30 ,

(Huber 1986, p. 113, fig. 74)    

 Fig. 3: Upper register: Job and his three friends, Lower register: Job and his four friends,

  Constantinopole, 11th century, Sinai,St.Catherine Sin. gr. 3, fol. 30v

 (Huber 1986, p. 191, fig. 146)

                                   

 The iconography in a later Byzantine manuscript of the 11th century (fig. 3) does not differ much: in the lower register, the three elder friends, their crowns next to them, are sitting on heaps of grass next to the dunghill where Job is seated. Elihu, standing, is wearing a chlamys as in theVaticanmanuscript; Job's wife is missing in both manuscripts.

Four friends but no wife also appear in the west, for example in the later Franco-Flemish Moralia in Job by Gregory the Great of the last quarter of the 12th century (fig. 4).

In the upper register Zophar is talking to Job; in the lower one, the three elders are seated with closed scrolls, and the younger Elihu, with an open scroll, turns to speak to them and not to Job. It is the same episode of the story as depicted in the Byzantine manuscripts (Job 32:1-5; figs. 2, 3).

 

Fig. 4: Upper register: Zophar and Job, Lower register: Job and his four friends,

Gregory the Great, Moralia in Job, Franco-Flemish, c.1175-1200,

Paris, BnF lat. 15675, fol. 7v  

http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84526716

  

Fig. 5: Job, his wife and his four friends, Verdun Miscellany,

Verdun, 12th century, Verdun, Bibliothèque municipale MS 62, fol.1v, 

(Ronig 1973, p. 341, fig. 18)

 

               

In a 12th-century miscellany fromVerdun(fig. 5) Job's wife appears together with his four friends. The three elder, two wearing diadems, are seated on the left next to the dungheap, and on the right the small figure of Elihu turns to Job as if speaking. Behind Elihu towers the figure of Job's wife, her head covered with a large shawl.

The representation in the Heisterbach Bible, perhaps fromCologneof c.1240 (fig. 6), resembles that in our manuscript: Job is seated on a dungheap to the right, but with five and not four figures approaching him from the left: the four friends wearing Jewish hats and his crowned wife. 

The depictions in our Rashi commentary and Heisterbach Bible are a conflation of the arrival of three friends (Job 2:11-13) with that of the fourth, Elihu (Job 32:1-5), in the presence of his wife (2:9-10). In a Bible fromParisof c.1220-1226 (fig. 7) and in the Moralia in Job (fig. 4) the presence of all the protagonists is depicted, but not their actual arrival. On the other hand, in the two Byzantine manuscripts and the Verdun Miscellany the arrival of Elihu is depicted, while the three older friends are seated in silence (Job 32:1-5).

Fig. 6: Job, his wife and his four friends

Heisterbach Bible, Cologne (?), c.1240

Berlin, Staatsbibliothek theol. lat. 20 379, fol. 221

(H. Swarzenski 1936, Cat. 10, fig. 79)

 

                                        

Fig. 7: Job, his wife and his four friends 

Bible,Parisc.1210-1230,  Troyes, Bibliothèque municipale MS 0577, fol. 134v

http://initiale.irht.cnrs.fr/ouvrages/4811


Fig. 8: Job's wife, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible, 

 Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:183  

The headdress of Job’s wife in our illustration resembles that in the contemporary Paris Bible (fig. 7), but her dress is unique since it reveals her breast (fig. 8). It is interesting to note that Rashi, in his commentary on TB Gittin 90a, remarks on the custom of some non-Jewish women of France of slashing their dresses from the armpit downwards, so that from the side the flesh is seen (Git. 90b: ופרומה משני צדדיה: אצל אצילי (ידיה כדרך אדומיות שבצרפת שבשרן נראה מצדיהן. The Talmud considers wearing such a dress as a cause for divorce (Shereshevsky 1974, pp. 106ff).

 

 

 

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Some gold leaf has flaked off the letters; although the faces are effaced, the features are discernible
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25084
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224964 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 183, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224964 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 183, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol. 183
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel
Job and his friends
Job and his wife |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600983
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224964
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 25085 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, fol. 209, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 25085 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, fol. 209, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, fol. 209
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject The worship of the golden idol
Hebrews, the Three, in Fiery Furnace
Initial word panel
Daniel, Book of |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. II, fol. 209: The initial word Bishnat (בשנת, In the third year) of the Book of Daniel is inscribed above the illustrated panel in gold leaf on a magenta ground, set across two text column.

The panel represents Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah (Dan. 1:6; Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, Dan. 3:12) and their dispute with king Nebuchadnezzar, on a deep blue and green ground, illustrating the biblical text (Dan. 3:1-30) and the commentary (II:210v, 3rd column-211v).

The first scene on the right shows a large crowned golden idol on a three-legged pedestal (Dan. 3:1-7) being worshipped by four kneeling men with joined hands raised in adoration. They are wearing red, blue and green tunics, and their legs extend beyond the frame. This scene is separated from the next by a thin gold column. The second scene is a conflation of two episodes: in the centre, the small figure of King Nebuchadnezzar, crowned, with his four mighty soldiers, ordering them to heat the furnace seven times more than usual (Dan. 3:19). However, having thrown the three bound youths Hananya, Mishael and Azarya into the fiery furnace, the brave soldiers were themselves consumed by the flames (Dan. 3:22; commentary II:211v, 2nd column). The flames attack in partucular the tall soldier near the furnace, who turns to stab one of the youths with his lance. Another, with a sword in his left hand, raises his right to his head in astonishment, for within the vaulted fiery furnace four men, not three, are walking freely amid the flames (Dan. 3:24-25); and between two youths stands a large figure with his arms round their shoulders, the angel Gabriel (Dan. 3:28; commentary II:211v, 1st column).

The king wears a long magenta tunic with a green, ermine-lined robe. He holds a fleur-de-lis sceptre in his left hand, while his right is raised in command. His soldiers wear short tunics of green, red and white (turned grey).

The three youths wear short magenta, blue and green tunics, and two have red and blue chlamydes with pointed Jewish hats in white (turned silvery) hanging round their necks. The angel wears a long green tunic with a red collar and hem. The brown furnace in which they stand is belching with flames.

Inscriptions in faded plummet in Latin by the 13th-century hand, and by a later hand in Hebrew display script:

  • In the inner margin above the panel: דניאל (Daniel) in Hebrew display letters.
  • In the top right upper margin near the gutter: [an]g[elu]s ? (Vulgate, Dan. 3:49).
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and green, blue, red, brown, magenta and white (turned grey).
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The figure of the king in our manuscript (fig. 1) is shorter than that of his servants and other protagonists, and contrasts with the large dimensions of the statue which has a similar crown. Metzger (1974, p. 548, n. 44) wonders if this depiction may be linked to the midrashic account that Nebuchadnezzar had a dwarfish figure (Ginsberg 1909-1911, VI, p. 422, n. 96), but opts for an ‘inverted perspective’ by the artist.

 

Fig. 1: The worship of the golden idol

and the three Hebrews in the fiery furnace

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:209

 

 According to Narkiss (1985, p. 430, n. 31), the midrash describes Nebuchadnezzar as a dwarf or a baby. A diminutive crowned figure of Nebuchadnezzar is illustrated in three south German Hebrew manuscripts: two show Nebuchadnezzar riding a lion with a snake as bridle (Jer. 27:6; BT Shabbat, 150a); in the Kalonimos Bible of 1237/8 (fig. 2) the king is dressed, pointing towards the turreted city ofJerusalem(II Kings 24:10), whereas in the later Mahzor Lipsiae of c.1320 (fig. 3) he is depicted as a crowned but naked

baby.

 

Fig. 2: Nebuchadnezzar riding a lion (Lam. 1:1),

 Kalonimos Bible,SouthGermany, 1237/8,

 Wroclaw, Univ. Lib. M 1106, fol. 272v  

  (Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

  

 Fig. 3: Nebuchadnezzar as a baby riding a lion,

 Mahzor Lipsiae,South Germany, c.1320

 Leipzig, First half of the 13th century

Leipzig, University Liberary V.1102, II:67

 (Narkiss, facsimile 1964, p. 98, pl. 44)

In the third manuscript, the 13th-century Minute Mahzor fromFranconia, the short figure of Nebuchadnezzar is seated on a throne next to a gigantic bodyguard (fig. 4, top right). In this case the artist was inspired by the attached piyyut, in which Nebuchadnezzar is called "the dwarf" (Aramaic: ננסא; Narkiss 1985, p. 430).

 

Fig. 4: Upper register: The three Hebrews and the king 

Lower register: The Hebrews and Gabriel

The Minute Mahzor,Franconia, 13th century  

New York, JTS Mic. 8972, fol. 114v  

(Narkiss 1985, pl. 17c; Jeruslem, CJA Narkiss Archive)

 Fig. 5: Upper register: The Hebrews and the King

Lower register: The Hebrews and Gabriel in the furnace

The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280

 London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 259v

  (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p.The two scenes of the story depicted in this mahzor (Dan. 3; fig. 4) show in the upper register the three Hebrews arguing with King Nebuchadnezzar and in the lower register, their rescue from the fiery furnace by the eagle-headed Gabriel in the presence of the king. These scenes, though differing in iconography, are depicted in the North French Hebrew Miscellany of c.1280 (fig. 5), but in these manuscripts the worship of the idol does not appear.

The extensive older cycles appear in theIberian Peninsulain Bibles of the tenth and eleventh centuries (Neuss 1922, pp. 1-7, 89ff.) as well as in Beatus of Liébana codices (Klein 2002, pp. 166, 296 ff.). The story of Daniel also appears in 12th-century French and Italian Bibles, for example the Cîteaux Bible (fig. 13) and the Pantheon Bible fromRomeor centralItaly(Cahn 1982, Nos. 65, 134, figs. 98, 107, respectively).

The scenes in our Rashi's commentary (Dan. 3; fig. 1) appear in the same sequence as in the Saint-Séver Beatus of the mid-11th century fromGascony(fig. 6). A similar illustration is found in the Morgan Las Huelgas Apocalypse of 1220 (fig. 7).

 

Fig. 6: The adoration of the golden idol

and the three Hebrews in the furnace  

Beatus of Saint-Séver, c.1038  

Gascony, Monastery of Saint- Séver

Paris, BnF lat. 8878, fol. 224   

(Saint-Sever Beatus, facsimile 2012)

 


Fig. 7: The adoration of the golden idol

and the three Hebrews in the furnace

Las Huelgas Apocalypse,Toledo 1220

New York, PML M.429, fol. 154

(Morgan Library Exhibition 2007, fig. 43)

 

 

 

                  

These Beatus manuscripts show the Babylonians at the top adoring the idol, and the king below ordering the three youths to be burned. The protective angel stands behind the boys in the fiery furnace.

The single episode of the three youths in the fiery furnace is quite common in Christian art and is already found in the catacombs (Guttmann 1978, p. 73), e.g. that of Priscilla catacomb (fig. 8), though without an angel.

 

Fig. 8: The three Hebrews in the fiery furnace     

Rome, Catacomb of Priscilla

late 3rd / early 4th century

(Lessing Photo Archive, No. 15-01-02/4)

Gabriel is found in Byzantine depictions, for example the 6th-century wall painting in the Coptic monastery at Wadi Sarga inEgypt(figs. 9a, b); in the mosaic of the monasterychurchofHosios Lukasof the 11th century (fig. 10); and in 13th-century depictions in Armenian manuscripts (fig. 11) and wall paintings inCappadocia(e.g. Göreme Karanlık Kilise).

 

Fig. 9a: Top square: The three Hebrews in the fiery furnace                     

Wall painting, 6th century

Egypt, Coptic monastery at Wadi Sarga

London, BM

(Lessing Photo Archive, No. 03-01-02/60)

 Fig. 9b: Top square, detail

                      

 

Fig. 10: The three Hebrews saved by Gabriel, mosaic               

Monastery Church of Hosios Lukas, 11th century                                     

(Lessing Photo Archive, No.15-03-03/42)

 

                                                                   

Fig. 11: The Three Hebrews saved by Gabriel

Ritual Book

Sis,Cilicia 1266 

Jerusalem, Armenian Patriarchate MS 2027, fol. 14v      

(Narkiss 1979, fig. 75) 

In the Byzantine examples as well as in the Beatus codices the angel hovers above the three youths with wings and hands outstretched, while in our illustration (fig. 12) the angel stands behind them, his arms round their shoulders. An interesting parallel is found in the Cîteaux Bible, where a large figure engulfs the smaller youths from behind. However, it is not the angel Gabriel but a bearded Christ come to save them (fig. 13).

Fig. 12: The Three Hebrews saved by Gabriel                             

Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible                                    

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, II:209  

                                          

 Fig. 13: The Three Hebrews saved by Christ

Cîteaux Bible, c.1109

Dijon, Bibliothèque Publique MS 14, fol. 64

(Cahn 1982, No. 65, fig. 98)

 

Another interesting resemblance is the figure stoking the furnace on the right, which is comparable to the large figure next to the furnace, one of the four brave soldiers in our illustration. The flames att

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
The faces are erased but features are discernible. The white has turned grey or, in the case of the the hats silvery. Some gold has flaked off the idol.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25085
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224971 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 252v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224971 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 252v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol. 252v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Scribal rubrication
Shaped text
Colophon, decorated |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600990
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224971
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224972 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 253, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224972 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 253, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol. 253
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Shaped text
Colophon, decorated |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600991
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224972
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224973 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol., Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224973 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol., Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol.
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Colophon, decorated
Shaped text |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600992
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224973
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224974 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 254, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224974 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 254, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol. 254
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Colophon, decorated
Shaped text |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600993
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224974
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224975 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 254v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224975 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 254v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol. 254v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Colophon, decorated
Shaped text |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600994
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224975
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224976 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 255, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224976 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 255, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol. 255
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Colophon
Shaped text |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600995
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224976
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224977 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 255v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224977 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. II, Fol. 255v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Biblical commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. II, Fol. 255v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Colophon
Shaped text |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600996
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224977
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a



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