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  (XI) Obj. ID: 2191 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible ,, Würzburg, 1232/33. // Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
5a Activity Dates
5b Reconstruction Dates
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
20 Remarks See: Additional Remarks, below
20 Description

More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
Commentaries on the Bible (without Proverbs) by Rashi and others: Joseph Kara: Major Prophets (Isaiah and Jeremiah; Ezekiel by a disciple of Kara) and Hagiography (Lamentations); Benjamin ben Yehudah of Rome (בנימין בן יהודה מרומה): Ezra and Nehemiah; the commentaries on Job by Rashi (1-40:25) and Jacob Nazir alternating with Rashbam (Job 40:26-end); Rashbam on Genesis 1; the commentary on Chronicles is anonymous.
The text mentions many other commentators, for example Elazar ben Meshulam, Dosa ben Elazar, Isaac ben Asher Halevy (Riva,( Shlomo ben Itzhak of Montil, Yaakov ben Menahem, Shemaiah Hashoshani; Menahem bar Halabo, Meir Shliah Tzibur, Baruch of Mainz, Meshulam Rofe, Saadia Gaon, Shmuel ben Meir (Rashbam(, and Yaakov ben Shabetai (see Buber 1898, pp. IV-V, note (ו); Steinschneider 1895, p. 2).
Contents in detail:
Vol. I: commentary on the Pentateuch and the Former Prophets:
1. Pentateuch (I:2-170) by Scribe A: Genesis (I:1v-44), Exodus (fols. 44v-83v), Leviticus (I:84-110),
Numbers (I:110v-141), Deuteronomy (I:141v-170). I:1, a single leaf with the beginning of Genesis, was
supplied by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549; the initial word decorated with a folded ribbon motif is by Meir.
Both scribes belong to Hans-Jacob Fugger's team in Venice.
2. Former Prophets (I:170v-217v; II:1r) by Scribe A, except for I:216-217 by B: Joshua (I:170v-177),
Judges (I:177v-184v), I and II Samuel (I:185-201), I and II Kings (I:201 - the abrupt end on 217v).
I:218, a single leaf at the end of the volume, the last page of II Kings was copied by Yishai ben Yehiel
in 1549. The original page had a title page by Meir pasted on to it and was transferred with two other
leaves to the beginning of the second volume starting with Isaiah (II:1v). This was done in order to
divide the pandect into two volumes.
Vol. II: commentary on Latter Prophets and Hagiography:
1. Major Prophets (II:1v-92) by Scribe B, except for II:1r, a 16th-century title page: Isaiah (II:1v-43),
Jeremiah (II:43, 3rd column-62v), Ezekiel (II:62v, 3rd column-92).
2. Minor Prophets (II:92v-122) by Scribe A, except for II:120v, 3rd column-122 by B: Hosea (II:92v-98v),
Joel (II:99-100), Amos (II:100-103v), Obadiah (II:104-104v), Jonah (II:105-105v), Micah (II:106-108v),
Nahum (II:109-110v), Habakkuk (II:110v-112v), Zephaniah (II:112v-113v), Haggai (II:113v-114v),
Zechariah (II:114v-120), Malachi (II:120v-122).
3. Five Scrolls (II:122v-158) by Scribe A, except for II:145r, 2nd column-149a and 152-158 by B: Ruth
(II:122v-124v), Song of Songs (II:125-141v), Ecclesiastes (II:142-149a), Esther (II:149a verso-152v),
Lamentations (II:153-158).
4. Hagiography (II:158v-256) by Scribe A, except for II:158v-182v, 221-226v by B: Psalms (II:158v-
182v), Job (II:183-208v), Daniel (II:209-220), Ezra (II:220v-226v), Chronicles (II:226a-255v).
II:252v-255v; the running colophon is written in roundels in the corners of the text space.
5. Fol. 256: Colophon repeated twice.
6. Fol. 257v (a single leaf at the end of volume II): The beginning of a commentary by Rashbam on the
Pentateuch, by Scribe A.
24 Codicology
Material Sheepskin (e.g. II:116, 117v, 118, 119v, 120, 121v). Originally the manuscript was one pandect; today it is separated into two volumes, each with a new numeration starting on the verso of the page, in the first volume in the bottom left corner and in the second at top left. Vol. I: 1 + 220 (mistakenly foliated 218 - fols. 56 and 63 numbered twice) + 1 leaves. Fol. 218 is a 1549 addition (end of II Kings) by Yishai ben Yehiel. Vol. II: 1 + 263 (mistakenly foliated 257 - fols. 131, 143, 144, 149, 226, 242 numbered twice) + 1 leaves. Fol. 1 is a 1549 title page by Meir stuck on the original text which ends II Kings of vol. I. Both sides of the parchment are treated similarly. The quires are arranged according to Gregory's rule, each starting with the yellowish hair side. Measurements Full page: Vol. I: (394-400) x (289-295) mm. Vol. II: (390-393) x (291-294) mm. Text space: Vol. I: Shlomo: (275-283) x 190 mm. Joseph (?): (285-286) x (185-190) mm. Vol. II: Shlomo: (274-278) x (191-194) mm. Joseph (?): (272-285) x (193-194) mm. Scribes I. The text is copied by two scribes: the main Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel, and Scribe B, probably Joseph (II: 4, 30v), who copied 15 full quires and shared 4 other quires with the main scribe: Scribe A: I:2-215v; II:92v-120v, 1st and middle columns; II:122v-145, 1st column; II:149a verso-151v; II:183-220v; II:226a recto-256; II:257v Genesis 1, commentary by Rashbam. Scribe B: I:216-217v; II:1 with the 1549 title page stuck on top -92; II:120v, 3rd column-22; II:182v; II:221- 226v. II. 14th-century hands inserted book and section titles in the blank spaces allocated by Scribes A and B: 1. Book titles in display script: Leviticus (I:84), Numbers (I:110v), Deuteronomy (I:141v), I Kings (I:201); Isaiah (II:1v), Hosea (II:92v), Joel (II:99), Ruth (II:122v), Esther (II:149v), Chronicles (II:226a). 2. Parashot in built-up letters: Exodus (I:50, 53, 56a, 59, 72, 75v, 81v, 82). 3. Parashot and haftarot by another hand in semi-cursive script: Exodus (I:96, 133v), Isaiah (II:25v, 33). III. Two scribes of the Fugger team writing in Venice in 1549: 1. Yishai ben Yehiel supplied the first lost leaf of the commentary to Genesis and the last leaf of II Kings (I:1v, 218), the original of which was transferred to the second volume (II:1). This was done when the manuscript, originally a single volume, was divided into two for Fugger's Library. 2. Meir decorated the initial word of Genesis (I:1v) with a folded ribbon motif and executed the title page of the Latter Prophets in the second volume (II:1r) with drawings of a deer and a hound. Script The text is written in a semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. Columns Vols. I and II: three columns (width of one: 50 mm.), except for leaves with shaped text at the ends of books, and II:257v in two columns (a final single leaf with Rashbam's commentary on Genesis). Number of lines Vols. I and II: the main text is written in 43-44 lines per column by both scribes, except for II:257v in 70 lines per column by Scribe A. Ruling Vols. I and II: by stylus on hair side, 45 horizontal (last line blank) and 2+2+2+2 vertical lines, for both scribes. The two top and bottom lines are ruled across the entire page. Pricking Pricking is noticeable for both scribes in the upper, lower and outer margins (e.g. I:13, 71-72; II:44-46, 68-89). Pricking in the inner margin is discernible wherever Scribe A writes: in all of vol. I (e.g. I:95-102, 172-185) and in vol. II (e.g. II:1-92, 158-182). However, no inner margin pricking is discernible (II:92-121) where Scribe A follows Scribe B (II:92v-120v); but there is inner margin pricking (II:122-157) where Scribe B follows Scribe A (II:120v-122, 145-149a, 152-157). It can thus be assumed that each scribe did his own pricking and ruling, including some extra leaves which were copied by the following scribe. Quires Vol. I: 28 quires of 8 leaves each except for I(8-1)+1 (original first folio with text lost, supplied by a 16th-century hand (fol. 1); XVIII6 (no text is missing); XXVIII(8-3)+1 (three final written leaves were cut off and transferred to vol. II (quire I3+8, beginning of Isaiah); thus fols. 213-215 are single leaves with stubs. The last original folio with text, 218, was moved to the second volume (now II:1) and a new single leaf was added by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549, recopying the end of II Kings. Quires structhure: I(8-1)+1 (1-8v, fol.1 is an added single leaf of 1549 replacing a lost one); II8 (9-16v); III8 (17-24v); IV8 (25-32v); V8 (33-40v); VI8 (41-48v); VII8 (49-56v); VIII8 (56a-63v, fol. 56 numbered twice: 56, 56a); IX8 (63a-70v, fol. 63 numbered twice: 63, 63a); X8 (71-78v); XI8 (79-86v); XII8 (87-94v); XIII8 (95-102v); XIV8 (103-110v); XV8 (111-118v); XVI8 (119-126v); XVII8 (127-134v); XVIII6 (135-140v); XIX8 (141-148v); XX8 (149-156v); XXI8 (157 164v); XXII8 (165-172v); XXIII8 (173-180v); XXIV8 (181-188v); XXV8 (189-196v); XXVI8 (197-204v); XXVII8 (205-212v); XXVIII(8-3)+1 (213-218v, II Kings ends abruptly on fol. 217v; fol. 218, an added leaf with the end of II Kings, was copied by Yishai ben Yehiel in 1549; the original leaf (with Isaiah on the verso) and two other leaves were transferred to the beginning of the second volume). Vol. II: 33 quires of 8 leaves each except for I3+8 (the first three, fols. 1-3, are single leaves transferred from vol. I, last quire XXVIII(8-3)+1. The original text of fol. II:1r - end of II Kings, is covered by a single title page executed by Meir in 1549); XV6 (no text missing); XXIV1+8 (the first leaf with stub); XXVII6 (no text missing); XXIX6 (no text missing); XXXIII8+1 (the single leaf contains the beginning Rashbam's commentary on the Pentateuch, Genesis 1, copied by Scribe A). Quires structhure: I3+8 (1-11v, beginning of Major Prophets; beginning of Isaiah fol. 1v; fol. 1r is a title page of 1549 by Meir, stuck onto the original recto of fol. 1v); II8 (12-19v); III8 (20-27v); IV8 (28-35v); V8 (36-43v); VI8 (44-51v); VII8 (52-59v); VIII8 (60-67v); IX8 (68-75v); X8 (76-83v); XI8 (84-91v); XII8 (92-99v); XIII8 (100-107v); XIV8 (108-115v); XV6 (116-121v, no text missing); XVI8 (122-129v); XVII8 (130-136v, fol. 131 numbered twice: 131, 131a); XVIII8 (137-143a verso, fol. 143 numbered twice: 143, 143a); XIX8 (144-149a verso, fols. 144 and 149 numbered twice: 144, 144a and 149, 149a); XX8 (150-157v); XXI8 (158-165v); XXII8 (166-173v); XXIII8 (174-181v); XXIV1+8 (182-190v, fol. 182, single first leaf added to end the Psalms, fol. 182v, beginning of Job fol. 183). According to Klemm (1998, Nos. 194-195), Proverbs was written between fol. 182 (end of Psalms by Scribe B) and fol. 183 (beginning of Job by Scribe A) as one quire; XXV8 (191-198v); XXVI8 (199-206v); XXVII6 (207-212v); XXVIII8 (213-220v); XXIX6 (221-226v); XXX8 (226a-233v, fol. 226 numbered twice: 226, 226a); XXXI8 (234-241v); XXXII8 (242-248v, fol. 242 numbered twice: 242, 242a); XXIII8+1 (249-257v; fol. 256v is blank; fol. 257 is a single leaf attached to the last quire: the recto is blank, the verso has Rashbam's commentary on Genesis 1). Catchwords For both scribes in the bottom left-hand corner of the last page of quires, decorated with lines, dots and spirals. Blank leaves Vol. I: fol. 218v (16th-century addition). Vol. II: fols. 256v, 257.
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors
25k Construction Material

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
Two colophons of the main Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel:
1. Vol. II:252v-255v, in the corners of the text space are twenty-eight roundels, four to a page, each
enclosing one word on a black ink ground:
אני שלמה ברבי שמואל (fol. 252v)/ כתבתי אילו פירושי עשרים (fol. 253)/ וארבעה ספרים לרבי יוסף (fol. 253v)/ ברבי משה בשנת ארבעת (fol. 254)/ אלפים ותשע מאות ותשעים (fol. 254v)/ ושלשה לבריאת עולם וזה (fol. 255)/ יהיה זכרי בשובי לעפרי (fol. 255v).
I, Solomon son of R. Samuel, wrote these commentaries on the twenty-four books [of the Bible] for R.
Joseph son of R. Moses in the year four thousand nine hundred and ninety-three from the creation of
the world (1232/3). And this will be my memorial when I return to dust.
2. Vol. II:256, last leaf:
אני שלמה ברבי שמואל ממדינת וירצבורק כתבתי/ אילו פירושים של עשרים וארבעה ספרים לרבי יוסף/ בר' משה בשנת
ארבעת אלפים ותשע מאות ותשעים/ ושלשה לבריאת עולם והמקום יזכהו להגות בהם/ ולהורישם לבניו ולבני בניו עד סוף כל הדורות אמן./ ורוח ממרום יערה עלינו. ובתורתו יאיר עינינו./ ויביא משיח צדקינו. ויבנה בית מקדשינו./ ושם תצמיח קרן אלינו. אמן במהרה בימינו
I, Solomon son of R. Samuel from the city of Würzburg have written these commentaries on the
twenty-four books for R. Joseph son of R. Moses in the year four thousand nine hundred and ninety-
three from the creation of the world (1232/3). The Lord will let him consult them and bequeath them to
his sons and sons' sons to the end of generations. Amen. And may the heavenly spirit be poured out
upon us (paraphrase of Is. 32:15). And His Law will enlighten our eyes and bring the Messiah of justice.
And will build our Temple. And there you will make the horn [of David] sprout up for us
(paraphrase of Psalm 132:17). Amen, speedily in our own days.
31 Scribal Notes
Scribe A, Shlomo ben Shmuel:
The scribe marked his name, Shlomo, with spirals or flowers (I:13v, 24, 25v, 33v, 69v, 163v, 201v, 202v; II:125v, 127v, 133, 136v, 143, 228v, 233v, 243, 250v).
Vol. I:75v, the name Shlomo (שלמה) is written in acrostic.
Vol. II:243, the words בר שמואל (son of Shmuel) are added in the cartouche which decorates the name Shlomo.
Vol. I:170, at the end of the Pentateuch, above the word strength (חזק), an inscription reads:
אילו פירושי חומש יסוד המאור הגדול רבינו שלמה ברבי יצחק ויש בתוכן טעמים ומדרשים שאינן מיסודו ונוספים על פתרונו
ועין לא ראתה זולתם ואזן לא שמעה דוגמתן והמשכיל בהם יזהיר כזוהר הרקיע (דניאל יב:3) ואורו לא ישקיע, וברוך הנותן
ליעף כח (ישעיהו מ:29), א'ס' (=אמן סלה).
These are the commentaries on the Pentateuch from the source of our great light, Rabbi Solomon ben
Rabbi Isaac, and among them are commentaries (טעמים) and midrashim not by him but additions to his
interpretation which no eye has seen and no ear has heard; and "the wise shall shine as the brightness
of the firmanent" (Daniel 12:3) and its light will not set, and blessed be "He [who] giveth power to the
faint" (Is. 40:29), Amen. Selah.
The scribe writes elaborate rhymed verses at the ends and beginnings of books (e.g. I:170-170v; I:98v-99, 103v-106).
Scribe B: Joseph (?):
The name Joseph is discreetly marked by Scribe B with dots in vol. II only (e.g. II:4, 30v). Although it could be the scribe's name, the colophon mentions Joseph as the owner of the manuscript (II:256).
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding

Fig. 1:

Front cover Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, vol. I

Fig. 2: Back cover Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, vol. I Both volumes have a similar binding (vol. I: 395 x 285 mm.; vol. II: 399 x 275 mm,): green morocco faded to brown on wooden boards, gold-tooled similarly on front and back with a central roundel in an undulating floral rhomboid within a large rectangle. The latter is decorated with foliate motifs at the corners and with a flower at the centre of each side of the frame (figs. 1-2). The central front roundel is inscribed פירושים (Commentaries). Above and below it is Fugger's shelf mark in Hebrew and Latin respectively: ת and Y for volume I (fig. 1), and ש (sic) and Z for volume II. The roundel on the back encloses a shield-like motif. The spine, blind-tooled with hatching has five hidden cords and head and tail bands. On the front cover are vestiges of four groups of three plaited leather bands: two on the fore-edge and one each at top and bottom, corresponding to holes from four missing nails on the edges of the back cover (see e.g. Cod. hebr. 301). The edges of leaves are goffered. The binding was done by the Fugger Binder (also called Venetian Apple Binder) in Venice in 1549 (Le Bars 2004, pp. 56-59; Hobson 1999, p. 119 and n. 65, 120-129, 255-259; Schunke 1964, pp. 173-176; figs. XVII-XIX; Tiftixoglu 2004, pp. 63, 94 and figs. 5-8; Wagner 2006, pp. 84-85). See also Introduction to Fugger manuscripts. Flyleaves: the bindings of both volumes have flyleaves torn from 13th-century German Latin manuscripts: 1. Text from a Passional: vols. I and II front pastedown and flyleaves; 2. Texts from two different Homiliary manuscripts: vol. I and II back pastedowns and flyleaves, one Homiliary for each (cf. Cod. hebr. 80, which previously belonged to Cardinal Domenico Grimani, has flyleaves similar to the back of vol. II. Indeed, its position in Fugger's Library followed our two volumes). See also History.

36 Decoration Program
The painted decoration of the two-volume commentary on the Bible was done by a single unknown artist, who illustrated the text of the main Scribe A at the beginnings of books (Genesis, Exodus, Joshua, Job, Daniel) and parashot (Genesis, Exodus), and decorated the ends of books with bands (Genesis, Pentateuch and Job). The two scribes decorated the text they wrote with pen drawings: Scribe A at the beginnings of haftarot (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Minor Prophets); some text illustrations (Exodus and I Kings); mid-book divisions; headings and ends of sections; floral decorations to ascenders and stems of other letters, and a decorated colophon; Scribe B sparingly decorated the word haftarah (Ezekiel), and decorated ends of books (Malachi, Ecclesiastes and Ezra). However, for most books, parashot and haftarot empty spaces were allocated for initial words and text illustrations which were not executed. Some initial words were added in the blank spaces by a 14th-century hand. In 1549 Meir of the Fugger team decorated a title page to vol. II and the first initial word of vol. I on additional leaves. The colours are white, green, red, deep blue, magenta, yellow ochre, light brown and gold leaf on a yellow ground (e.g. I:9v, 13v). Some motifs were left uncoloured showing the parchment (e.g. a horse on I:29v), and scrolls were not inscribed. Decoration Program in detail: I. Painted text illustrations and decorations by the artist: 1. Four panels each across two columns at the beginning of books (height: 11-14 lines): Exodus, Joshua, Job, Daniel, three illustrated: Exodus (I:44v, ואלה: Joseph with Jacob and his brothers), Job (II:183, איש: Job lamenting before his four friends and his wife), Daniel (II:209, :בשנת Daniel and the three Hebrews). The Joshua panel (I:170v, (ויהי is written in gold. 2. Thirteen small illustrated panels at the beginnings of parashot within the text columns (height: 7-8 lines, width of one text column) placed directly below the explicit of the previous one: a. Eleven for Genesis: I:6 ( ,תיבהNoah's ark); I:9v (לך לך, Abraham leaving Haran; the destruction of Sodom); I:13v (,וירא Abraham greeting the angels); I:18v (ויהיו, the sacrifice of Isaac); I:21v (ואלה, Isaac blessing Jacob and Esau); I:25v (וייצא, Jacob's dream); I:29v (וישלח, Jacob meeting Esau); I:34 (וישב, the selling of Joseph); I:37 (,ויהי Pharaoh's first dream); I:39 (ויגש, Joseph and his brothers); I:40v (ויהי, Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh). b. Two for Exodus: I:47v (,וידבר God establishes his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob); I:63a (ויקחו, bringing donation to the Tabernacle). 3. One full-page text illustration of the seven-branched menorah next to the relevant text (Ex. 25:31-40; I:65). 4. Three decorated ends of books with X or V-shaped bands framing text: Genesis (I:43v-44: end medallions with a lion flanked by two lionesses (fol. 44); Pentateuch (I:168v-169v: their two bases are prostrate giants (fol. 168v), lion masks (fol. 169), or dormant lions (fol. 169v); as well as Job (II:207v-208v). II. Illustrations and decorations in brown ink and red colour by Scribe A: 1. Nine pen drawings illustrating Exodus, Numbers and I Kings: a. Three inscribed diagrammatic maps, two representing the Land of Canaan (Numb. 34:1-12) with north (I:139v) and east (I:140) at the top. The third (I:184v) shows the town of Shiloh in relation to Bethel, Lebonah and Shechem (Judg. 21:19). b. Two small pen drawings illustrating the movement of a finger or hand coating a wafer with oil or anointing a king are inserted within the text and decorated with acanthus scrolls in red or spared-ground technique (Ex. 29:2, I:74; I Kings, 1:33-34, I:201v). c. Four drawings refer to the building of Solomon's Temple. An inverted V denoting a lintel is decorated with spared-ground scrolls (I Kings, 6:31, I:204v); three drawings illustrating various componentes which form the capitals of the columns Jachin and Boaz (I Kings, 7:15-23, I:205v), one resembles a palm branch and two are decorated with spared-ground acanthus scrolls. 2. Thirty-one decorated beginnings of haftarot (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Minor Prophets; 7-8 lines high, the width of one text column): the first words in built-up ink letters are placed within double outlined roundels (d.50 mm.) decorated with acanthus scrolls (e.g. I:171v), chequered patterning (e.g. I:213), hatching (e.g. I:206v, 210, 212v, 214v; II:107v), at times on a black and red ground (e.g. I:171v, 182, 190, 203), with additional fleurs-de-lis (I:179, 182) or enclosed in red arches (e.g. I:171v, 182v). 3. Mid-book (חצי) divisions, headings and ends of sections: a. Large display script decorated with scrolls in spared-ground technique: mid-book across two text columns for Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Job and Daniel (II:123v, 134v, 144a, 196, 213); the initial word Vayelech (וילך in Parashat Nizavim) in similar large display script (Deut. 31:1; I:161v); the word strength (חזק), though smaller, marks the end of the Pentateuch (I:170). b. Small framed built-up letters in brown ink (height: 3 lines): Names of books in the space between two columns (e.g. Judges (שפטים), Samuel (שמואל), Kings (מלכים) (I:177v, 185, 201) and the Minor Prophets (תרי עשר) (II:92v); section headings (I:56a verso-61 passim), as well as explicits and incipits (I:184v-185; II:226a). Some headings are built-up in vermilion (I:171, 186v; II:124v-125v). c. Explicits and incipits: names of books are mentioned in florid rhymed verses from the end of Exodus on (e.g. I:170v, 84, 201; II:122v, 208v, 209v. 4. Shaped and accentuated texts: a. At the ends of books in triangular, diamond, conical and trapezoidal forms, framed by X or V- shaped bands. Some were coloured and decorated by the artist (see above): Genesis (I:43v-44), Pentateuch (I:168v-169v), Job (II:207v-208v). Other similar shapes with uncoloured bands: Exodus (I:82v-83v); Leviticus (I:109v-110); Numbers (I:140v-141); Joshua (I:176v-177v); Judges (I:184v, roundel); Samuel (I:200v-201, roundels flanking an hour-glass shape); Minor Prophets (II:98v, 100, 103v, 104v, 105v, 108v, 110v, 112v, 113v, 114v, 119v-120), Ruth (II:124v), Song of Songs (II:140v-141v), Daniel (II:218v-220), Chronicles (II:252v-255v, decorated in the apexes with fleurs-de-lis). b. Certain text passages or references to some Rabbis are marked by flanking scroll bands in spared-ground technique (II:193, 199 - אלעזר הקליר, 209v, 242v-244, 250v), have similarly decorated frames (II:252), in the form of fleurs-de-lis (I:135; II:247 - ודוד זקן ושבע ימים; ודוד זקן, 248-248v). 5. Floral decoration to the ascender of lamed (ל) and to stems of other letters: (II:236v, 238v, 240, 241v-242v). 6. Emphasizing the name of Scribe A: a. Floral decoration of the name Shlomo in the text (I:201v; II:136, 233v, 240, 241v-242v, 250v); b. Colophon of Shlomo ben Shmuel within a decorated cartouche (II:243); c. Colophon of Shlomo ben Shmuel within 28 roundels: the end of Chronicles (II:252v-255v) is written in triangular shapes framed by uncoloured bands decorated with fleurs-de-lis in the apexes. In the corners between the triangles of text are twenty eight roundels, four to a page, each enclosing one word of Scribe A's colophon on a black ground. On the last leaf (II:256) the scribe repeats the colophon, adding further information. III. Decoration in ink by Scribe B: 1. Ends of books in shaped text: Ezekiel (II:92, triangles), Malachi (II:121v-122, roundels, scalloped frame and an arch), Ecclesiastes (II:148v-149, 149a, scalloped frames) and Ezra (II:226v, roundels). The frames are uncoloured. 2. The word haftarah is sparingly decorated in Ezekiel (II:88v, 89v). IV. 14th-century hands inserted book and section titles in the blank spaces allocated by Scribes A and B: 1. Book titles in display script for some books, written across two text columns filled in with ink, at times crudely decorated: Leviticus (I:84, ויקרא), Numbers (I:110v, וידבר), Deuteronomy (I:141v, אלה), I Kings (I:201, והמלך), Isaiah (II:1v, חזון), Hosea (II:92v, דבר), Joel (II:99, דבר), Ruth (II:122v, ויהי), Esther (II:149a verso, ויהי), Chronicles (II:226a, אדם). Leviticus (I:84, ויקרא ) is decorated with wriggle work and foliate extensions, with a hunting scene above. A similar hunt is depicted above the opening word of Ruth (II:122v, ויהי) and within the letters in spared-ground technique. The opening word of Numbers (I:110v,וידבר ) is surrounded by wriggle work and some foliate extensions; and that of Chronicles (II:226a, אדם) has an incomplete chequer pattern decoration. The other opening words are plain, one incomplete (I:141v). 2. For parashot, in built-up ink letters, the width of one text column: I:50 (ויאמר), 53 (ויהי), 56a (וישמע), 59 (ואלה), 72 (ואתה), 75v (כי תשא), 81v (ויקהל), 82 (אלה); 3. By other hands in semi-cursive script for parashot: (I:96 (וידבר), 133v (פנחס); and haftarot in spaces allocated by Scribe B: II:25v (הפטרה ואלה שמות), II:33 (הפטרה לך לך). V. Decoration of an initial word (I:1v) and title page (II:1r) by Meir, in 1549: three leaves were added when the manuscript was divided into two volumes in Venice for Fugger's Library: two text pages written by Yishai ben Yehiel (I:1v, 218); and one initial word בראשית (I:1v) and a title page נביאים אחרונים decorated by Meir (II:1r, stuck onto an original leaf).
36 Summary and Remarks

Cod. hebr. 5, originally produced as a sumptuous single volume, was divided into two around 1549 after its acquisition by Johann-Jakob Fugger (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Each volume was bound by the Fugger Binder (see Binding). The lost first leaf of vol. I, as well as its last leaf were replaced, copied anew (I:1v, I:218r) by Yishai ben Yehiel and decorated by Meir. Both scribes worked for Fugger in Venice during 1549 and 1552 (see Illuminated Documents of vol. I:1v and vol. II:1r). Before the manuscript was acquired by Fugger in 1549, it was sold in Venice in 1526 by Rabbi Hiya Meir ben David to Yekutiel ben David (cf. inscription below the colophon, II:256). Rabbi Hiya Meir worked with the Venetian printer Daniel Bomberg (Amram 1909:169; Raz-Krakotzkin 2007:105), with whom Fugger had some relations (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts). Thus it is possible that Fugger acquired this manuscript through Bomberg's printing house. It should be noted that in 1516-17 and 1524-26 Bomberg printed in Venice the first two editions of the Great Scriptures ((מקראות גדולות with Rashi's commentary, from which Yishai could have copied that for Genesis (vol. I:1v). The Style Despite the small illustrated panels, the composition is fairly spacious, even when there is a conflation of scenes, such as Abraham leaving Haran and the destruction of Sodom, Isaac blessing Esau while Jacob leaves the house, Joseph being thrown into the pit and sold to the Ishmaelites, Job with his four friends and his wife, and Nebuchadnezzar and the three Hebrews (I:9v, 21v, 34; II:183, 209). At times our artist used similar compositions where a group of people stands before an authoritative figure, either seated or standing (I:39, 44v, 63a). He also used similar postures and gestures in three other scenes where, in a group of three figures standing in a row, the first is looking ahead while the second turns to the third, all making hand gestures. The style and motifs of our manuscript show close affinities with Latin book illumination produced in Würzburg in the 13th century. This was first mentioned by H. Swarzenski (1936) and reiterated by Narkiss (1967), Engelhart (1987), Suckale (1988) and Klemm (1998, Nos. 194-195).

Fig. 3: Evangelistary Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11) Indeed, there are many stylistic elements which appear in our manuscript and are common to a Latin Evangelistary of c.1250 (clm 23256) and a Psalter of 1260-1265 (clm 3900), which suggest these manuscripts were produced in the same workshop. Compare for example the sitting Joseph with Augustus ordering the census (clm 23256:2; see Illuminated Document of I:39) with one hand outstretched in command and the other resting on his thigh (see also clm 3900:2v, 63; Engelhart 1987, figs. 91, 107); or the seated Moses (see Illuminated Document Documentat of I:63a) with the seated Evangelists (clm 23256:1v - fig. 3), especially Luke in the bottom right medallion (fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Luke Evangelistary Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11) The faces are similarly rendered in light yellow ochre, with round eyes, arched eyebrows, a straight mouth and concave lower lip at times tinged with red (see Illuminated Documents of I:29v, I:47v; cf. clm 23256:1v - fig. 3). Another example is the profile of Jacob (see Illuminated Document of I:47v – fig. 5a) and that of the soldier (see Illuminated Document of II:209) which resemble that of Matthew in the bottom left medallion (clm 23256:1v - figs. 3, 5b): note the articulation of the hair and the upturned curl which also appear in the left-hand figure of the Psalter (clm 3900:2v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 91). Fig. 5a: Jacob Fig. 5b: Matthew Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Evangelistary Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:47v Würzburg, c.1250 Munich, BSB clm 23256, fol. 1v (Engelhart 1987, fig. 11) As noted above, there are also similar motifs. The giants supporting the decorated bands in our manuscript (see Illuminated Document of I:168v) are similar to that supporting the letter P in the Evangelistary (clm 23256:3v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 167); the angel's wings are similarly rendered in both manuscripts (see Illuminated Document of I:9v; clm 23256:4; Engelhart 1987, fig. 172) and articulated in ink; and the lion at the end of Genesis (I:44) is comparable to those in the Evangelistary (clm 23256:7) and the Psalter (clm 3900:4v; Engelhart 1987, fig. 95). Despite the resemblance of both manuscripts especially in stylistic motifs, there is a difference in composition when compared with the calendar scenes of the Psalter (see Illuminated Documents of I:39 and I:63a for clm 3900:3; Engelhart 1987, figs. 89-100; chm 5, Engelhart 1987, figs. 173-174): in our manuscript the composition is more compact, the figures are mostly turning and gesturing, and the flying scrolls contribute to the movement. The colours used in our manuscript resemble those in the Evangelistary (clm 23256 – fig. 1). However, the latter's colour gradation is finer for highlights and shadows. To sum up, if a development in the style of the workshop could be sketched, it seems that the early stages are reflected in our manuscript, intermediate ones in the Evangelistary of c.1250, and still later ones in the Psalter of 1250-65 (Klemm 1998, Cat.195, p. 202). This suggestion is reinforced when the relationship between the Christian artist and the Jewish main scribe is considered. The Christian Artist and the Jewish Scribe A The iconography of most illustrated panels can be traced to Mosan art in north France and south Germany, sometimes with Byzantine antecedents such as Monreale, Palermo and St. Mark's, e.g. Noah's ark, the sacrifice of Isaac, Isaac blessing Jacob and Esau, Jacob's dream, the selling of Joseph, Pharaoh's first dream, and Job (I:6, 18v, 21v, 25v, 34, 37; II:183; Turner 1970, pp. 133-168; Frazer 1970, pp. 185-189). Exemplars with similar iconography apparently existed in the Würzburg workshop which decorated our manuscript. All the illuminated quires with panels and ends of books which were executed by the artist of the workshop were written by Scribe A: In vol. I, quires I-VI of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus (fols. 1-48v), quires IX of Exodus (fols. 63a-70v) and XXII, end of the Pentateuch and beginning of Joshua (fols. 165-172v). In vol. II the scribe had to hand two quires over to the artist: XXIV (fols. 183 Job -190; fol. 182 is an attached single leaf), and XXVII (fols. 207-212, end of Job and Daniel). All in all, the artist received from Scribe A ten of the 61 quires; the rest were partly illustrated and decorated in ink and red colour by Scribe A whenever he wrote the text. Scribe B did not decorate the text he copied, except three ends of books in ink (vol. II:121v-122; 148v-149a; 226v). In several cases the artist of the Würzburg workshop illustrated the Rashi commentary rather than the biblical text: Abraham leaving Haran and the destruction of Sodom, Jacob's dream, Jacob and Esau meeting, God reaffirms his covenant with the patriarchs, and lastly the seven-branched menorah (I:9v, 25v, 29v, 47v, 65). In two cases the panel heading one parashah illustrates Rashi's succinct reference to a story told in the previous one: the sacrifice of Isaac and Joseph meeting his father and brothers (I:18v, 44v); and in Haran and Sodom, the stories of two consecutive parashot are combined in one illustration (I:9v). It is significant to note that next to eight illustrated panels (I:9v, 13v, 21v, 29v, 34, 37; II:183, 209) there are still barely discernible inscriptions in Latin written in plummet by a 13th-century hand. There are no such inscriptions in the unpainted spaces allocated by Scribe A. Apparently these inscriptions are by the artist. Since these consist of short biblical captions and do not elaborate on the intricate iconography which was painted, it seems that Scribe A verbally explained the Rashi commentary to the painter, who noted general captions in Latin without specific iconographical details. Such co-operation, apparently in the Würzburg workshop, means that the illumination was done at the time of writing, namely in 1233, and not in the mid-13th century as suggested by scholars, when the style of the Evangelistary and Psalter reached its developed stage. It seems that our scribe did not give specific instructions about details which are common in Christian iconography, though they are also found at times in Hebrew books. One such example is Abraham and the three angels, where Michael raises his right hand in the Christian two-fingered blessing (see Illuminated Document of I:13v). Another example is God's covenant with the patriarchs, where the radical erasure of the piece of sky suggests that it included his image (see Illuminated Document I:47v). It is surprising that for the image of the seven-branched menorah (I:65) Rashi's commentary was followed for the flames bending towards the centre and the three-legged base, motifs prevalent in Jewish and Christian iconography. However, in contrast to Rashi's branches of equal height, likewise a common motif, our artist used an unusual exemplar with pairs of branches diminishing in size outwards from the central shaft, not as described in the commentary (see Illuminated Document of I:65). Later hands, presumably of owners, have scratched out the facial features of most images (Metzger 1974, pp. 549-551). Next to twelve illustrated panels (I:9v, 13v, 18v, 21v, 25v, 29v, 34, 37, 39, 40v, 63a; II:183) one hand has written in Hebrew square script the opening word of the parashot. Since the panels' original letters were distorted by the gold laid on by an artist who knew no Hebrew, and since the inscriptions were written only next to painted panels, it stands to reason that the later hand has deciphered the Hebrew opening words and rendered them legible. The patron of our manuscript, R. Joseph son of R. Moshe, commissioned another manuscript a few years after our commentary was completed, the Ambrosian Bible of 1236-1238 (see Illuminated Document of I:18v), perhaps from Würzburg. It is interesting to note that neither the iconography nor the style is comparable.

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
Annotations:
Latin inscriptions and Hebrew parashot names next to some illustrated panels in faint plummet:
1. A 13th-century hand wrote Latin captions next to some parashot panels in Genesis (I:9v, 13v, 18v, 21v,
25v – illegible, 29v, 34, 37, 39, 40v – illegible), as well as in Job and Daniel (II:183, 209).
2. A later hand (14th century?) added names to some parashot in Genesis in square Hebrew script.
3. Several later hands have added, in the margins and intercolumnar space, various versions of Rashi's
commentary (e.g. I:6, 9v, 22v, 23, 25v) drawn from other manuscripts or printed books.
Signatures:
1. At the top of the back cover in black ink, vols. I and II: Stat I. n. 9 and Stat I. n. 10 respectively (second
signature of Fugger's Library).
2. At the bottom of the front cover in black ink, vols. I and II: I. n. 65 and I. n. 66 (Duke's Library,
Prommer's signature).
3. Front flyleaf in red ink, vols. I and II: I. 55 and I. 56 (Duke's Library, Prommer's revision in 1583).
4. On the ex-libris stuck on the front pastedown of each volume, written in pencil on the right: Cod. hebr.
5; and on the left the book's contents in Latin: Shlomo Ben Isaac (Raschi)/ Vol. I compendium in/
Pentateuchum et propheteas priores. Vol. II Compendium in Prophetas Posteriores/ et Hagiographos
Würceburg scriptor 4993 (1233)/ a R. Salomone/ B. Samuel.
5. Stickers on the back pastedown of each volume: Cod. hebr. 5; and on the spine: Cod. hebr. 5/I and Cod.
hebr. 5/II respectively.
6. On the front pastedown of vols. I and II: an ex-libris of the Bavarian Court and State Library (227 x 155
mm.) with the coat-of-arms of Elector Maximilian I from 1639 (Dressler 1972:B3ab). It is stuck on
the earlier ex-libris of 1618, which is that of Duke Maximilian I before he became Elector in 1623
(Dressler 1972:A3a-f).
7. Oval stamp of the library, Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis, on front and back fly-leaves of both volumes,
and vol. II:1, 257.
8. Vols. I and II restored in 1957 (IBR Nos. 1832, 1833).
Inscriptions:
Vol. I, fol. 1 in brown ink:
1. Librarian 1 in square script (see Introduction to Fugger manuscripts):
פירושים של רבינו שלמָה וקצת תלמוד קצר/ על חמשה חומשי תורה ועל ההפטרות/ מכל השנה./ חלק ראשון
Commentaries of Rabbi Shlomo and abbreviated Talmud/ on the five books of Moses and haftarot for
the entire year. Part One.
2. Samuel Quichelberg (librarian of Fugger and Duke Albrecht V):
In quinque libros Mosis commentarij/ Rabbi Solomonis nemque in Prophetas/ priores ut
Iosuam, Iudices, Samuelem et/ libros Regum. distinctis Sabbathorum lectioni/ bus.
Vol. II, fol.1 in brown ink:
1. Librarian 1 in square script:
נביאים אחרונים/ עם פירוש רְבִי שלמָה וגם רְבִי דוד קמחי/ המְפורשים וקצת תרגום יונתן על/ ההפטרות מכל השנה./ חלק שני
Latter Prophets with commentaries by Rabbi Shlomo and Rabbi David Kimchi and some Targum
Jonathan on haftarot for the entire year. Part Two.
2. Samuel Quichelberg:
Aliorum prophetarum seu secondorum / commetarij tantum, sine ipso contextu / Rabbi David Kimhj.
3. On verso of front flyleaf by a shaky hand in square script:
נביאים אחרונים / עם פירוש רְבִי שלמָה וגם רבי דוד קמחי / המָפורֻשים וק [צת]
Latter Prophets with commentaries by Rabbi Shlomo and Rabbi David Kimchi.
Owners' inscriptions:
Vol. I:2, in Ashkenazi semi-cursive script of the 15th century (?): נפל לחלקי נאם גר אברם ויך בך (?), Fell unto
my lot, says the convert (גר) Avram Weich Bach (?).
This inscription was written after the loss of the first leaf and before its replacement in 1549 (I:1).
Vol. II:256, in Ashkenazi semi-cursive script, below the colophon, a signed inscription from Venice in the
year 1526, in Ashkenazi cursive script:
זה הפירוש מכ"ד ספרים [נמ]כר לכמ"ר (לכבוד מעלת רבינו) יקותיאל בכמ"ר דוד ז"ל בהכרזת ב"ד (בית דין) היום יום ה'
י"ג טבת רפ"ו לפ"ק פה ווניזייה. נאם הקטן שב[תלמי]דים חיא מאיר בכהר"ר דוד זצ"ל
This commentary on the twenty-four books was sold to Rabbi Yekutiel son of the late David in a court declaration today Thursday, 13th of Tevet 5286 (29.12.1526) here in Venice, so says the
smallest (i.e. humblest) amongst scholars Hiya Meir ben David of blessed memory (see Remarks).
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
The gold leaf is laid on a yellow ground which is revealed wherever the leaf has flaked off (e.g. I:13v, 29v, 39, 65). All exposed body parts such as faces, hands, legs and necks, as well as blank scrolls, seem to have been of a diluted yellowish-ochre colour which has turned grey (e.g. I:37, 47v; cf. clm 23256:1v).
Despite the deliberate damage to faces (I:34, 37, 39), the underdrawing of features in light brown ink in many scenes is discernible (I:39, 40v, 44v, 47v, 63a; II:183, 209); or in dark brown ink over the colour (I:18v, 29v, 40v; II:183, 209). The segment of sky in I:47v is completely scraped off; it probably enclosed the head of Christ. The faces on I:18v were not damaged.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Abbreviations
BAV Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica
BL London, British Library
BM London, British Museum
BNE Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional
BnF Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France
Bodl. Lib. Oxford, Bodleian Library
BSB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
CJA Jerusalem, Center for Jewish Art, The Hebrew University:
• Narkiss Archive
• Schubert Archive
• Sed-Rajna Archive
• CJA Documentation
HUC Cincinnati, Hebrew Union Collage
ICA Princeton, Index of Christian Art
IMHM Jerusalem, Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts at the National Library of Israel
IM Jerusalem, Israel Museum
JTS New York, Theological Seminary of America
MMT Paris, Musée Marmottan Monet
MTAK Budapest, Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
NLI (olim JNUL) Jerusalem, National Library of Israel
PML New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
ÖNB Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
VadSlg St. Gall, Kantonsbibliothek Vadianische Sammlung
Wroclaw Univ. Lib. Wroclaw, University Library








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Gutmann 1987 J. Gutmann, "The Sacrifice of Isaac in Medieval Jewish Art", Artibus et Historiae, 16
(1987), pp. 67–83.
Hobson 1999 A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting: Jean Grolier and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza,
their Books and Bindings, Cambridge 1999.
Huber 1986 P. Huber, Hiob Dulder oder Rebel?, Düsseldorf 1986.
Ingeborg Psalter, facsimile 1985 Ingeborg-Psalter (Chantilly, Musée Condé, Ms. 9 olim 1695), (Codices
Selecti LXXX, Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt), Graz 1985.
Kafih 1967 Y. Kafih (ed.), Maimonides' Perush Hamishna, Jerusalem 1967.
Kasher 1992 M. M. Kasher, Torah Shelema, Jerusalem 1992.
Kedar 2008 B. Z. Kedar, "Rashi's Map of the Land of Canaan, ca. 1100, and its Cartographic
Background", Cartography in Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Fresh Perspectives, New Methods,
R. J. A. Albert and R.W Unger (ed.), Leiden, 2008, p. 155-168.
Kedar 2009 B. Z. Kedar, "Rashi's Map of the Land of Canaan and Its Cartographic Background", From
Sages to Savants, Studies Presented to Avraham Grossman, J.R. Hacker et al. (ed.), Jerusalem
2009, pp. 111-128 (Hebrew).
Kessler 2010 E. Kessler, An Introduction to Jewish-Christian Relations, Cambridge University Press
2010.
Kitzinger 1960 E. Kitzinger, The Mosaics of Monreale, Palermo 1960.
Klein 2002 P. K. Klein, Beatus of Liebana: The Beatus Illustration and the Codex in Manchester,
Valencia 2002.
Klemm 1973 E. Klemm, Eine romanischer Miniaturzyklus aus dem Maasgebiet, Vienna 1973.
Klemm 1980 E. Klemm, Die romanischen Handschriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, (Katalog der
illuminierten Handschriften der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in München, vol. 3/I), Wiesbaden
1980.
Klemm 1998 E. Klemm, Die illuminierten Handschriften des 13. Jahrhunderts Deutscher Herkunft in der
Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek (Katalog der illuminierten Handschriften der Bayerischen
Staatsbibliothek in München, vol. 4), Wiesbaden 1998.
Kötzsche 1973 II D. Kötzsche, "Zum Stand der Forschung der Goldschmiedekunst des 12. Jahrhunderts
im Rhein-Maas-Gebiet", Rhein und Maas: Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400 (exhibition catalogue II)
Cologne 1973, pp. 191-236.
Kugel 2000 J. Kugel, Joyaux Renaissance, Une plendeurvée, Paris 2000.
Kühnel 1999 B. Kühnel, "The Menorah and the Cross", In the Light of the Menorah, Jerusalem 1999, pp.
117-121.
Le Bars 2004 F. Le Bars, "Histoire de la reliure: à propos de trois publications récentes et de reliures
vénitiennes du XVIe siècle inédites", Bulletin du Bibliophile 1 (2004), pp. 7-62.
Lowden 2003 J. Lowden, Early Christian & Byzantine Art, London, 2003.
Ludwigs Psalter, facsimile 1985 Der Psalter Ludwigs des Heiligen (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Ms.
Lat.10535), (Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt), Graz 1985.
Mack 2000 ח' מאק, "'עם לבן גרתי ותרי"ג מצוות שמרתי' – דרכה של הדרשה מספרו של ר' משה הדרשן אל פירוש רש"י
לתורה", תרביץ סה, ב (2000), עמ' 251-261.
Mellinkoff 1993 R. Mellinkoff, Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late
Middle Ages, Berkeley-Los Angeles-Oxford 1993.
Metzger 1974 Th. Metzger, "Le manuscrit enluminé Cod. Hebr. 5 de la Bibliothèque à Munich",
Études de civilisations médiévales (IXe-XIIe siècles): Mélanges Offerts à Edmond-René Labande,
Poitiers 1974, pp. 537-552.
Metzger 1985 Th. Metzger, "Enluminures du MS. Add. 11639", Wiener Jahrbuch für
Kunstgeschichte, XXXVIII (1985), pp. 542-43.
Millstätter Genesis, facsimile 1967 Millstätter Genesis- und Physiologus-Handschrift, (Codices Selecti
X, Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt), Graz 1967.
Monumenta Judaica 1963-64 Monumenta Judaica: 2000 Jahre Geschichte und Kultur der Juden am
Rhein, Handbuch und Katalog, Ausstellung im Kölnischen Stadtmuseum, K. Schilling (ed.), 3 vols.,
Cologne 1963-64.
Morgan 1973 N. J. Morgan, "Iconography of Twelfth Century Mosan Enamels", Rhein und Maas
(exhibition catalogue II), Cologne 1973.
Morgan 1982 N. J. Morgan, Early Gothic Manuscripts I, 1190-1250, Oxford 1982.
Morgan Library Exhibition 2007 Apocalypse Then: Medieval Illuminations from the Morgan
(Exhibition: March 23-June 17), New York 2007.
Nachama and Sievernich 1991 A. Nachama and G. Sievernich (ed.), Jüdische Lebenswelten. Katalog,
Berlin 1991, Nos. 6/44, 6/45.
Narkiss, facsimile 1964 B. Narkiss, "Introduction to Mahzor Lipsiae", ed. E. Katz Machzor Lipsiae, I-II
Facsimile and Introduction, Leipzig 1964.
Narkiss 1967 B. Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, Jerusalem 1967 (Hebrew).
Narkiss, facsimile 1970 B. Narkiss, The Golden Haggadah, Introductory Volume to Facsimile
(Eugrammia Press and British Museum), London 1970.
Narkiss 1979 B. Narkiss, Armenian Art Treasures of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 1979.
Narkiss 1982 B. Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts in the British Isles: A Catalogue Raisonné,
Vol. I: Spanish and Portuguese Manuscripts, in collaboration with A. Cohen-Mushlin and A.
Tcherikover, Jerusalem and London 1982.
Narkiss 1984 B. Narkiss, "Rashi's Maps", Zev Vilnay's Jubilee Volume, E. Schiller (ed.), Jerusalem 1984,
vol. I, p. 435-439 (Hebrew).
Narkiss 1985 B. Narkiss, "Illustrations of the Ten Commandments in the thirteenth century Minute
Mahzor", The Ten Commandments in History and Tradition, G. Levi (ed.), Jerusalem 1985, pp.
419-440.
Narkiss 1997 B. Narkiss, The Golden Haggadah, London 1997.
Narkiss 1999 B. Narkiss, "The Menorah in Illuminated Hebrew Manuscripts in the Middle Ages", In the
Light of the Menorah, Jerusalem 1999, pp. 81-86.
Narkiss, facsimile 2007 B. Narkiss, El Pentateuco Ashburnham (Patrimonio, Introduction and
Facsimile), Valencia 2007.
Neuss 1922 W. Neuss, Katalanische Bibelillustration um die Wende des ersten Jahrtausends und die
altspanische Buchmalerei, Bonn-Leipzig 1922.
Nordenfalk 1973 C. Nordenfalk, "Outdoors-Indoors: A 2000-Year-Old Space Problem in Western Art",
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 117, No. 4 (1973), pp. 233-258.
Ofer 2007 Y. Ofer, "The Maps of the Land of Israel in Rashi’s Commentary on the Torah and the Status
of MS Leipzig 1", Tarbiz 76, 3-4 (2007), pp. 435-443 (Hebrew).
Penkower 2003 J. S. Penkower, "The End of Rashi's Commentary on Job. The Manuscripts and the
Printed Editions", Jewish Studies Quarterly 10 (2003), pp. 18-48.
Pirker-Aurenhammer 1998 V. Pirker-Aurenhammer, Die Gumbertusbibel (Cod. 1 der Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen; Regensburger Studien und Quellen zur Kulturgeschichte 7),
Regensburg, 1998.
Raz-Krakotzkin 2007 A. Raz-Krakotzkin, The Censor, the Editor, and the Text: The Catholic Church
and the Shaping of the Jewish Canon in the Sixteenth Century, Pennsylvania 2007.
Rhein und Maas 1972 I Rhein und Maas: Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400 (exhibition catalogue I), Cologne
1972.
Rhein und Maas 1973 II Rhein und Maas: Kunst und Kultur, 800–1400 (exhibition catalogue II),
Cologne 1973.
Ronig 1973 F. J. Ronig, "Zur Romanischen Buchmalerei in Verdun und ihrer Stellung zwischen Rhein
und Maas", Rhein und Maas II, Cologne 1973, pp. 333-342.
Rudolf von Ems, facsimile 1982 Rudolf von Ems: Weltchronik. (Faksimile der Handschrift 302 der
Kantonsbibliothek (Vadiana) St. Gallen), Lucerne 1982.
Saint-Sever Beatus, facsimile 2012 P. K. Klein and O. K. Werckmeister, The Saint-Sever Beatus
(Patrimonio, Introduction and Facsimile), Valencia 2012.
Scheiber 1984 A. Scheiber (ed.), Codex Maimuni, Hungary 1984.
Scheller 1995 R. W. Scheller, Exemplum, Amsterdam 1995.
Schonfield, facsimi
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
Original Manuscript
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
2191
48 Temp: Addenda
OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Ilona Steimann 2008; 2008 49a
50 Researcher Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Dr. Andreina Contessa; Ilona Steimann; Michal Sternthal ;Yaffa Levy 2008-2013; 2010; 2011; 2011-2012; 2011-2013 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal. Project head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 53a
54 Editor Christine Evans 2013 54a
55 Donor Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation 55a

Less Details


Object's images (99 image(s))

      [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

(XXII) ID: 19194 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 6, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 19194 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 6, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fol. 6
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Noah, the Flood Story
Dove with a branch in the beak (Gen. 8:11) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 6: The word Tevah (תיבה, ark) is written above the illustration to Parashat Noah (Gen. 6:9 – 11:32) in gold leaf on a greenish-blue ground, set below the explicit (חסלת בראשית ברא) and its haftarah (ומפטירין בישעיה כה אמר האל ה').

The panel depicts Noah in the ark receiving the dove, illustrating the commentary (I:7v) of the biblical text (Gen. 8: 10-11).

The ark, floating on blue waves, consists of a central structure flanked by wings, the whole placed on a boat. Slit openings pierce the three sectiones, and two round windows flank the larger central opening in which Noah appears, stretching his hand out towards a blue dove with an olive branch in its beak. He is wearing a pale green tunic and has yellow hair.

The central part of the ark has a gabled roof and the two wings each have a lean-to roof sloping the opposite way from that of the central structure. The roof is chequered in red and the base is yellow; the entire structure has turned grey. The boat and the base of the central part are uncoloured.

The diagonal cornice of the ark's pediment divides the word תיבה into two syllables. This suggests that the word was written by the main scribe after the drawing was done, but before it was coloured, since the blue wing of the dove overlaps the gold letter ת. The shapes of the individual letters are similar to those of the main scribe, although the laying of the gold has caused some distortion of the last letter ה.

 

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and green, blue, yellow, red and magenta.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 35 x 45 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

Fig. 1: Noah's ark, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible,                     Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:6 

 Fig. 2: Noah's ark, mosaic, Monreale Cathedral, c.1186 on                                                (Kitzinger 1960, pl. 26)                                                  

 Fig. 3: Noah's ark, Dialogus de Laudibus Sanctae Crucis,                        Regensburg, c.1170-1180,  Munich, BSB clm. 14159, fol. 1v                      (Klemm 1980, Cat. 35, fig. 66)

 Fig. 4: Noah's ark, The Ingeborg Psalter, North-east France, c.1200,                              New York, PML M.338, fol. 111, (Ingeborg Psalter, facsimile 1985)

 
 Fig. 5: Noah's ark, The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280,               London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 521,                                                         (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 100)  

 

The ark (fig. 1) belongs to a type which combines hull and a superstructure with a gabled roof, which is found in 12th-century Sicilian mosaics such as Monreale (fig. 2; D'Emilio 1999, pp. 135-150). However, as Metzger (Metzger 1985, p. 541) already noted, there is no sign of any internal division of the ark as explained by Rashi (I:6-6v), hence the shape of the ark is influenced by visual models. Fig. 1: Noah's ark Fig. 2: Noah's ark, mosaic Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Monreale Cathedral, c.1186 on Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:6 (Kitzinger 1960, pl. 26) Other images of Noah’s ark in the combined form are well known in 12th and 13th-century illumination in Germany, for example in the Dialogus de Laudibus Sanctae Crucis from Regensburg of c.1170-1180 (fig.3), though here with a church-like structure. Fig. 3: Noah's ark Fig. 4: Noah's ark Dialogus de Laudibus Sanctae Crucis The Ingeborg Psalter Regensburg, c.1170-1180 North-east France, c.1200 Munich, BSB clm. 14159, fol. 1v New York, PML M.338, fol. 111 (Klemm 1980, Cat. 35, fig. 66) (Ingeborg Psalter, facsimile 1985) A similar combination is also common in many 13th-century Bibles produced in France, e.g. in the Ingeborg Psalter of c.1200 (fig. 4), where the dove with the olive branch in its beak resembles our illustration. Fig. 5: Noah's ark The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280 London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 521 (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 100) The olive branch in the dove’s beak also features in The North French Hebrew Miscellany of c.1280 (fig. 5). However, this Hebrew manuscript is later than ours and the shape of the ark differs considerably.

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
See: General Document; Noah’s face was deliberately effaced, revealing the parchment; his hand and the structure on the boat have turned grey.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19194
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224909 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , , Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224909 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , , Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600928
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224909
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224910 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 6, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224910 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 6, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 6
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Noah's Ark
Dove with a branch in the beak (Gen. 8:11) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600929
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224910
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224911 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 6, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224911 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 6, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 6
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600930
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224911
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 19195 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 9v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 19195 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 9v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fol. 9v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Abraham leaving Haran for Canaan
Destruction of Sodom |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 9v: the title Lekh-Lecha (לך לך, Get thee out) of this parashah (Gen. 12:1-17:27) is written above the illustration in gold leaf on a blue ground below the explicit (חסלת אלה תולדות נח) and its haftarah (ומפטירין בישעיה רני עקרה).

The panel is a conflation of two scenes depicted on a magenta ground, illustrating the biblical text and the commentary (Gen. 12:5; I:9v), as well as the text of the following parashah and its commentary (Gen. 19:24; I:16), the destruction ofSodomon the right and Abraham leavingHaranon the left. On the right, the winged angel destroying a building by fire illustrates the destruction ofSodom(Gen. 19:24). He is wearing a blue tunic and a green pallium. On the left another winged angel is leading Abram, Sarai and Lot out ofHaran(Gen. 12:5). The angel is grasping Abram's hand pulling him to the left. Sarai is turning her head to the right and the head of the youthfulLotis seen behind them. Abram is dressed in a short greenish-blue tunic and a red and yellow chlamys;Lot's bare leg suggests he was similarly dressed. Sarai wears a long light blue garment with a kerchief round her head. The angel is wearing a green tunic with a red collar, and a blue pallium is draped round his waist and leg.

Hardly discernible plummet inscriptions in Latin by a 13th-century hand and by a later hand in Hebrew square script:

  • Left of panel next to the angel's waist: V[eneruntque]duo an[geli] (Gen. 19:1).
  • Left of :חסלת  לך לך(Lekh-Lecha). 
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and green, blue, yellow, red and magenta.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 35 x (49-52) mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The unique combination of Sodom's destruction with Abram, Sarai and Lot’s departure from Haran in our illustration stems from Rashi's commentary on Parashat Lekh-Lecha. At the beginning Rashi elaborates on God's order: "Get thee out of thy country" (Gen. 12:1; fol. 9v). Then the commentary proceeds with the separation between Lot and Abram, and Lot's residence in "Sodom before God destroyed it", although he was aware that its people were evil (fol. 10v, columns 2, 3). Using the iconography of Lot and his family leaving Sodom in haste prompted by two angels (Gen. 19:16; Parashat Vayera), our artist changed it slightly: instead of Lot's daughters, a youth appears, and Lot's angel pulls Abram, Lot and Sarai out of Haran, alluding to God's command (fig. 1). The story of Sodom (Gen. 19) is not included in Parashat Lekh-Lecha. Fig. 1: Abraham leaving Haran for Canaan and the destruction of Sodom Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB 5, I:9v Metzger (Metzger 1974, p. 542) rejects the interpretation of this scene as Lot departing from Sodom and suggests the artist was requested to depict the departure of Abram using as a model the scene concerning Lot, with some changes. Klemm (1998, p. 200) interprets the scene as the destruction of Sodom and the departure of Lot from the town led by an angel. Frojmovic (2008, pp. 296, 301) includes the scene (labelled as ‘The Destruction of Sodom’) in a list of misplaced scenes and factual errors. A depiction of Abram, Sarai and Lot leaving Haran is found in a Mosan Miniature Cycle of c.1150 from Liège or Stavelot (fig. 2). The three protagonists, inscribed by a 12th-century hand, are accompanied by servants and "all their substance that they had gathered" (Gen. 12:5), without a prompting angel. Fig. 2: Avram, Sarai and Lot leaving Haran Mosan Miniature Cycle Liège or Stavelot c.1150, fol. 1 Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett inv. no. 78 A 6, fol. 1 (Cf. I:21v, fig. 1) (Klemm 1973, fig. 1) The iconography of Lot and his family being rescued from Sodom while the city is being destroyed (fig. 1) appears in Christian illustrations, sometimes in several scenes, for example in the Book of Hours, Cursus Sanctae Mariae of Hedwig of Silesia from Bamberg (?) 1204–1219 (fig. 3). In the lower register is the destruction while Lot and one daughter escape and his wife turns into a pillar of salt. Fig. 1: Abraham leaving Haran for Canaan Fig. 3: Abraham leaving Haran for Canaan and the destruction of Sodom and the destruction of Sodom Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Book of Hours of Hedwig of Silesia Munich, BSB 5, I:9v Germany, Bamberg (?) 1204-1219 New York, PML, M.739, fol. 11, lower register http://corsair.morganlibrary.org Another destruction of Sodom and flight of Lot, his wife and one daughter are depicted in a glossed illuminated Psalter from north-east France, c.1200 (fig. 4). Fig. 4: The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the flight of Lot from Sodom The Morgan Psalter North-east France, c.1200 New York, PML M.338, fol. 196v (Deuchler 1967, figs. 146-47) This scene is divided into two panels relating to Psalm 50 (Vulg. 49) showing in one the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and in the other the flight of Lot led by two angels. This is contrary to our illustration which conflates two episodes from two different parashot: Lekh-Lecha and Vayera. In the North French Hebrew Miscellany of c.1280, two panels are dedicated to the Sodom episode: one shows two angels burning the city (fig. 5), while the other portrays Lot and his family escaping from Sodom with two winged angels, each taking one daughter by the hand (fig. 6). On the right Lot's wife is turned into a pillar of salt. Fig. 5: The destruction of Sodom Fig. 6: Lot, his two daughters and wife The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280 The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280 London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 119 London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 119v (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 85) (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, pp. 85-86) On a further two folios of the same Miscellany the scene is repeated, though the iconography is different and does not include angels. In the first image the burning Sodom is devoured by the mouth of a dragon (fig. 7); in the second (fig. 8) Lot is taking one of his daughters by the hand and the other follows them, while his wife becomes a pillar of salt. Fig. 7: The destruction of Sodom Fig. 8: Lot and his wife The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280 The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280 London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 740v London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 741 (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 106) (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 106)

Fig. 1: Abraham leaving Haran for Canaan and the destruction of Sodom                       Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Munich, BSB 5, I:9v  Fig. 2: Avram, Sarai andLotleaving Haran Mosan Miniature Cycle Liège or Stavelot c.1150, fol. 1

Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett inv. no.78 A6, fol. 1

(Cf. I:21v, fig. 1)

(Klemm 1973, fig. 1)

   
 

Fig. 3: Abraham leavingHaranfor Canaan and the destruction of Sodom Book of Hours of Hedwig of SilesiaGermany, Bamberg (?) 1204-1219New York, PML, M.739, fol. 11, lower register

http://corsair.morganlibrary.org

 
   
 Fig. 4: The destruction ofSodomandGomorrah

The Morgan Psalter

North-east France, c.1200                     

New York, PML M.338, fol. 196v 

(Deuchler 1967, figs. 146-47)

 

Fig. 4a: The flight of Lot fromSodom          

The Morgan Psalter

North-east France, c.1200                     

New York, PML M.338, fol. 196v 

(Deuchler 1967, figs. 146-47)

   
 

Fig. 5: The destruction ofSodom

The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280                                   

London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 119

(Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 85)
 

Fig. 6:Lot, his two daughters and wife

The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280

London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 119v

(Schonfield, facsimile 2003, pp. 85-86)

   
 Fig. 7: The destruction of Sodom The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280 London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 740v (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 106)  Fig. 8: Lot and his wife The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280  London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 741 (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 106)
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Effaced faces revealing parchment and a colour turned shining silver. The gold leaf of the letters has flaked off.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19195
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224912 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 9v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224912 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 9v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 9v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600931
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224912
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224913 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 9v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224913 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 9v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 9v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600932
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224913
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 19196 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 13v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 19196 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 13v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fol. 13v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Abraham, Hospitality of
Scribal name marked |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 13v: The initial word Vayera (ויֵרָא, and the Lord appeared) of this parashah (Gen. 18:1-22:24) is written above the illustration in gold leaf on a deep blue ground and set below the explicit of Lekh-Lecha (חסלת לך לך) and its haftarah (ומפטירין בישעיה למה תאמר יעקב).

The panel depicts the three angels, Michael, Gabriel and Raphael according to Rashi, who visited Abraham, illustrating the biblical text (Gen. 18:1-2) and the commentary (I:13v-14; based on Bava Metzia 86b).

On the right, the bearded Abraham is standing on the plain of Mamre, outside a stylized town with a tall gate and a lower adjacent building. He is wearing a long magenta tunic with a gold collar, a blue mantle and a pointed red hat, partly erased. He welcomes the three angels with his right hand and holds an open scroll in his left.

The angels are dressed in tunic and pallium in contrasting colours of red and blue, magenta and blue, and blue and white. One wing is shown for each, and the right hand of the first is raised in blessing, seemingly with two fingers. The wing and foot of the angel on the left extend beyond the panel and he holds a scroll corresponding to Abraham's, but neither scroll is inscribed.

In the centre of the composition is a stylized tree with a rounded top, representing an oak (Gen. 18:1), which separates Abraham from the angels.  

Barely discernible plummet inscriptions in Latin by a 13th-century hand and by a later hand in Hebrew square script:

  • left of   לך לך: וירא (Vayera).
  • below it: V[iri]s[tantes] ? (Gen. 18:2).

 

Scribe A, Solomon (שלמה) wrote his name in the text in large letters and decorated it with a curling extension (fol. 13v, 1st column - fig. 1). He emphasized this name whenever it appears in the text (cf. I:69v, 163v, 201v, 202v; II:127v, 133, 136v, 228v, 250v; Beit-Arié 2006).

 

Fig. 1: The decorated name of scribe A, Solomon (שלמה)

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible

Munich,  BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:13v

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and green, blue, yellow, white, red and magenta.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 35 x (53-55) mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

 A similar composition with a stylized city on the right and a central tree (fig. 1) is found in the Ingeborg Psalter of c.1200 (fig. 2). In the Morgan Psalter of c.1200 (fig. 3) which was illuminated by one of the Ingeborg Psalter artists, the city is missing. An earlier example with a similar composition, though reversed, is found on the altar of Nicholas of Verdun of 1181 in Klosterneuburg Abbey, Austria (fig. 4). Even the central tree, albeit small, separates Abraham from the angels, although the scroll is held by an angel and not by Abraham. Fig. 1: Abraham greeting the angels Fig. 2: Abraham greeting the angels (upper register) Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible Ingeborg Psalter Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:13v North-east France, c.1195 Chantilly, Musée Condé MS 9, fol. 10v (Ingeborg Psalter, facsimile 1985) Fig. 3: Abraham and the three angels Fig. 4: Abraham and the three angels Morgan Psalter Verdun Altar, 1181 North-east France, c.1200 Austria, Klosterneuburg Abbey New York, PML M.338, fol. 188 (Buschhausen 1980, p. 21, pl. 1) (Deuchler 1967, fig. 141) Fig. 5: Top register: Abraham and the three angels Lower register: Abraham's hospitality The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280 London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 118 (Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 83) The North French Hebrew Miscellany of c.1280 (fig. 5, top register) also presents a similar composition. Here, instead of a tree between Abraham and the angels, a city gate separates them and Abraham is within a curtained interior, perhaps alluding to his tent. The three figures in the Hebrew Miscellany are shown as men, as in the Bible (Gen. 18:1), and not as angels as interpreted by Rashi and shown with wings in our miniature, similar to the Ingeborg and the Morgan Psalters. It is interesting to note that the first angel in these three manuscripts raises his right hand in the Christian two-fingered blessing, not the entire hand as in the Hebrew Miscellany. Apparently the iconography of our Abraham and the three Angels was inspired by Mosan and north French illustrations.

 

Fig. 1: Abraham greeting the angels                                             

MunichRashi's Commentary on the Bible                                    

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:13v

Fig. 2: Abraham greeting the angels (upper register)

Ingeborg Psalter

North-east France, c.1195

 Chantilly, Musée Condé MS 9, fol. 10v                                                                        (Ingeborg Psalter, facsimile 1985)           

   
 

Fig. 3: Abraham and the three angels                                                                        

Morgan Psalter                                                                      

North-east France, c.1200                                                               

NewYork, PML M.338, fol. 188                                                

(Deuchler 1967, fig. 141)


Fig. 4: Abraham and the three angels

 Verdun Altar, 1181                                                                                         Austria, Klosterneuburg Abbey

 (Buschhausen 1980, p. 21, pl. 1)                                               

   
 

Fig. 5: Top register: Abraham and the three angels

Lower register: Abraham's hospitality

The North French Hebrew Miscellany, c.1280

London, BL Add. 11639, fol. 118

(Schonfield, facsimile 2003, p. 83)

 
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19196
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224914 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 13v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224914 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 13v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 13v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Abraham, Hospitality of |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600933
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224914
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224915 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 13v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224915 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 13v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 13v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600934
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224915
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 19480 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 18v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 19480 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 18v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fol. 18v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Isaac, Sacrifice of |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 18v: The initial word Vayihiyu (ויהיו, And [Sarah] was) of Parashat Chayey Sarah (Gen. 23:1 - 25:18) is written in gold leaf on a green ground above an illustrative panel, and set below the explicit of Vayira (חסלת וירא אליו) and its haftarah (ומפטירין במלכים ואשה אחת מנשי).

At the centre of the panel stands the bearded figure of Abraham his head turned toward the ram on the left. His left hand is placed on Isaac's head and his right, holding a raised knife, is arrested by the flying angel emerging from a blue cloud in the top right corner with a long blank scroll in his left hand. Isaac, wearing a green loincloth and unbound, is seated on crossed faggots with arms and legs crossed. On the left a blue ram is hanging from a tree by its horns. Abraham and the angel each wear a green tunic and Abraham a blue mantle; Abraham’s hair is in light blue, the angel’s is brown. The scene takes place on the brown hill ofMountMoriah, against a magenta background.

The faces of Abraham, Isaac and the angel are not erased. The black ink features can clearly be seen, except for those of the angel which are very faint. The facial features were drawn on the parchment ground, as were Isaac's torso, Abraham's legs and hands, the knife, the angel's wing, the piece of sky and the hilly ground. Clearly visible is the plummet drawing of rocks, Isaac's torso and the angels' wings, which were not overdrawn in ink.

Plummet inscription in Hebrew by a later hand in display script to the left of וירא אליו: ויהיו (Vayihiyu).

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and green, blue, brown and magenta.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 37 x 53 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The panel depicting the Sacrifice of Isaac illustrates the biblical text of the previous Parashat Vayira (Gen. 22). It is, however, linked to the text of Rashi's commentary on the following Parashat Chayey Sarah (I:18v; Gen. 23:1-2), which explains that the reason for Sarah's death was her witnessing the sacrifice. Visually the Munich Rashi (fig. 1) follows a Byzantine iconographical tradition. 

Fig. 1: Sacrifice of Isaac, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible (Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:18v)

Comparison with the Cappella Palatina in Palermo, for example (fig. 2), shows that although the composition is similar, the positions of the ram and the angel are reversed: in the manuscript Abraham looks backwards to the ram and in the mosaic to the angel.

Fig. 2: Sacrifice of Isaac, Palermo, Cappella Palatina 1130-1143 (Lowden 2003 – III. 185)

However, in both Isaac is sitting on crossed faggots and not lying on an altar, Abraham is brandishing a knife in his right hand and holding Isaac’s head with his left. The ram is caught in a thicket but the angel arrests Abraham’s hand only in our manuscript. Earlier Byzantine manuscript illustrations are, for example, the 9th-century Cosmas Indicopleustes (fig. 3), the Homilies of St. Gregory of Nazianzus (fig. 4), and the 12th-century Smyrna Octateuch (fig. 5). These illuminations derive ultimately from early Christian and Jewish sources such as the 5th-century Coptic church wall-painting of El Bagawat in Egypt (fig. 6), or the Beit Alpha synagogue mosaic of the 6th century (fig. 7). These five examples (figs. 3-7) have an altar of fire and, except for the Nazianzus, have the hand of God instead of an angel.

Fig. 3: Sacrifice of Isaac Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography Constantinopole, first half of 9th century, Vatican, BAV gr. 699, fol. 59r (Weitzmann 1971, p. 55, fig. 33)

 

Fig. 4: Sacrifice of Isaac, Homilies of St. Gregory of Nazianzus Constantinopole, 880-886 Paris, BnF gr. 510, fol. 174v (Princeton, ICA Database)

 

Fig. 5: Sacrifice of Isaac, Smyrna Octateuch Constantinopole (?), 12th century Smyrna, Evangelical School Library A.1, fol. 35 (Weitzmann and Bernabò 1999, fig. 317)

 

Fig. 6: Sacrifice of Isaac, wall-painting, Egypt, Kharga-al-Khârga, Christian Necropolis al-Bagawat, Chapel of Peace, in the cupola 5th century (Kessler 2010, p. 95, fig. 3)

Fig. 6a: Sacrifice of Isaac, line drawing , Egypt, Kharga-al-Khârga

 

Fig. 7: Sacrifice of Isaac, mosaic floor, Beit Alpha synagogue, Israel, Kibbutz Hefziba, 6th century (Chiat 1980, fig. 10)

 

The knife which Abraham holds in all these examples is in accordance with the standard interpretation of the Hebrew word ma'achelet (מאכלת) as knife, and with Rashi's commentary on the verse (Gen. 22:6) based on the midrash (Gen. Rabbah 56:3; Tanhuma, Va-yira 23). The knife is also mentioned in the Septuagint, hence its illustration in Byzantine depictions. On the other hand the Vulgate uses the word sword (gladius), which is prevalent in Western (fig. 8) as well as in Jewish Western art such as the Ambrosian Bible (fig. 9).

Fig. 8: Sacrifice of Isaac, Dialogus de Laudibus Sanctae Crucis, Regensburg, c.1170-1180, Munich, BSB clm. 14159, fol. 1v (Klemm 1980, Cat. 35, fig. 66)

 

Fig. 9: Sacrifice of Isaac, The Ambrosian Bible, Würzburg (?), 1236-1238, Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana B 31 inf., fol. 102 (Jerusalem, CJA Schubert Archive)  

This Bible was perhaps produced in Würzburg for R. Joseph son of R. Moshe, the patron of our Rashi Commentary, at about the same time. It is interesting to note that the iconography of the Bible draws on a Western rather than a Byzantine source (Metzger 1974, p. 551 and n. 53). Fig. 9: Sacrifice of Isaac The Ambrosian Bible Würzburg (?), 1236-1238 Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana B 31 inf., fol. 102 (Jerusalem, CJA Schubert Archive) In our illustration Isaac's hands and feet are not bound but crossed diagonally in front, not as in Rashi's interpretation of TB Shabbat 54a, which elaborates on the binding of Isaac's hand and foot or hands and feet behind him. To sum up, the Byzantine elements in our miniature, such as the faggots and not an altar on which Isaac sits, and the knife which Abraham holds instead of a sword, reflect the influence of Byzantine illumination on Western and Jewish art in the 13th and 14th centuries (Turner 1970, pp. 133-168; Frazer 1970, pp.187-189). Rashi's commentary, which is written below the illustration in our manuscript, explains Sarah's sudden death as caused by witnessing the sacrifice. The commentary is based on Pirkei Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 32, Friedlander 1916, p. 234), Genesis Rabbah (58:5) and Tanhuma (Warsaw, Parashat Va-yira, 23). It describes how the devil showed Sarah the binding of her son by lifting her up, thus causing her death. The presence of Sarah in the sacrifice scene is depicted and inscribed as early as the 5th-century El Bagawat wall-painting (fig. 6). However, the textual version in which the devil is lifting Sarah up appears only in our manuscript (I:18v, 2nd column). This text was added by Rabbi Joseph Kara, Rashi's pupil (b. 1050-1055; Gutmann 1987, p. 80). It is interesting to note that the only known illustration of this unique text of the devil lifting Sarah up is in the Regensburg Pentateuch of c.1300 (fig. 10). However, no connection between these two manuscripts is known.

Fig. 10: Sacrifice of Isaac, Regensburg Pentateuch Regensburg, c.1300, Jerusalem, IM Ms. 180/52, fol. 18v (Jerusalem, CJA Documention)

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Isaac's torso and the scroll have turned grey. The gold leaf of some letters has flaked off
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19480
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224916 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 18v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224916 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 18v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 18v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600935
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224916
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224917 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 18v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224917 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 18v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 18v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600936
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224917
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 19481 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 21v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 19481 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 21v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fol. 21v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Esau coming back from hunt
Jacob leaving to Padan-aram (Gen. 28:7) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 21v: The initial word Veelle (ואלה, And these are) of Parashat Toldot (Gen. 25:19 - 28:10) is written at the top of the illustrated panel in gold leaf letters on a magenta ground, set below the explicit of Vayihiyu (חסלת ויהיו חיי שרה) and its haftarah (ומפטירין בריש ספר מלכים והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים).

The green background panel depicts Esau asking for Isaac's blessing while Jacob is fleeing on the right, illustrating the commentary text (I:24v; Gen. 27:30-41). The old bearded Isaac, with light blue hair, is reclining in bed on a cushion, holding a scroll in his right hand. He wears a magenta garment with a yellow (once golden) collar, and rests under a blue coverlet. On the right stands Esau with a bow dangling over his arm, presening a hare to his father. He wears a red tunic and an originally white hat. Jacob, portrayed as a blond youth wearing a short magenta tunic and green chlamys, is escaping through a yellow ochre tower gate with a blue conical roof. He looks back while leaving, and holds a walking stick in his right hand.

Effaced inscriptions in plummet in Latin by a 13th-century hand, and in Hebrew display script by a later hand:

  • On the right, next to the panel: ואלה (Veelle).
  • Below it: ysac [e]s[au](?) (Gen. 27:32).

 

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and green, blue, yellow-ochre, red and magentar.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 40 x 53 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The illustration (fig. 1) refers to the biblical text (Gen. 27:30) in which the return of Esau from hunting was immediately followed by Jacob's departure from his father. The connection between the two acts יָצֹא יָצָא)) gave rise to Rashi's commentary (זה יוצא וזה בא, this one was leaving and that one was coming in) which follows Genesis Rabbah (66:5).

Fig. 1: Esau asking for a blessing; Jacob leaving, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible, Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:21v 

 

Fig. 2: Above: Isaac blessing Jacob; Below: Esau asking his father Isaac for a blessing, Mosan Miniature Cycle, Liège or Stavelot, c.1150, Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett inv. no. 78 A 6, fol. 4 (Nordenfalk 1973, fig. 10)

A close parallel to our illustration is found in the 12th-century Mosan Miniature Cycle from Liège or Stavelot of c.1150 (fig. 2; Klemm 1973; Scheller 1995, pp. 123-131). In the upper register Isaac is blessing Jacob and in the lower one Esau is asking for Isaac's blessing while Jacob is fleeing, similar to our illustration.

Fig. 3: Esau returns from hunting; Isaac blessing Jacob (left), Jacob leaving (right) Monreale Cathedral, c.1186 on (Kitzinger 1960, pls. 43-45)  

In the mosaic of Monreale of c.1186 (fig. 3), the story is likewise depicted in two separate scenes though slightly diffrently: on the left Isaac is blessing Jacob while Esau is hurrying home, followed on the right by Jacob fleeing while Rebecca stands at the city gate. Apparently our artist chose the last scene from a larger story cycle with an emphasis on Jacob's flight which is followed by his dream at Bethel, as it appears in Monreale and in our Rashi commentary (fol. I:25v).

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
The faces and hands of Esau and Jacob as well as Jacob's stick and Isaac's scroll have turned grey. The eyes are scratched out. The gold leaf of the letters and Isaac's collar have flaked off.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19481
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224918 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 21v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224918 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 21v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 21v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600937
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224918
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 19482 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 25v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 19482 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 25v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fol. 25v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Jacob's dream |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 25v: The initial word Vayeze (וייצא, And Jacob went out) of this parashah (Gen. 28:10 - 32:3) is written at the top of the illustrated panel in gold leaf on a green ground, set below the explicit of Veelle (חסלת ואלה תולדת יצחק) and its haftarah (ומפטירין בתרי עשר ברִיש' ספר מלאכי משא דבר ה').

The panel depicts Jacob's dream on a partially faded blue ground, illustrating the commentary on Gen. 28:10-15. Jacob is reclining on the yellow base of a square altar behind him, his head resting on his right arm. He has brown hair, a red tunic and green pallium. Behind him on the right are two confronting angels on a gold ladder, the lower one accending, the other decending from a blue and magenta cloud. The accending angel wears a green tunic and a magenta mantle, the second a red garment.

Effaced plummet inscription in Hebrew display script in the outer margin, next to the panel:

  • the word ויצא (Vayeze) is negligently written three times, one below the other. 
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and green, brown, blue, yellow ochre, red and magenta.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 40 x 53 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The presence of an altar behind Jacob alludes to the commentary (I:25v, 3rd column on Gen. 28:11, 18) according to which Jacob rested his head on a single stone which belonged to the altar of Isaac's sacrifice on Mount Moriah. Jacob set up this very stone in Bethel and anointed it (based on BT Chulin, 91b).

Fig. 1: Jacob's dream, mosaic Monreale Cathedral, c.1186 on (Kitzinger 1960, pl. 46)

 

Fig. 2: Jacob's dream, The Winchester Psalter, before 1161, London, BL Cotton Nero C iv, fol. 5 (Wormald 1973, fig. 58)

In the Monreale mosaic of c.1186 (fig. 1), Jacob's head rests on three stones. This depiction alludes to another midrash (Midrash Rabba, Bereshit 68:11), mentioning also two, four or twelve stones, which were fused into one when Jacob placed them under his head. The form of the single stone in the Winchester Psalter of before 1161 (fig. 2) resembles that in our illustration.

Fig. 3: Jacob's dream, Millstätter Genesis and Physiologus, South Bavarian region, 1120-1150/60, Klagenfurt, Kärnten Landesarchiv,Sammelh. 6/19, fol. 2v (Millstätter Genesis, facsimile 1967) 

 

Fig. 4: Jacob's dream, World Chronicle of Rudolf von Ems,  Zurich (?), c.1300 St. Gall, VadSlg MS 302, fol. 25v (Rudolf von Ems, facsimile 1982)

An earlier example of Jacob's dream appears in the Millstätter Genesis and Physiologus of 1120-1150/60 from the South Bavarian region (fig. 3). The iconography has Jacob sleeping on one stone at the foot of a ladder on which are two angels, one ascending, the other descending. A similar composition of angels on the ladder is portrayed in the World Chronicle of Rudolf von Ems of c.1300 perhaps produced in Zurich (fig. 4). Jacob's stone on the left in the form of an altar is similar in shape and colours to that on the right denoting the stone he anointed at Bethel. Perhaps these altar-like stones allude to the altar of sacrifice of Isaac, as explained in our Rashi text.

Fig. 5: Jacob's dream; Sacrifice of Isaac (top right) Lambeth Bible Canterbury, c.1140-50 London, Lambeth Palace Library MS 3, fol. 6, lower register (Bridgeman Art Library) www.bridgemanart.com LAM 58182 (pictures)

A more explicit visual connection between the Sacrifice of Isaac and its altar, and the dream of Jacob and its stone as mentioned in Rashi's text, is found in the Lambeth Bible from Canterbury of c.1140-50 (fig. 5). The Sacrifice of Isaac on an altar on Mount Moriah is seen at top right of the lower register. Jacob, at Bethel, is lying on several stones, over which he is pouring oil in the following scene. All these examples show two or more angels on the ladder. In our manuscript, however, the arrangement of the angels follows the biblical text and Rashi's commentary: climbing first and descending later (עולים ויורדים; I:25v, 3rd, column; based on Midrash Rabba 68:12).

Fig. 6: Jacob's dream, Rashi's Commentary on the Bible, Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:25v 

Fig. 7: Jacob's dream Munich  Gumbertus Bible, Regensburg, 12th century,  Erlangen, Universitätsbibliothek Cod. 1, fol. 139v (Pirker-Aurenhammer 1998, p. 347, pl. 7B)

This feature appears in the late 12th-century Gumbertus Bible from Regensburg (fig. 7), where one angel is ascending the ladder and the other appears from clouds in heaven, similar to our depiction. Moreover, this example, in which the artist omitted the image of God (unlike other Christian examples), is similar to our manuscript (fig. 6). On the other hand, in the later Golden Haggadah of c.1320 (fig. 8) and the Sister Haggadah of the mid 14th century (fig. 9), both from Barcelona, the face of Christ was replaced by the faces of one and two angels respectively, set in the clouds.

Fig. 8: Jacob's dream, The Golden Haggadah, Barcelona, c.1320, London, BL Add. 27210, fol. 4v (Narkiss, facsimile 1970)

Fig. 9: Jacob's dream  The Sister Haggadah  Barcelona, mid 14th century London, BL Or. 2884, fol. 4v, lower register  (Narkiss 1982, pl. XLVII, fig. 161)

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Vestiges of the angels’ gold haloes are still visible. The facial features were erased revealing the parchment. The angels' wings, faces and hands as well as Jacob's face and hands have a grey metallic sheen. The gold leaf of the letters and the ladder has partly flaked off, showing the yellow base.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19482
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224919 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 25v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224919 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 25v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 25v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600938
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224919
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224920 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 25v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224920 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 25v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 25v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600939
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224920
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 19483 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 29v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 19483 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, fol. 29v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, fol. 29v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Jacob and Esau meeting (Gen. 33:1-3) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Vol. I, fol. 29v: The initial word Vayishlach (וישלח, And Jacob sent) of this parashah (Gen. 32:4-36:43) is written at the top of the illustrated panel in gold leaf on a deep blue ground, at the beginning of the third text column, below the explicit (חסלת ויצא יעקב) and its haftarah (ומפטרין בתרי עשר ויברח יעקב שדה ארם).

The panel depicts Jacob meeting Esau (Gen. 33:1-3) on a green ground, illustrating the commentary (I:29v). Next to a magenta tree on the right, Esau appears as a suppliant in front of Jacob, who is stretching out his right hand towards him. Behind Esau is a mounted soldier in armour; behind Jacob are a woman and a youth, followed by Jacob's herd of four quadrupeds and a herdsman with a club. Jacob wears a short red tunic and blue chlamys. The woman is wearing a blue dress and a white kerchief. Esau, the herdsman and the tree are coloured magenta, and the soldier's armour is blue. The horse, two quadrupeds and the faces are uncoloured, revealing facial features.

Inscriptions in plummet in Latin by the 13th-century hand, and in a later Hebrew square script:

  • above the panel: וישלח (Vayishlach).
  • above it: Esau venie(n)s cora[m]iacob (Gen. 33:1).
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Brown and black ink, gold leaf and blue, green, white, yellow ochre, red and magenta.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 40 x 53 mm.
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The illustration depicts Esau, accompanied by a mounted soldier is bowing down in front of Jacob (fig. 1); whereas according to the Bible Jacob, scared of the meeting with Esau, "bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother" (Gen. 33:3). This depiction illustrates not the biblical but the commentary text (I:29v), which attributed to Jacob the following words: I [Jacob] advise you not to provoke me because despite yourself you shall not prevail against me but shall surely fall before me. The phrase "you will surely fall before me", etc. was borrowed from the Book of Esther (6:13), where the fall of Haman before Mordechai is similarly described (Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezr, ch. 50). This expression does not belong to Rashi's commentary but is apparently a somewhat later interpolation, copied, however by our scribe Shlomo (Mack 2000). The usual visual representation of the meeting of the two brothers is in keeping with scripture, for example Jacob bowing before Esau in the Anglo-Saxon Aelfric Paraphrase of the 11th century (fig. 2).

Fig. 1: Jacob and Esau meeting, Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible, Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 5, I:29v


Fig. 2: Jacob and Esau meeting, Aelfric Paraphrase, England, 11th century, London, BL Cotton Claudius B. iv, fol. 51, http://www.tali-virtualmidrash.org.il/ArtEng.aspx?art=228

The upper register shows two scenes: Esau, in front of his horse, is embracing Jacob, who in the previous scene on the left lies prostrate in front of him. The lower registers depict the mighty army on horseback which accompanied Esau. In our illustration just one mounted soldier accompanies Esau. Esau's proskynesis is comparable to the similar gesture found in the Octateuchs, e.g. 11th-century scenes of Abraham in front of God, or in front of the three angels (e.g. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat.gr. 747 fols.38v, 39; Weitzmann and Bernabò 1999, figs. 249, 257). The depiction in our manuscript, which illustrates the commentary, is probably a unique representation of the meeting between the two brothers, which differs from the biblical text.

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Some grey stains on faces, hands and horse; the gold leaf of the letters and Esau's cuffs has flaked off.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19483
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 224922 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 29v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 224922 Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible , Vol. I, Fol. 29v, Würzburg, 1232/33 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Munich Rashi's Commentary on the Bible | Unknown
3a Object Torah Commentaries
3b Object Detail Vol. I, Fol. 29v
4a Artist/ Maker Shlomo ben Shmuel,Joseph (Scribe)
5 Date 1232/33
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | Würzburg
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 5/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 5)
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Würzburg school of manuscript illumination in the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date 2008
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M600941
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
224922
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a



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