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  (XI) Obj. ID: 1280 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK,, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy,
1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century. // Menahem ben Eliezer edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
5a Activity Dates
5b Reconstruction Dates
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
20 Remarks
20 Description

Link to ONB's Database 


More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
The manuscript includes a Siddur (fols. 1v-140v); SeMaK (Sefer Mitzvot Katan) Small Book of Precepts by R. Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil (fols. 142v-152; 154v-274v, end is missing) and a later addition of a calendar, by Elazar Zalman ben Jacob (fols. 152v-154).

Punctuated siddur for the entire year: (fols. 1v-140v)
Daily Prayer (fols. 1v-19v): Daily Shaharit (fols. 1v-17v), including tahanun (fols. 14-16v); Arvit for weekdays and Sabbaths (fol. 17v-19v).
Sabbath (fols. 19v-26v): Bameh madlikin (fols. 19v-20), shaharit, beginning with Nishmat (fols. 20-21), Torah reading (fols. 22v-23), musaf (fols. 23v-25), Minhah and Arvit for Saturday night (fols. 25-26),
Havdalah: (fols. 26-26v).
New Moon: (fols. 26v-27),
Musaf for the Sabbath of the New Moon: (fols. 27v-28).
Purim: (fols. 28-29).
Ninth of Av and minor fasts: (fol. 29).
Circumcision: (fols. 29-29v).
Marriage: (fols. 29v-30).
The Three Pilgrimage Festivals: Amidah: (fols. 30v-31), Musaf (fols. 31-33).
Burial service: (fols. 33-33v).
Bettering of a dream: (fol. 34).
Kedushah insertions: (fols. 34v-35v).
Passover Haggadah: (fols. 36-44).
Tractate Avot: (fols. 45-53v).
New Year (fols. 53v-58v): Amidah (fols. 53v-56), Musaf (fols. 56-58v).
Day of Atonement (fols. 58v-65v): Minhah for the eve of (fols. 58v-60), Amidah (fols. 60-62), Musaf (fols. 62-63v), Ne’ilah (fols. 63v-65v).
Hoshanot: (fols. 66-72v).
Simhat Torah (fols. 72v-77v): Shaharit: (fols. 72v-74v), reshut for Hatan Torah (fols. 75-75v), reshut for Hatan Bereshit (fols. 75-77v).
Passover (fols. 78-84v): first night (fols. 78-80), second night (fols. 80-82), seventh night (fols. 82-83v), eighth night (fols. 83v-84v).
Shavu'ot (fols. 84v-86v): first night (fols. 84v-85), second night (fols. 85-86v).
New Year (fols. 86v-87v): first night (fols. 86v-87), second night (fols. 87-87v).
Sukkot (87v-91v): first night (fols. 87v-88), second night (fols. 88-89), eighth night (fols. 89v-91v).
Yozrot and Zulatim (hymns) for the entire year (fols. 92-116): Yozer for Shabbat Bereshit (Davidson I, no. 3945 p. 182, fols. 92-93v), Yozrot for Shabbat Rosh Hodesh: (fols. 93v-95v), Circumcision Shabbat: (fols. 95v-97v), krovaz for bridegroom: (fols. 97v-101), zulat for marriage: (Davidson I, no. 5573, p. 254, fols. 101-102),rashuyot for bridegroom: (fols. 102-104), Yozer for Shabbat Hafsakah: (fols. 104-105), zulatot for the days between Passover and Shavuot: (fols. 105-111v), Yozer for Shabbat Nahamu: (fols. 111v-113), Yozer for the day of Repentance: (fols. 113-115), Yozer for the intermediary days of Sukkot: (fols. 115-116).
Torah readings for Sabbaths: (fols. 116-120v).
Festival Torah reading: (fols. 120v-123v).
Book of Customs for the entire year (Sefer Minhagim): (fols. 123v-133).
Hymn of Unity (shir hayihud) for each of the seven days of the week: (fols. 133v-141).
A fifteenth century addition of Hymn of Glory (An'im Zemirot) (fols. 141-141v).
SeMaK (Sefer Mitzvot Katan), Small Book of Precepts by R. Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil
Table of contents: (fols. 142v-152); Preface for the SeMaK (fol. 152).
Calendar added in 1468 (fols. 152v-154): Golden Table (fol. 153v), R. Nahshon`s circle (fol. 154).
SeMaK (Sefer Mitzvot Katan), Small Book of precepts of R. Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil with the commentary by R. Peretz ben Elijah of Corbeil ((הגהות הרי"ף (fols. 154v-274v): First chapter (fols. 154v-162), second chapter (fols. 163-179), third chapter (fols. 179v-192), fourth chapter (fols. 192v-214), fifth chapter (fols. 214v-244), sixth chapter (fols. 244v-256), seventh chapter (fols. 256v-274v). This chapter is incomplete, ending after precept number 317.
24 Codicology

Material:

Thin parchment, I (pasted to a marble fly leaf of a later binding) + 274 + I (pasted to a marble fly leaf of a later binding) leaves.

Differences between hair and flesh sides are hardly discernable. In most cases the quires start on the flash side (when the differences between the sides are seen).

 

Measurements

Full page: 190 X (140-145) mm

Text space: Siddur (fols. 2-140v): 125X(80-85) mm

 SeMaK (fols. 155-247v): 127X(85-87) mm

 

 

Scribes

Multi scribes:

Scribe A: Main scribe: Menahem ben Eliezer

Siddur and SeMaK

fols. 2-140v and 142V-152, 154v-247v

Scribe B: A later hand (15th century)

Hymn of Glory

fols. 141-141v

Scribe C: Elazar Zalman ben Jacob (1468)

Calendar

fols. 152v-154

 

Script

Scribe A: Till middle of first column of fol. 116 written in square Ashkenazi script, with instructions in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script, in dark brown ink. From fol. 116 on in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink.

Scribe B: fols. 141-141v written in semi-cursive Italian script.

Scribe C: fols. 152v-154 written in semi-cursive Italian script. (fols. 153v-154 are written in alternating black and red ink).

 

Number of lines

Siddur (fols. 1v-140v):

written in 30 lines in two columns of 35 mm each

SeMaK  (fols. 142v-152, 154v-274):

written in 35 lines in three columns of 25 mm each

 

Ruling

Siddur (fols. 1v-140v): ruling by plummet 31 horizontal lines and 2+2+2 vertical lines.

SeMaK  (fols. 142v-152, 154v-274): ruling by plummet 36 horizontal lines and 2+2+2+2 vertical lines.

 

Pricking

Siddur (fols. 1v-140v): pricking is evident in the inner margins only.

SeMaK (fols. 142v-152, 154v-274): pricking is evident in all margins.

 

Quires

28 quires of 12 leaves each (fols. 1 and 12 of the first quire are single leaves), except for III11(6+5) (fol. 25 is a widow, no text is missing), VIII-XIII8, XIV10, XVIII-XX8 and XXII-XXIII8, XXVII3 (single leaves), XXVIII6(3+3) (missing text).

 

Catchwords

Catchwords to the quires written vertically in script identical to the text in the lower left hand corner of the final verso (e.g. fol. 24v).

 

Hebrew numeration

Remnants of Hebrew alphabet numeration appear at the top left corner of the some versos (e.g. fols. 205 to 263).

 

Blank leaves

Fols. 22r, 44v and 142r are blank.

Fol. 141v and fols. 152v-154 originally blank leaves, which in the 15th century were filled with text.

 

Binding

24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors
25k Construction Material

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
Colophons by the scribe Menahem ben Eliezer:
First colophon: fol. 141, at the end of the Siddur, written in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink.
סיימתי התפילות מכל השנה/ והספר המצות עם התפילות/ לר' מאיר בר אשר הלוי המקום / יזכהו הוא וזרעו וזרע זרעו עד/ סוף כל הדורות אמן אמן אמן/ סלה/ חזק ונתחזק מנחם בהר' [בן הרב] אליעזר/ הכותב לא יוזק לא היום ולא/ לעולם עד שיעלה חמור בסולם
“I, Menahem son of Eliezer, completed this book of prayers and precepts for Rabbi Meir Ben Asher Halevi. The scribe will not be harmed, not today and not forever, until a donkey climbs up a ladder“.
Second colophon: fol. 151v on the lower half of the page in square Ashkenzi script:
חזק ונתחזק מנחם הכותב/לא יוזק לא היום ולא לעולם/ עד שיעלה חמור בסולם
“Strength and be strong Menahem the scribe will not be harmed, not today and not forever, until a donkey climbs up a ladder”.
Fol. 162, in the intercolumnar space in the lower part of the second column of the SeMaK next to the text “Rabbi Menahem bar Shmuel” is a flower drawn in ink marking the word Menahem.

31 Scribal Notes
Scribal notes

A. Notes by the scribe Menahem ben Eliezer:
Fol. 155v, in the upper margin, at the beginning of the SeMak text, the scribe wrote in semi-cursive script:
ו (במזל טוב בעזרת ה' נעשה ונצליח)“ בטב גדא בינ
”With good luck in the name of the Lord, let us do and thrive”.
Many scribal notes indicating the end of a section and the beginning of another one appear in the siddur (e.g. fols. 36, 53, 77, 91v, 11v, 113, 116, 120v, 124).
For example: fol. 53 in the bottom of the page, in semi-cursive Gothic script the scribe wrote:
סליק מסכת אבות שבח לרוכב בערבות/אתחיל תפילות של ראש השנה
“I finished tractate Avot, thanks to him that rideth upon the heavens [Psalms 68: 4], I will start the prayers for New Year.”
Fol. 163, in the upper margin flanking the top of the initial word panel to the second chapter of the SeMaK the scribe wrote in square Ashkenazi script:
נשלם יום אחד/שבח לאל המיוחד // יוצרי יצליחני/ במצות יום שני
“The first day is completed, thanks to God, may my creator help me with the second day’s precepts".
This inscription repeated in different words at the end of every day of the SeMaK in semi-cursive script (e.g. fols. 179, 214, 244, 256) except for the end of the seventh day which is missing.

B. Notes by the Italian Scribe of the Calendar of 1468 (identified by the Hebrew Palaeography Project J24, as Elazar ben Jacob, called Zalman of שוטיגורא (Perhaps Stuttgart) ; fols. 152v-154, see Remarks below):
The first year which appears in the Calendar is רכ"ח (1468).
The dateרכ"ח (1468) is also mentioned in several places in the text:
On fol. 154, above the table:
... והדוגמא כמו עתה רכ"ח לפרט ...
"… and for example the year as is now 5228 (1468) …"
Below the table and in the following page is written:
ובכל שנה ושנה תכתוב פרטך אצל הלוח כמו שעשיתי האידנא רכח לפרט ג' שנים למחזור רע"ו ולא תשגה
"And every year you should write the proper details in the table, as I did in this year רכח, which is the 3rd of the cycle רע"ו (=276) [which is the year 1468]".
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding

18th (?) century brown leather binding. Spine is divided into 5 sections by four high bands, each decorated by gold tooling of a floral pattern. Marble paper pastedown and pasted to front and back paper fly leaves.

 

36 Decoration Program

The decoration was executed in two stages. The first stage was done in the Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century.  The second stage was added in by the well-known scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon in Northern Italy during the second half of the 15th century, to the Siddur section only.

 

Stage A:

I. Two full-page initial word panels framed by Gothic arch, serving as frontispieces for the Siddur (fol.

1v) and the SeMaK (fol. 154v). Both include at the center burnished gold initial words set within a smaller panel. At the bottom of the first panel (fol. 1v) is a large medallion with two confronting grotesques; the bottom of the second panel (fol. 154v) is filled with heraldic animals within lozenges

II.  Nine part-page large initial word panels for the opening sections of the Siddur and the SeMaK (fols:

37, 41, 45, 163, 179v, 192v, 214v, 244v, 256v), one including a text illustration (fol. 256v). The part-page framed by Gothic architectural elements enclosing at the centre a smaller panel with gold initial words on coloured ground. These smaller panels are surrounded by hybrids and dragons (fols. 37, 41, 214v, 244v, 256v), heraldic animals within lozenges (fols. 45, 179v) or medallions (fol. 192v) in a running pattern or within escutcheons (fol. 45), and one by a hunting scene (fol. 163). The illustrated panel (fol. 256v) includes a man performing the Kiddush.

Categories I & II are executed in gold leaf and painted in blue, red,bordeaux, green, ochre and some white colors.

III. Shaped text (e.g. fols. 179, 192, 214, 244) for the ends of chapters of the SeMaK, written by the scribe in

the shape of arches.

 

Stage B:

I. Eleven painted initial word panels (fols. 14, 20, 41v, 54, 58v, 60, 62, 66, 72v, 78, 92), one of which includes a text illustration (fols. 78).  Most panels occupy the width of two text columns (e.g. fols. 41v, 66, 78) while several occupy only one column (e.g., fols. 14, 62). The initial words are written in gold within a blue panel filled with white feathery scrolls and surrounded by a gold frame, decorated with gold buds. The panel of the beginning of the Passover prayer (fol. 78) is illustrated by a Mazah and Maror placed in gold baskets above the panel. Two other panels have gold vases filled with flowers above (fols. 14, 62).

II. One marginal text illustration (fol. 66), set in the left margin of the “Hosha’na” ((הושענא prayer for Sukkot, depicts a man holding a lulav (palm branch) and etrog (citron fruit), adjacent to the initial word.

III. Small pen-work initial word or letter panels (e.g., fols. 2v, 37v, 38, 40, 41, 41v, 61, 62, 66, 67v, 71, 78, 114v), six including text illustrations (fols. 37, 37v, 38, 67v, 114v). One of the panels comprises the repeated word of the piyyutLema’an” joined to form a vertical panel (fol. 71). The initial word or letter is written in black ink within a panel filled with delicate filigree pen-work of purple, red, pink or blue.  The pen-work tendrils often extend above or below the panel along the margins or between the text columns. Some of the tendrils incorporate text illustrations such as the First Seder Cup of Wine (fol. 37), The Four Sons (fols. 37v-38), a hybrid (fol. 67v) and Jerusalem (or the Land of Israel) (fol. 114v). Other extensions include human masks (e.g. fols. 2v, 4v, 40, 41v, 71, 78, 88), a human face (fol. 25v), a rabbit (fol. 71), a crown (e.g. fols. 71v, 61, 63v), pomegranates (e.g. fol. 4v) a stork’s head (fol. 62), a dragon head (fol. 24) a bird (fol. 17v).  

 

36 Summary and Remarks

 

The Vienna Siddur-SeMaK is a lavishly decorated codex of small dimensions, containing the text of the Siddur, a halakhic work titled Sefer Mitzvot Katan (Small Book of Precepts), commonly known by the acronym SeMaK, and a calendar. The manuscript was produced in the first quarter of the 14th century in Southern Germany in the region of Lake Constance.

The section of the Siddur contains the daily prayers and prayers for the holidays, as well as many piyyutim (liturgical hymns) most of which follow the Ashkenazi custom and especially the custom practiced in Worms (for example, fol. 85 “אלהים ביתה מושיב יחידים” Davidson I, no. 4686, p. 215; Goldshmidt, Mahzor for Shavuot, p. 37). The Siddur also includes a Book of Customs, which deals with issues of daily Jewish life and laws of prayer, recording mainly the customs of Worms and Meinz. Among the Rabbis mentioned in this book are: R. Meir bar Isaac, R. Isaac Halevi, R. Joseph Tov Elem, R. Isaac bar Judah, Avi Ha’ozri, R. Nathan, R. Eleazar ha-Gadol, R. Eliezer of Worms. Most of these Rabbis lived either in Worms or in Meinz. The Book of Customs also mentions the essays Sefer Basar al Gehalim and Sefer Barzuli (Schwarz, 1925, No. 88, p. 89).

According to Shalev-Eyni (Jews among Christians, in Print), despite the Ashkenazi practice of this period to recite the familiar daily prayers by heart, many people also began to use a personal individual siddur - the daily prayer book for the entire year. In keeping with their personal nature, these siddurim tended to be of small size, as is evidenced by our small codex.

The second part of the manuscript consists of the “SeMaK,” also known as Sefer Amudei Golah (Book of Diaspora Columns), a treatise compiled by the tosaphist Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil in France before 1280. In this treatise, the author detailed all the precepts practiced in his time, together with moral lessons and texts from the Aggadah. His work was based on the Sefer Mitzvot Gadol (Great Book of Precepts), written by Rabbi Moshe of Coucy in the 13th century, from which Rabbi Isaac omitted the extensive halakhic discussion in order to adapt it for use as a general guide. The combination of Rabbi Isaac’s halakhic work with the regular liturgical prayer book (the siddur), which is paralleled in other codices of the period (e.g. Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Mich. Add. 41), is explained by Isaac of Corbeil's in his introduction to his book, where he explains that he arranged the precepts in seven parts against the seven days of the week so that each person might read from them one part every day. Rabbi Isaac wished to turn the daily reading of the precepts into a regular practice, and in order to bestow validity on this practice, he even attempted to establish a special blessing for it. The reading of the precepts in the SeMaK on a daily basis, together with the accompanying blessing, imparts an individual ritual quality to this halakhic work, in keeping with the association between it and the siddur to which it is attached.

Rabbi Isaac attempted to bring about a wide dissemination of his work. In order to expedite its distribution, he devised a plan of action which adapted the system that had been developed at the time for copying texts for study. He planned to furnish the sextons of the congregations with exemplars, who would then finance the copying from the synagogue purse and encourage further copying by the members of the community, free of charge.

Rabbi Isaac expanded his target audience to include not only the male population but the women as well, as he

included in his text also the precepts which women were accustomed to fulfill.  Rabbi Isaac's plan did indeed achieve

the desired results, and, as early as the final decades of the thirteenth century and throughout the fourteenth

century, this work was widely reproduced inFranceand inGermanyand can be found in most collections of Hebrew

manuscripts. We know of approximately 120 copies surviving from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and

another 60 surviving from the 15-16 centuries (Sternthal, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, p. 14).

The SeMaK is copied twice in the Vienna manuscript (see Contents). The first copy of the SeMaK includes only R. Isaac’s text, while the second copy contains in addition also the commentary written by R. Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil (d. c.1295) who was R. Isaac’s pupil (Schwarz, 1925, No. 88, p. 89).

The manuscript includes a colophon on fol. 141, near the end of the siddur and close to the beginning of the SeMaK, stating that Menahem son of Eliezer copied a Siddur and a Book of Precepts for Rabbi Meir son of Rabbi Asher Halevi. Rabbi Meir bar Asher Halevi, patron of the Vienna Siddur-SeMaK lived in the town of Überlingen, on the northern banks of Lake Constance (Sternthal, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, pp. 13-15). This fact we learn from a deed relating to the sale of a vineyard found in the Main County Archives of Kalsruhe, no. 3/188, which was written and signed in Constance in 1332 (Friedenberg, Jewish Seals, pp. 164-168 (No. 78 on pp. 167-168). The patron's common name, Mayer Aenseli, is mentioned in the document as one of three Überlingen Jews who sold a vineyard to a citizen of their town.[1] The document bears a seal shaped like a shield enclosing three Jewish hats (a common motif in Jewish seals of that period) surrounded by his name in Hebrew, "Meir bar Asher Halevi". From this document we learn of Meir’s high economic status. As a wealthy land owner, who probably enjoyed close connections with the upper classes of the Christian residents of the Lake Constance area, he could well afford to be the patron of a sumptuous manuscript such as the Vienna Siddur-SeMaK. This document strengthens the assumption that this manuscript was produced on the banks of Lake Constance in the first quarter of the fourteenth century.

The scribe signed his name again on fol. 151v after the first SeMaK and it is possible that he also signed his name at the end of the manuscript, but this part of the manuscript is missing. Unfortunately, a date and a place are not mentioned in either of the colophons. We do not know of other manuscripts copied by this scribe, although in the past some scholars pointed to the close similarity between the script of the Vienna Siddur-SeMaK and the script found in two other well-known Hebrew manuscripts, both copied by a scribe named Menahem: the Bird’s Head Haggadah ca. 1300 (Jerusalem, Israel Museum 180/57) and the Leipzig Mahzor (Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek MS. 1102/I-II) ca. 1320, both executed in South Germany. However, despite the similarities, according to a palaeographic comparison these were not written by the scribe of the Vienna Siddur-SeMaK (Narkiss, Mahzor Lipsiae, pp. 85-110; Shalev-Eyni, Tripartite Mahzor, p. 25). It was also suggested that the Vienna Siddur-SeMaK should be compared to the Bible copied in 1302 (Cod. Hebr. 11; Schwarz, 1925, No. 14), both bearing the colophon by the scribe מנחם בן אליעזר  (Menahem ben Eliezer), but their square Ashkenazi script is definitely different.

It seems that the scribe who added the calendar on fols. 152v-154 is Elazar ben Jacob, called Zalman of שוטיגורא (Perhaps Stuttgart), as identified by the Hebrew Palaeography Project J24. This scribe also copied other manuscripts, e.g. Chronicle (גלגול בני חושים), Germany, after 1421 (Frankfurt a Main - Stadt- und Universitaetsbibliothek Oct. 94; Hebrew Palaeography Project G84) and an autographic halakhic and midrashic treatise, North Italy?, 1468-1470 (Vienna, ÖNB, Cod. Hebr. 175; Schwarz, 1925, No. 77; Hebrew Palaeography Project J26). The scribe of the calendar was probably also responsible for the additions of the text on fol. 31 of our Vienna Siddur-SeMaK.

The decoration of the manuscript was executed in two stages. The first stage of illumination is in the style of the late thirteenth - early fourteenth century Lake Constance School, and the second stage of illumination is in the Northern Italian style of the second half of the fifteenth century, where it was added by the well-known scribe–artist Joel Ben Simeon.

The decoration of the first stage is very similar to other illuminated Hebrew manuscripts produced in the Lake Constance School, researched in great detail by Shalev-Eyni ((Shalev-Eyni, Jews among Christians, In Print). Of this School of production remain 6 manuscripts: our Vienna Siddur-SeMaK; a small Bible, which until recently was housed in the Schocken Library in Jerusalem (MS. 14840); the Duke of Sussex Pentateuch from the first quarter of the 14th century (London, B.L. Add. 15282); and three volumes of the Tripartite Mahzor from c. 1322 (Shalev-Eyni, Tripartite Mahzor, p. 1; first volume in Budapest, Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kaufmann Collection, MS A 384, second volume in London, B.L. Add. 22413, and the third in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Mich. 619). According to palaeographic, codicologic and stylistic analyses these four manuscripts are dated closely to each other and originate from the same workshop, although none of them is precisely dated. The similarities between the Duke of Sussex Pentateuch and the Vienna SeMaK led scholars to suggest that not only were both manuscripts illuminated in the same workshop but possibly even by the same artist. The first set of panels in the Tripartite Mahzor seem to have been produced later and it is probable that the Vienna SeMaK or a similar manusript served as its model (Shalev-Eyni, Tripartite Mahzor, pp. 251 and 253).

The Hebrew manuscripts of the Lake Constance School are characterized by initial words written within full-page and part-page panels, employing an identical repertoire of elements from Gothic architecture such as dome-covered turrets, arches, and trefoil gables with leaf-like shapes arranged along the ribs and tops (e.g. fols. 1v, 37, 41, 45, 154v, 163, 179v, 192v 214v, 244v, 256v of the Vienna Siddur-SeMaK; fols. 10, 17, 33v, 41v, 86v, 92v, 105 of the Schocken Bibleand fols. 238, 302, 307v of the Duke of Sussex Pentateuch). Other features characterizing this group are the many animals, birds and hybrids adorning the panels. Also typical are the grotesque human figures decorating the initial word panels. They are short and fat and have elongated fingers and are usually depicted in profile with their eyes wide-open as can be seen for example on fol. 1v of the Vienna Siddur-SeMaK and 179v of the Duke of Sussex Pentateuch. In many cases the figures fight each other as is evident on fol. 1v and 214v of the Vienna Siddur-

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
On many pages there are corrections to the main text written in a smaller script (e.g. on fols. 31, 56), and additions of missing words. The corrections are indicated by three dots in the main text and in the margins (e.g. fols. 203v-204). It seems that they were added by different hands; It was probably done by the Italian scribe of the calendar, however, a more detailed palaeographic overview is needed.

Fol. 82: In the upper margin on the left, next to the Ma’arava for the seventh night of Passover "וישעי אורי" (Davidson I, no. 2026, p. 94), is an inscription written in a different hand in semi-cursive script:
אין זה מנהג ארצותינו “It is not our countries’ custom”.
A similar inscription is written on fol. 83 next to the second column of the piyyut “מתי אבוא” (Davidson III, no. 2697, p. 193), while on fols. 83v and 84 the same hand wrote: ,אין זה כפי מנהג מדינותינו ”this is not according to our lands’ custom", relating to the piyyutim אור לשביעי"” (Davidson I, no. 1973, p. 91) and “שביעי אמרת לרדוף” (Davidson III, no. 276, p. 415).

16th-17th century erased text by an unknown Italian censor on fols. 13, 15v, 22, 54v, 56v, 60v, 62v. The censor did not sign his name.

February 10, 1832: Bought by the Höfbibliotheque from Juditha Benedikt, wife of the Rabbi Isaiah Benedikt of Misslitz for 20 fl. CM (Schwartz, 1925, No. 88, p.89).


On fol. 247v in the lower margin of the page:
The violet stamp of the Höfbibliothethek: the script k. k. Höfbibliotheque is written below the Imperial Crown.



40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good. Restored in the 18th century.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Buchkunst des Morgenlandes. F. Unterkircher (ed.), Ausstellung in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Wien 1953, Nr. 22. (mentioned)

S. Deutsch, Die hebräischen Manusckripte der k.k. Hofbibliothek zu Wien. Österreichische Blätter für Literatur und Kunst 63 (1846), 492.

J.W. Einhorn, Spiritalis Unicornis. Das Einhorn als Bedeutungsträger in Literatur und Kunst des Mittelalters (Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften 13), München 1976, 407 (Nr. 560).

Friedenberg, Jewish Seals
D. M. Friedenberg, Medieval Jewish Seals from Europe, Detroit 1987.

Goldsmidt, Mahzor for Shavuot
D. Goldsmidt, Mahzor for Shavuot, Jerusalem 2000 (in Hebrew).

W. Hanak, Die Zeit wird Zukunft. Judentum zweischen Erinnerung und Utopie, Alpha und Omega, pp. 213-218.

Hebrew Paleography Project
Hebrew Paleography Project Jerusalem, J4, J24, ZJ9, J29, G84.

Judentum im Mittlealten, catalogue, Schloss Halbturn, Burgenland, 5-10 1978, C159, pp. 238-239.

Katalog der Miniaturenausstellung der k.k. Hofbibliothek. Ausstellung in Wien, Wien 1902, 58, Nr. 360. (mentioned)

Krafft
A. Kraft & S. Deutsch, Die handscriftlischen hebräischen Werke der k. k. Hofbibliothek zu Wien, Wien 1847, 43 (Nr. XXXVII-1), 44(Nr. XXXVIII-1), 61-62 (LII-1), 73-74 (LVI), 77 (Nr. LXIII), 78 (Nr. LXIV). No. 56, p. 73.

Metzger and Metzger, Jewish Life
T. Metzger and U. Metzger, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, Switzerland 1982, No. 250, p. 314.

T. Metzger and U. Metzger, Review to M. Beit-Arié, The only dated medieval Hebrew manuscript written in England (1189 CE) and the problem of pre-expulsion Anglo-Hebrew manuscripts. Cahiers de Civilisation Medievale 22 (1989), pp. 356-359. (mentioned).

Monumenta Judaica, Cologne 1963, No. D50, Abb. D20, 38, 39.

Narkiss, HIM
B. Narkiss, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, New York 1969.

Narkiss, Mahzor Lipsiae
B. Narkiss, "Introduction to the Mahzor Lipsiae," 1964, pp. 85-110 in E. Katz, Machzor Lipsiae, eds. Elias Katz, Leipzig 1964.

Narkiss, Washington Haggadah
B. Narkiss, "The Art of the Washington Haggadah," in: Weinstein, Myron (ed.), The Washington Haggadah, A Facsimile Edition: Commentary Volume, Washington, Library of Congress 1991, pp. 27-101.

E. Roth, "Interessante hebräische Handschriften der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek (Cod. Hebr. 221-224)", biblos 8 (1959), pp. 83-87.

Die Schönsten Handschriften der ehemaligen Hofbibliothek. Ausstellung in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Wien 1965, 7, Nr, 32. (mentioned).

Schreckenstein, Üeberlingen
K.H. Roth von Schreckenstein, "Zur Geschichte der Juden in Üeberlingen", Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 24 (1872), pp. 259-266.

Schwartz, 1925
A. Z. Schwatz, Die hebräischen Handschriften der Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Leipzig 1925, No. 88, pp. 87-90, Tafel I.

Shalev-Eyni, Jews among Christians
S. Shalev-Eyni, Jews among Christians: A Hebrew School of illumination of the Lake Constance Region, London and Turnhout 2007 (in press).

Shalev-Eyni, Tripartite Mahzor
S. Shalev-Eyni, The Tripartite Mahzor, Ph.D. Dissertation, Jerusalem 2001 (in Hebrew).

H. Striedl, Jüdische Handschriften, Die Zeit der Staufer, ed. R. Haussherr. exhibition catalogue, Stuttgart 1977, Vol. I, pp. 268-269 (Kat. No. 382), Vol. II, abb. 198.

Sperber, Customs of Israel
D. Sperber, Customs of Israel, Vol. 6, Jerusalem 1998 (in Hebrew).

Sternthal, Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
M. Sternthal, "Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts in the Austrian National Library of Vienna" Center for Jewish Art: Newsletter 15 (2000), pp. 13-15.

Verzeichniss der im grossen Saale der k.k. Hofbibliothek in Wien ausgestellten Schaustücke, Wien 1893, 12 (Nr. 1). (mentioned).

Wissenschaft im Mittelalter , [Bearbeitet von O. Mazal, E. Irblich, I. Németh] Ausstellung in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Wien 1975, 143 (Nr. 98). Nationalbibliothek, Prunksaal, 22. Mai bis 18. Okt. 1975 /

Zucker, Moskowitz Mahzor
S. Zucker, The Moskowitz Mahzor of Joel Ben Simeon, Jerusalem 2005 (Hebrew text).

L. Zunz, Die Ritus des synagogalen Gottesdienstes, geschichtlich entwickelt. Berlin 1919, 21 Anm. A;28. (mentioned).
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
1280
48 Temp: Addenda
batch=0199&batch_num=006&OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yaffa Levy Guinat Spiegel Estherlee Kanon Michal Sternthal 1999, 2009 2002 2009 2009 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2009 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

Less Details


Object's images (32 image(s))

      [1] [2]

(XXII) ID: 12044 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 1v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12044 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 1v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 1v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Architectural frame |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 1v:

A full-page panel, serving as a frontispiece for the Siddur including an initial word “Blessed be He” (ברוך [הוא]) for the opening of the Morning Prayer.  The initial word is written in burnished gold display letters outlined in black against a red background framed by a yellow band with a black-step crenellation motif.

The full-page pane was executed in the first stage of decoration. It is framed by a Gothic trefoil arch toped by three gables decorated with crockets, a rosette and gold finials, flanked by two spires. Two cocks surmount the two side gables, perhaps alluding to the morning blessing which refers to the cock.

On each side of the panel is a floral vine inhabited with birds. 

At the bottom of the panel is a large bordeaux medallion depicting two confronting human figures crowned with red thorn wreaths, fighting each other with a sword and a shield. The panel is in blue ground decorated with red and white floral vines inhabited with colourful birds and framed in red borders with two golden in both the lower outer corners of the frame

21 Ornamentation Gothic arched frame
Floral scrolls
Birds
 
21 Ornamentation
Gothic arched frame
Floral scrolls
Birds
22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, blue, red, green, yellow, bordeaux and black colours
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Panel Measurements
152 X 95 mm (information from Fingernagel)
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199006
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 006
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12044
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12046 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 2v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12046 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 2v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 2v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199007
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 007
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12046
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12047 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 14, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12047 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 14, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 14
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199008
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 008
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12047
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12049 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, fol 37, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12049 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, fol 37, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail fol 37
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 37:

The page opening the section of the Passover Haggadah includes an architectural panel occupying the upper part of the page, executed in the first stage of decoration. The panel is shaped on top as a trefoil arch and framed by a yellow band with running geometrical motifs.

The center of the arch includes a separate blue cartouche inscribed with the initial words “This is the bread” (הא לחמא), written in gold display letters outlined in red; the ascender of the letter “lamed” pushes up the upper border of the cartouche creating the central blue section of the trefoil arch.

The blue cartouche is surrounded by four hybrids set on an alternating red andbordeauxground in separate frames. The upper two are winged dragon hybrids with human face, confronting each other. The lower two are human head hybrids separated by a band with a running wave motif. The hybrid on the right is comprised of a lioness with a grotesque woman pointing with her two fingers to her missing eye emerging from its head. The hybrid on the left is winged, with two human hands and a tail ending in a dragon's head, and from its head emerges a hooded grotesque man blowing a trumpet.

Another small initial word pen-work panel of “wherein" (מה) appears in the left text column was added in the second stage of decoration.  The panel is filled with delicate red and purple pen-work filigree. Red tendrils extend from the panel and surround the left text column, ending in a flower from which emerges the bust of a man holding the first Seder cup of wine. 

21 Ornamentation Architectural frame
Hybrids
 
21 Ornamentation
Architectural frame
Hybrids
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, blue, red, bordeaux, yellow and green colours, and red and purple ink
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Panel Measurements
100 X 115 mm (meas. by Fingernagel)
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199009
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 009
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12049
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yaffa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12050 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12050 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199010
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 010
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12050
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12051 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12051 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199011
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 011
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12051
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12052 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12052 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199012
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 012
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12052
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12053 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12053 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, , Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199013
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 013
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12053
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12054 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 66, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12054 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 66, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 66
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 66:

The page opening the section of Hosha’not prayers of Sukkot is decorated with a large initial word panel occupying the upper part of the page. In the outer margin, adjacent to the panel is an illustration of a man holding in his hands two of the Four Species - a lulav (palm branch) and etrog (citron fruit), each encased in a special holder (see fig. 1, below). He is wrapped in a tallit (prayer shawl) covering most of his head and shoulders. The corners of the tallit are edged in red.

The initial word “Hosha`nah”  (הושענא)is written in burnished gold display script against the blue ground panel filled with white feathery scrolls with red dots and white flowers. The panel is surrounded with a gold frame decorated above and below with gold clusters of buds and with a single bud on each of the four corners and on the left and right borders.

A small pen-work initial word panel in red and pink filigree work is set in the right text column extending on the right into a decorated narrow band ending in the lower margin in floral tendrils. The decoration was executed in the second stage of decoration.

 

 
21 Ornamentation Painted initial word panel

 
21 Ornamentation
Painted initial word panel

22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, red, blue and white colours and red and pink ink
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Panel Measurements
50 X 90 mm
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199014
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 014
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12054
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12055 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 67v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12055 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 67v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 67v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Illustration |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 67v

The page of the Hosha’anot prayers for Sukkot is decorated with three small pen-work initial word panels, executed in the second stage of decoration.

The initial words are written in black ink within a panel filled with delicate filigree pen-work in alternating red and purple.  The pen-work extends on the right into a decorated narrow band ending in tendrils. The tendrils of the upper right panel for the initial words “Man and beast(אדם ובהמה) "incorporates a red hybrid, comprised of a half-goat, half-human body, pointing to the panel. This hybrid probably illustrates the initial words man and beast.

 

21 Ornamentation Hybrid

 
21 Ornamentation
Hybrid

22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment and red ink .
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199015
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 015
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12055
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12056 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 78, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12056 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 78, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 78
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 78:

The Ma’ariv for the first night of Passover is decorated on top by a large painted initial word panel, occupying the entire width of the text and illustrated above by Mazzah and Maror. Three small pen-work initial word panels are inserted in the text columns below the large panel.  All the decorations on the page were executed during the second stage of decoration.

The initial word ליל ( שימורים) “Night of […]”  is written in gold, with the ascenders of the "lamed“ dinding in a leafy motif, set within a blue panel filled with white feathery scrolls with red dots and white flowers. The panel is surrounded by a gold frame decorated with gold clusters of buds on the top and on the sides of the frame, and with single buds in the four corners. Resting on the upper part of the frame are two golden baskets, the one on the right contains three round pierced Mazzot and the one on the left contains green leaves as the Maror.

The small pen-work initial words are written in black ink within a panel filled with delicate filigree pen-work of alternating purple and red.  The pen-work extends along the margins and between the text columns. The extension of the top panel in the left text column includes a human mask.

 

21 Ornamentation Mask
 
21 Ornamentation
Mask
22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, blue, green and white colours, purple ink
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Panel Measurements
55 X 70 mm
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199016
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 016
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12056
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12058 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 114v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12058 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 114v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 114v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Illustration |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 114v:

The page with the "Zulat“ for the Ten Days of Repentance includes a small pen-work initial word panel set at the top of the right text column, executed in the second stage of decoration. The initial word (אל (לבנו “to our heart” is written in black ink within a panel filled with delicate purple filigree pen-work. Tendrils extends above the panel and along the right margin, incorporating on top of the panel crenellated buildings representing the city of Jerusalem (or the Land of Israel), which is the main subject of the piyyut.

 

21 Ornamentation Not relevant
 
21 Ornamentation
Not relevant
22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, purple ink
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199017
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 017
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12058
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12059 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 141, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12059 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 141, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 141
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199018
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 018
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12059
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12060 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 154v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12060 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 154v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 154v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Architectural frame |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 154v:

Full-page panel, serving as a frontispiece for the SeMaK encloses in its centre the initial word “to know” (לידע) opens the first chapter of the SeMaK.  The panel was executed in the first stage of decoration. The initial word is written in burnished gold display letters outlined in red set within a checkered blue panel with red dots which is framed by alternatingbordeaux and yellow bands.

The full-page panel is framed by Gothic architecture of a large gable flanked by two domed towers surmounted by two squirrels. A tiled roof of green and red is seen behind the arch. The arch is decorated with crockets along the ribs, a rosette window and a yellow trefoil arch at its center. The yellow arch is duplicated by an inner grey arch on red ground; both decorated with rosettes windows and fleur-de-lis finials at the centre.

The lower part of the panel is filled with heraldic white animals set within lozenges such as: a crowned mermaid holding two dolphins, a crowned lion, a deer, and with yellow eagles within medallions, all set on alternating red,bordeauxand blue grounds.

 

21 Ornamentation Gothic arch frame
Squirrel
Heraldic animals
 
21 Ornamentation
Gothic arch frame
Squirrel
Heraldic animals
22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, bordeaux, yellow, green, red, blue and white colours
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Panel Measurements
155 X 98 mm (part from the upper side cut off)
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199019
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 019
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12060
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12061 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 163, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12061 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 163, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 163
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 163:

The page opening the second chapter of the SeMaK includes a painted part-page panel set on the upper part of the page executed in the first stage of decoration.

The panel is decorated above by gothic architecture of a gable with a gothic window topped by three crenellated towers,  containing the initial word “to destroy”  (לאבד), and is surrounded by a hunting scene. This page was executed in the first stage of decoration. The initial word is  written in burnished gold display letters outlined in red and set on a blue ground inner panel, whose top is shaped as two trefoil arches. Foliated scrolls curl around the blue inner panel on an alternating red andbordeaux ground and are inhabited by a hunting scene. The scene contains on the top right a hunter blowing a horn, in the center lower part of the panel are his two dogs chasing two rabbits running. A third dog in the lower left-hand corner is chasing a stag seen at the top left.

Initial letters are written in bold black ink at the beginning of each Mitzvah, and an inscription above the panel reads: נשלם יום אחד/ שבח לאל המיוחד//יוצרי יצליחני/ במצוות יום שני  ("The first day is completed; God will help me in writing the Mitzvoth of the second day").

21 Ornamentation Gothic architecture.
 
21 Ornamentation
Gothic architecture.
22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, blue, red, green, yellow and bordeaux colours
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Panel Measurements
83 X 95 mm
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199020
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 020
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12061
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12062 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 179v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12062 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 179v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 179v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199021
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 021
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12062
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12063 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 244v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12063 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 244v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 244v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Initial word panel |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 244v:

The page opening the sixth chapter of the SeMaK includes a part-page painted a Gothic trefoil panel occupying the upper part of the page filling the width of the text space, executed in the first stage of decoration. 

The trefoil panel is topped by gables and spires decorated with crockets and green, purple and red onion shaped finials.

In the center of the panel is the word “to give” (לתת) , written in burnished gold display letters outlined in black against red ground decorated with pink branches.

The initial is set within a separate frame forming two arches above and below the word, the upper one accommodates the ascender of the letter lamed.

The initial word panel is surrounded by hybrids and dragons with leafy tails set on an alternating green and blue checkered ground. The hybrid on the right is composed of a donkey with human hands, while the one on the left is composed of an auk and a dragon. The dragons in the lower part are winged and their tails are intertwined. Both the inner initial word panel and the trefoil panel are framed by a yellow band with a black stepped crenellation motif. 

21 Ornamentation Initial word, decorated
Hybrids
Dragons
 
21 Ornamentation
Initial word, decorated
Hybrids
Dragons
22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, blue, red, green, yellow, purple, and black colours
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
82 X 93 mm (part of the upper side of the panel is cut out; meas. Information from Fingernagel)
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199022
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 022
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12063
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12064 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 256v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 12064 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol. 256v, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol. 256v
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Sabbath, Kiddush |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

Fol. 256v:

The page opening the seventh section of the SeMaK includes an architectural part-page panel occupying the upper part of the page filling the width of the text space, executed in the first stage of decoration. The panel is shaped on top as a Gothic tower decorated with crockets and contains within it a panel for the initial word, "to make the Kiddush, blessing over the wine". (לעשות קידוש) The word is written in gold and outlined in red, set on a blue ground framed by a gold border, forming four arches above and below the word, one of which accommodates the ascender of the letter lamed. It is illustrated on top by a crowned man appearing in the central window of the tower performing the kiddush for the Sabbath eve by raising a gold double cup (Doppelkopf), a well-known shape of a cup found in the first half of the fourteenth century.

The initial word panel is surrounded by five dragons on an alternating red and bordeaux checkered ground. Two winged dragons with leafy tails and leafy tongues flank the tower window, while three smaller dragons are set beneath the initial word panel. The one in the middle has a leafy tail and the other two are winged

21 Ornamentation Dragon
 
21 Ornamentation
Dragon
22 Custom
Ashkenazi
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Parchment, burnished gold, blue, red, green, yellow, bordeaux and black colours
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
length X width mm
(?)
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

The type of kiddush double cup (Doppelkopf) held by the man in this panel can be compared to similar contemporary drinking vessels from Lingenfeld in the Palatinate region of ca. 1330 (see Codex Manesse, exhib. Cat. 1988, p. 103, fig. 12). Both cups are wide and shallow with lids.

A similar lidded cup appears in Codex Manesse which was produced in Zürich, 1300-1340 (Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, CPG 848, fol. 205). The wandering poet is depicted kneeling before the abbot, offering him a cup with an open lid.

Prof. Daniel Sperber quotes the Magen Avraham from Poland in the 17th century, who wrote:…כי טוב לקדש על כוס גדול שישייר מאותו כוס לקידוש היום ולהבדלה  ( It is good to bless over a large cup so that some will be left for the Sabbath morning kiddush and for havdalah), implying that the person who leaves wine over from kiddush to havdalah is one of the three types to inherit the next world (Sperber, Customs of Israel, vol. 6. 1998, pp. 125-8). However, since they feared that pests or poisons such as snake venom may get into the uncovered wine, they used lidded cups. Prof. Sperber notes that not many of these kiddush cups have remained and the ones known from Germany and Eastern Europe from the 16th century on, and most probably were used by worshippers in synagogue. It seems, therefore, that the illustration of the man blessing over the lidded cup in the Vienna SeMak precedes those finds (Strenthal, Hebrew Illuminated, 2000).

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Good
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Sperber, Customs of Israel, vol. 6, 1998, pp. 125-128 (in Hebrew).
M. Sternthal, "Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts in the Austrian National Library of Vienna" Center for Jewish Art: Newsletter 15 (2000), pp. 13-15.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0199023
45 Temp: Batch Number
0199 | 023
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12064
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Alissia Fried Yaffa Levy 1998 1999 49a
50 Researcher Yafa Levy Guinat Spiegel, Estherlee Kanon 1999 2002, 2008 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal 2002 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 2002 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 252163 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol.2, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 252163 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol.2, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol.2
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M607039
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
252163
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 252164 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol.2, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 252164 Vienna Siddur-SeMaK, Fol.2, Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Northern Italy, 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century edit
 
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Vienna Siddur-SeMaK | Unknown
3a Object Siddur
SeMaK
3b Object Detail Fol.2
4a Artist/ Maker Menahem ben Eliezer (Scribe)
5 Date 1st quarter of the 14th century; Additions in the second half of the 15th century
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Germany | Lake Constance (Bodensee) Area
Italy | Northern Italy
| ; Additions in Northern Italy
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Austria | Vienna | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
| Cod. Hebr. 75 (Schwarz No. 88)
10 Location Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna) | Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (ÖNB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Lake Constance School of Illumination in the first quarter of the 14th century
Scribe-artist Joel ben Simeon School of Illumination|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M607040
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
This image belongs to the ''Ursula and Kurt Schubert Archive'' in the Center for Jewish Art.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
252164
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a



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