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Obj. ID: 86
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  De Castro Pentateuch, Germany, 1344

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

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Name/Title
De Castro Pentateuch | Unknown
Object Detail
Date
1344
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
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Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Pentateuch with five scrolls and Haftarot Pentateuch (fol. 1v) with vocalization and cantillation signs and masorah magna and parva. Targum Onkelos and Rashi's Commetary after each verse. Five Scrolls: Ruth (fol. 330v, p. 660), Song of Songs (fol. 333, p. 665), Ecclesiastes (fol. 339v, p. 678), Lamentations (fol. 349, p. 697), Esther (fol. 353v, p. 706), with masorah magna and parva (except for Esther Scroll where the masorah magna is missing) and with Rashi's commentary. Haftarot (fol. 360) with masorah magna and parva and Rashi. The Pentateuch text is repeated along the lower margins of fols. 2r-329v. Esther text is repeated along the upper and lower margins of fols. 353v-360v.
Codicology

Parchment, I 420 (paginated 1-840) III leaves, (450-465) x (322-326) mm, text space 320 x 210 mm, hight of text with masorah 380 mm. The text and the Targum are written in square Ashkenazi script, Rashi's Commentary and the marginal texts in small unvocalized square script. 43 lines in three columns, in dark brown ink, vocalization and marginal texts were added by another scribe in light brown ink. Rubrics emphezise the lematta of Rashi's Commentary, the names cited in the colophon and the opening lines of chapters and haftarot. Ruling by plummet, 3 34 4 horizontal and 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 lower margins (e.g. fols. 128-135). 53 quires of 8 leaves each, except for I 8-1 (fol. 7 is a widow with a stub. No text is missing), XLVI 8 2 (fol. 361 is bound after fol. 369 which is bound after fol. 362), LIII 3 (three single leaves with stubs). Catchwords of various sizes to the quires are written vertically (except for fols. 327v, 385v) in square script identical to that of the main text. They are placed in the lower left-hand corner of the last verso of each quire.

Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Fol. 420r (839): Colophon of the massorator written in small squar script of the marginal texts: לאל אודה בכל מפעל. אשר אמץ זרועותי. וגם שבח בלי מעל. אשבחנו תודותי. יגברני כהוקם על. להתפאר פעולותי. אני לוי בר' דוד הלוי נקדתי וציינתי במסורת קטנה וגדולה זה הספר בשורות עליונות וגם החומש בכתיבה קטנה בשורות תחתונות לר' יוסף בר' אפרים )עם נקודות מעל השם(, עם חמש מגלות והפטרות. הבור')א( יזכהו להגות בו אמרות. אמרות טהורות. ויורשיו אחריו סדורות. עד סוף כל הדורות. ויען כי נתן לי שכרי בעין יפה. אשבחנו בניב שפה ועלהו לתרופה. ויען כי העניקני בהענקה. ינצל מכל צרה וצוקה ומהבהב ועלוקה. עמ"א. ותשלם כל המלאכה ביום ב' י"ח טת שנת ק"ד לפ' )=לפרט קטן( שבח לאל. "I Levi ben David Halevi vocalized and massoreted this book (of the Pentateuch) in the upper margins, and copied the text of the Pentateuch in the lower margins in a small script, for R. Joseph ben Ephraim, with five scrolls and haftarot. The entire work was completed on Monday, 18th of Tevet 5(104) (January 5, 1344)". Scribal Notes: The massorator Levi ben David Halevi emphesized his name in the marginal text by dotes (fols. - ), or a crown (pp. 115 (58), 623 (312)). The names Netanel and Daniel are pointed on fols. 206v, 208v, 218v, 225r (pp. 412, 416 - Netanel, 436, 449 - Netanel) and a crown in Rashi's Commentary, fol. 58r (p. 115 - Daniel). The Names Joseph and Ephriam were emphesized by rubrics on fols. 48v, 369v (pp. 96, 738) and by dotes on fols. 56v, 254v (pp. 112, 508).
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding

Gold-tooled 17th century red Morocco leather on wood decorated on both covers with a frame of running geometrical and floral motifs enclosing a floral central piece and four corner pieces. The front cover is inscribed YSHAC SINEOR 5407 (=1647). The edges of the covers are sloping in the center and decorated with a gold-tooled dotted line. The spine is divided by high bends into 8 equal portions decorated with running geometrical motifs and a lozenge floral motif in the center of each. Two engraved brass clasps on each cover closing the book. Watermarks on the fly leaves consist of a crowned shield topped by an elephant.

Decoration Program

A. One full-page text illustration to Esther Scroll (fol. 361 (721)) in green, red, blue, yellow and white. This illustration was added by another hand. B. 10 decorated initial word panels for each book of the Pentateuch and five scrolls (fols. 1v (2), 85 (169), 157 (313), 206 (411) 272 (543), 330v (660), 333 (665), 339 (678), 349 (697), 353v (706), three of which contain text illustation (fols. 1v, 333, 349). All in magenta, blue, green, ochre, brown, black and white colours, burnished silver leaf, and red, blue and black ink penwork. C. Marginal illustrations (e.g. a dog on fol. 35) D. Catchwords decorated with a bird's head (fol. 31v (62), cut during the rebinding), a dog's head (fol. 39v (78)) and a crown (fol. 327v (654)), in brown and red ink. E. Ascenders and descenders of some letters in the catchwords and along the bottom of the text are decorated by flourishes in brown ink.

Summary and Remarks
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Owners: Fol. 420v (840): מעם ה' יתן שאלתיו נאום משה ב"ר שמואל הכהן ז"ל. "Moses ben Samuel Hacohen". Front cover: Yshac Sineor 5407 (=1646/7). (see also Addenda in Ohel David). Inner front cover: Exlibris - "Bibliotheca D.H. de Castro Mz." The book ecquired at the De Castro Collection Auction, Amsterdam, 1899 by David Solomon Sassoon who added his exlibris on inner front cover and wrote the words: אני גואל האחרון "I am the last redeemer (of the book)". Acquired at the Sassoon Collection Auction, Zurich, 1978, and donated to the Israel Museum.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
De Castro Collection Auction, Catalog, Amsterdam, April 26-May 10, 1879, lot. 479. De Castro Collection Auction, Catalog, Amsterdam, 1899, lot. 474, p. 42. Sassoon, Ohel David, I, lot. 506, pp. 19-21. Narkiss, HIM, 1974, pp. 50, 51, fig. 45. Sassoon Collection Auction, Catalog, Zurich, November 21, 1978, lot. 10, page 42. De Castro Pentateuch - Six Illuminated Pages, Israel Museum, 1979.
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Computer Reconstruction
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Negative/Photo. No.