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  (XI) Obj. ID: 7991 Great Synagogue in Sataniv,, Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów), 17th century . // Unknown edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

To the main object: Great Synagogue in Sataniv, Ukraine


2 Name/Title Great Synagogue in Sataniv | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 17th century
6 Period Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Ukraine | Khmelnyts'ka obl. | Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów)
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Ukraine | Khmelnyts'ka obl. | Sataniv
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Gothic Survival|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Khaimovich, Boris
18 Photograph Date 1999
19 Negative/ Photo. No. Ukraine-1999-IV
19 Remarks
20 Description

The freestanding building of the synagogue is situated on a slope, so that its south facade is higher than the north one.  The building consists of a high main volume with a prayer hall and two low volumes attached on the western and southern sides. The south volume and the southern part of the west volume contain a women's section, the northern part of the west volume contains the vestibule of the prayer hall.

At the beginning of the 19th century it had a courtyard, surrounded by a wall on its west side.  After the closure of the synagogue, the building deteriorated.  Most of the windows of the side volumes were bricked up and partly covered by earth, and the windows of the main volume were closed by wooden planks. However, no alterations were made and the entire structure of the building has been preserved.

In the 2010s, a local buisnessman Arthur Fridman renovated the synagogue, which was inaugurated in 2015.

Description (state of 2001):

The freestanding building of the synagogue is situated on a slope, so that its south facade is higher than the north one.  The building consists of a high main volume housing the prayer hall and two low volumes attached on the western and southern sides (figs. 1, 2, 4-6, 11).  The south volume and the southern part of the west volume contain the women's section, the north part of the west volume contains the vestibule of the prayer hall.

The main volume is a high rectangular structure with a cornice, crowned by a high attic wall.  This wall, about three meters high, is decorated with blind round arches supported by pilasters.  There are eight arches on the west and east walls and ten arches on the north and south walls.  The arches are topped by a cornice.  In the centre of each arch there is a loophole.  The centre peaked roof (not preserved) is accessed through a narrow, partly spiral, staircase situated in the west wall of the main volume.

Interior:

The prayer hall is spanned by a barrel vault with lunettes on its north and south sides.  Twelve windows give light to the prayer hall.  Three high pointed arch windows are situated on the upper tier of both the south and north walls, two similar windows are situated on the upper tier of the west and east walls; and two round windows are placed between and above the latter.  A horizontal plaster moulding runs around the hall under the windows.  On the lower tier of the south wall there are three pairs of low windows with segmented arches, connecting the hall with the southern women's section, and a pair of similar windows is situated on the southern part of the west wall – currently all of them are bricked up.  

The Torah ark is situated in the centre of the east wall.

The main entrance, placed in the centre of the west wall, opposite the Torah ark, is surmounted by a plaster frame with a round arch connected to the horizontal moulding.  Inside the frame, there is a heraldic composition: two rampant lions, standing on a rocaille moulding, flank a cartouche with a central oval medallion, surmounted by plumage.  The cartouche includes the inscription:    בבית אלהים\ נהלך ברגש \ לפק(We walked unto the house of God in company, Psalms 55:15), probably gematria (the use of letters for numbers) for the date 1717; the letters are emphasized above with points (underlined here).  

An octagonal bimah surrounded by a wooden balustrade was situated in the centre of the hall.  It was reached from the north and south sides by four stairs. The original bimah no longer exists.

The southern single storey volume contains a women's section, divided into three rooms.  All rooms are spanned by a barrel vault with lunettes. The volume was covered by a lean-to roof, which has not been preserved.  The south wall of the volume was supported by two buttresses, one of which survives.  The easternmost rectangular room has a door in its east wall, four windows towards the prayer hall on the north wall and four windows on its outer south wall (the latter are currently bricked up).  The central square room has two windows towards the prayer hall (now bricked up), and a door and window on its south wall.  The westernmost room is united with the southernmost room of the west volume.  It has a window (now blocked) on its south wall and a door on its west wall.  Currently, it is covered by a pitched roof. 


More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Walls of the building are made of limestone, the attic walls and vault – of bricks.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

During the expedition of 1992, remnants of wall paintings were found: the lower part of a lion on the east wall of the prayer hall; south of the Torah ark; and floral ornamentation surrounding the portal in the northernmost room of the west volume.  However, the photo of 1905 shows that the east wall of the prayer hall has no paintings. 

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The date of construction of the synagogue is still unclear. Some sources indicate the date as 1514 or 1532, but this seems to be incorrect. Chemical analysis of the mortar made in 1992 showed that it is similar to the mortars of the mid-17th and early 18th century. However, the structural and stylistic features of the building, as well as a comparison with the nearby monastery, support the evidence that the synagogue was built at the beginning of the 17th century.

Following the wars of the second half of the 17th century, the building was restored. The inscription on the cartouche in the Torah ark indicates the year 1716 and the inscription above the entrance door gives the date of 1717. It is likely that repairs were made at this date as well as in the 19th century.

Legends and local beliefs, characteristic of East European Jewry are connected with the building of the synagogue. One legend, recorded during the expedition of Semion An-sky in 1913 and by the expedition of the Jewish University of St. Petersburg, recounts that there was a big hill where people started to dig, and they dug out the entire Great Synagogue. Another legend relates that in the hill next to the synagogue is the tomb of a Jewish bride and groom, killed by Cossacks during their marriage ceremony. There was also a belief that the souls of the dead prayed in the synagogue at midnight.

The Great Synagogue was closed after 1932, and in the 1960s the building was converted into a granary.

In 2013-2015 it was restored by Arthur Friedman, a local businessman and converted into a synagogue again.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Lukin, Veniamin and Khaimovich, Boris, Sto evreiskikh mestechek Ukrainy, vol. 1: Podolia (Jerusalem-St. Petersburg, 1997, second revised edition 1998), especially pp. 212-214;
Lifshits, Yulii "Naturnye issledovaniia zdaniia sinagogi 17-19 vv. v g. Satanove Khmel'nitskoi oblasti" in V. Dymshitz (ed.), Istoriia evreev na Ukraine i v Belorussii. Ekspeditsii. Pamiatniki. Nakhodki (St. Petersburg, 1994), pp. 120-127.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
7991
48 Temp: Addenda
OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter I. Andrushko, O. Sorokolit 1992 49a
50 Researcher Vladimir Levin 2001, 2016 50a
51 Architectural Drawings I. Andrushko, O. Sorokolit 1992 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction Sergey Kravtsov 2001 52a
53 Section Head Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 2001 53a
54 Editor Sally Oren 2001 54a
55 Donor 55a

Less Details


Object's images (2 image(s))

     

(XXII) ID: 61797 Great Synagogue in Sataniv, Southern facade, Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów), 17th century edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 61797 Great Synagogue in Sataniv, Southern facade, Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów), 17th century edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Great Synagogue in Sataniv | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Southern facade
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 17th century
6 Period Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
7 Origin Ukraine | Khmelnyts'ka obl. | Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów)
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Ukraine | Khmelnyts'ka obl. | Sataniv
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Gothic Survival|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Khaimovich, Boris
18 Photograph Date 1999
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. A039493
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Walls of the building are made of limestone, the attic walls and vault – of bricks.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

During the expedition of 1992, remnants of wall paintings were found: the lower part of a lion on the east wall of the prayer hall; south of the Torah ark; and floral ornamentation surrounding the portal in the northernmost room of the west volume.  However, the photo of 1905 shows that the east wall of the prayer hall has no paintings. 

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The date of construction of the synagogue is still unclear. Some sources indicate the date as 1514 or 1532, but this seems to be incorrect. Chemical analysis of the mortar made in 1992 showed that it is similar to the mortars of the mid-17th and early 18th century. However, the structural and stylistic features of the building, as well as a comparison with the nearby monastery, support the evidence that the synagogue was built at the beginning of the 17th century.

Following the wars of the second half of the 17th century, the building was restored. The inscription on the cartouche in the Torah ark indicates the year 1716 and the inscription above the entrance door gives the date of 1717. It is likely that repairs were made at this date as well as in the 19th century.

Legends and local beliefs, characteristic of East European Jewry are connected with the building of the synagogue. One legend, recorded during the expedition of Semion An-sky in 1913 and by the expedition of the Jewish University of St. Petersburg, recounts that there was a big hill where people started to dig, and they dug out the entire Great Synagogue. Another legend relates that in the hill next to the synagogue is the tomb of a Jewish bride and groom, killed by Cossacks during their marriage ceremony. There was also a belief that the souls of the dead prayed in the synagogue at midnight.

The Great Synagogue was closed after 1932, and in the 1960s the building was converted into a granary.

In 2013-2015 it was restored by Arthur Friedman, a local businessman and converted into a synagogue again.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Lukin, Veniamin and Khaimovich, Boris, Sto evreiskikh mestechek Ukrainy, vol. 1: Podolia (Jerusalem-St. Petersburg, 1997, second revised edition 1998), especially pp. 212-214;
Lifshits, Yulii "Naturnye issledovaniia zdaniia sinagogi 17-19 vv. v g. Satanove Khmel'nitskoi oblasti" in V. Dymshitz (ed.), Istoriia evreev na Ukraine i v Belorussii. Ekspeditsii. Pamiatniki. Nakhodki (St. Petersburg, 1994), pp. 120-127.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
61797
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter I. Andrushko, O. Sorokolit 1992 49a
50 Researcher Vladimir Levin 2001, 2016 50a
51 Architectural Drawings I. Andrushko, O. Sorokolit 1992 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction Sergey Kravtsov 2001 52a
53 Section Head Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 2001 53a
54 Editor Sally Oren 2001 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 61798 Great Synagogue in Sataniv, Southern facade, Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów), 17th century edit
Category: Jewish Architecture
ID: 61798 Great Synagogue in Sataniv, Southern facade, Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów), 17th century edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture

General Document


2 Name/Title Great Synagogue in Sataniv | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail Southern facade
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 17th century
6 Period Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
7 Origin Ukraine | Khmelnyts'ka obl. | Sataniv (Satanov, Satanów)
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Unknown |
10 Location Ukraine | Khmelnyts'ka obl. | Sataniv
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Gothic Survival|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Khaimovich, Boris
18 Photograph Date 1999
19 Negative/ Photo. No. Ukraine-1999-IV
19a Scan No. A039494
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Walls of the building are made of limestone, the attic walls and vault – of bricks.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

During the expedition of 1992, remnants of wall paintings were found: the lower part of a lion on the east wall of the prayer hall; south of the Torah ark; and floral ornamentation surrounding the portal in the northernmost room of the west volume.  However, the photo of 1905 shows that the east wall of the prayer hall has no paintings. 

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The date of construction of the synagogue is still unclear. Some sources indicate the date as 1514 or 1532, but this seems to be incorrect. Chemical analysis of the mortar made in 1992 showed that it is similar to the mortars of the mid-17th and early 18th century. However, the structural and stylistic features of the building, as well as a comparison with the nearby monastery, support the evidence that the synagogue was built at the beginning of the 17th century.

Following the wars of the second half of the 17th century, the building was restored. The inscription on the cartouche in the Torah ark indicates the year 1716 and the inscription above the entrance door gives the date of 1717. It is likely that repairs were made at this date as well as in the 19th century.

Legends and local beliefs, characteristic of East European Jewry are connected with the building of the synagogue. One legend, recorded during the expedition of Semion An-sky in 1913 and by the expedition of the Jewish University of St. Petersburg, recounts that there was a big hill where people started to dig, and they dug out the entire Great Synagogue. Another legend relates that in the hill next to the synagogue is the tomb of a Jewish bride and groom, killed by Cossacks during their marriage ceremony. There was also a belief that the souls of the dead prayed in the synagogue at midnight.

The Great Synagogue was closed after 1932, and in the 1960s the building was converted into a granary.

In 2013-2015 it was restored by Arthur Friedman, a local businessman and converted into a synagogue again.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Lukin, Veniamin and Khaimovich, Boris, Sto evreiskikh mestechek Ukrainy, vol. 1: Podolia (Jerusalem-St. Petersburg, 1997, second revised edition 1998), especially pp. 212-214;
Lifshits, Yulii "Naturnye issledovaniia zdaniia sinagogi 17-19 vv. v g. Satanove Khmel'nitskoi oblasti" in V. Dymshitz (ed.), Istoriia evreev na Ukraine i v Belorussii. Ekspeditsii. Pamiatniki. Nakhodki (St. Petersburg, 1994), pp. 120-127.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
61798
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter I. Andrushko, O. Sorokolit 1992 49a
50 Researcher Vladimir Levin 2001, 2016 50a
51 Architectural Drawings I. Andrushko, O. Sorokolit 1992 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction Sergey Kravtsov 2001 52a
53 Section Head Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 2001 53a
54 Editor Sally Oren 2001 54a
55 Donor 55a