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  (XI) Obj. ID: 5472 Old Synagogue in Alba Iulia,, Alba Iulia (Gyulafehérvár), 1840, 1938. // Unknown edit  
Category: Jewish Architecture


2 Name/Title Old Synagogue in Alba Iulia | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1840, 1938
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Romania | Transylvania | Alba Iulia (Gyulafehérvár)
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi | Status quo ante community (Hungarian)
| Orthodox after 1932
9 Collection Unknown |
9b Documentation/
Research project
Unknown |
10 Location Romania | Transylvania | Alba județ | Alba Iulia
| 2 Tudor Vladimirescu St.
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Neo-Baroque|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Levin, Vladimir
18 Photograph Date 2019
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19 Remarks
20 Description

Alba Iulia is the oldest Jewish settlement in Transylvania, where Jewish presence was recorded in the late 16th century. In 1653, the region’s code of laws required all Jews in Transylvania to live exclusively in this town. Until 1879, the rabbis of Alba Iulia were considered to be the chief rabbis of all Jews in Transylvania. The Jewish population of Alba Iulia increased from 150 Jews in 1785 to 264 in 1838 to 1,586 in 1910 (14% of the total population) and 2,070 in 1947. As a result of the Jewish emigration during the Communist era, only 45 Jews remained in the city in 2003.[1]

The Ashkenazi synagogue of Albe Iulia is the oldest synagogue in Transylvania, built in 1840. In 1938 it was reconstructed and, in 2017, it was significantly renovated. 

The synagogue is a Baroque building, facing the street with its western façade. The façade is flanked by two pairs of Doric pilasters; the main entrance decorated by a triangular pediment is surmounted by an oculus. The entrance door for women at the southern façade is decorated by a semicircular pediment.

The interior is decorated by similar pilasters. A prominent wooden Torah ark stands in the center of the east wall. A canopy on four Corinthian columns precedes the ark, which is decorated with wooden carved figures of lions holding the Tablets of the Law (Fig. 44).

A marble bimah in the center of the hall is a nice piece of Baroque stone carving. Four Ionic columns accentuate its four corners, serving as a model for the bimah in the Great Synagogue of Sibiu.

The women’s section is situated in the western part of the building, above the vestibule and the small prayer room. It opens to the prayer hall as a balcony supported by two Doric columns. A space under the staircase to the women’s section is said to have been used as a communal prison.

 

[1] Gyémánt, Evreii din Transilvania în epoca emanciparii (1790-1867) = The Jews of Transylvania in the Age of Emancipation (1790-1867), 236; Ladislau Gyémánt, “Alba Iulia,” in YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, ed. Gershon David Hundert (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), https://yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Alba_Iulia.


More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Aristide Streja and Lucian Schwarz, Sinagogi din România (Bucharest, 1996) = Synagogues of Romania ([Bucharest]: Hasefer Publishing House, 1997), p. 165, 188, ills. 156-157; http://jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2017/11/19/romania-alba-iulia-synagogue-to-be-rededicated http://jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2017/12/17/romania-re-dedication-of-the-synagogue-in-alba-iulia
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
Original Object
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
5472
48 Temp: Addenda
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Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

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