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  (XI) Obj. ID: 4081 Torah shield ,, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark). // Unknown edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects


2 Name/Title Torah shield | Unknown
3a Object Torah shield
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1819?(hallmark)
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Czech Republic | Jewish Museum in Prague (ŽMP)
| 20 (SZM 3.933)
9b Documentation/
Research project
Unknown |
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Tablets of the Law
Moses and Aaron
Crown of Law (Crown of Torah)
Curtain |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 4.1994
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 744-12
19 Remarks
20 Description

More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
4081
48 Temp: Addenda
:NO___:__Sc_14021
:HS___:__There_are_two_Hallmarks_on_the_object:1__The_hallmark_depicts_the_cypher_13_in_a_circle_flanked_by_the_cyphers_1819?_and_surmounted_by_the_letter_A_in_an_arched_frame__This_is_an_Austro_Hungarian_authority_mark_for_the_city_of_Vienna
_between_1806-1824__cf_Divis,_p_222_#1899__2__The_small_letter_A_surmounting_the_letter_F_in_an_oval_frame__This_is_an_Austro_Hungarian_tax_mark_for_large_items_used_1810-1824__The_letter_A_indicates_the_city_of_Vienna_
_cf__Divis,_p_95_#_564_
:NNO__:__745-4_744-12
:MH___:__320mm
:MW___:__236mm
:MAT__:__Silver_Structure:cut_Decoration:chased,repousee,_punched,engraved_Bonding:soldered,screwed
:TYP__:__OR
:RG___:__M_T__4_94
:LN___:__ENG
=&ija_id=0014021&batch=165&batch_num=045&OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

Less Details


Object's images (6 image(s))

     

(XXII) ID: 25066 Torah shield , , Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 25066 Torah shield , , Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah shield | Unknown
3a Object Torah shield
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1819?(hallmark)
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Czech Republic | Jewish Museum in Prague (ŽMP)
| 20 (SZM 3.933)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Tablets of the Law
Moses and Aaron
Crown of Law (Crown of Torah)
Curtain |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 4.1994
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
165045
45 Temp: Batch Number
165 | 045
46 Temp: Aleph Number
0014021
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25066
48 Temp: Addenda
:NO : Sc.14021
:HS : There are two Hallmarks on the object:1. The hallmark depicts the cypher 13 in a circle flanked by the cyphers 1819? and surmounted by the letter A in an arched frame. This is an Austro Hungarian authority mark for the city of Vienna
between 1806-1824. cf Divis, p.222 #1899. 2. The small letter A surmounting the letter F in an oval frame. This is an Austro Hungarian tax mark for large items used 1810-1824. The letter A indicates the city of Vienna.
cf. Divis, p.95 # 564.
:NNO : 745-4 744-12
:MH : 320mm
:MW : 236mm
:MAT : Silver Structure:cut Decoration:chased,repousee, punched,engraved Bonding:soldered,screwed
:TYP : OR
:RG : M.T. 4.94
:LN : ENG

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 25067 Torah shield , Hallmark, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 25067 Torah shield , Hallmark, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah shield | Unknown
3a Object Torah shield
3b Object Detail Hallmark
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1819?(hallmark)
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Czech Republic | Jewish Museum in Prague (ŽMP)
| 20 (SZM 3.933)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 4.1994
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
146014
45 Temp: Batch Number
146 | 014
46 Temp: Aleph Number
0014021
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25067
48 Temp: Addenda
:NO : Sc.14021
:HS : There are two Hallmarks on the object:1. The hallmark depicts the cypher 13 in a circle flanked by the cyphers 1819? and surmounted by the letter A in an arched frame. This is an Austro Hungarian authority mark for the city of Vienna
between 1806-1824. cf Divis, p.222 #1899. 2. The small letter A surmounting the letter F in an oval frame. This is an Austro Hungarian tax mark for large items used 1810-1824. The letter A indicates the city of Vienna.
cf. Divis, p.95 # 564.
:NNO : 745-4 744-12
:MH : 320mm
:MW : 236mm
:MAT : Silver Structure:cut Decoration:chased,repousee, punched,engraved Bonding:soldered,screwed
:TYP : OR
:RG : M.T. 4.94
:LN : ENG

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 45744 Torah shield , Hallmark, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 45744 Torah shield , Hallmark, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah shield | Unknown
3a Object Torah shield
3b Object Detail Hallmark
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1819?(hallmark)
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Czech Republic | Jewish Museum in Prague (ŽMP)
| 20 (SZM 3.933)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 4.1994
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S071354.jpg
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
14021
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
45744
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 45746 Torah shield , Field documentation, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 45746 Torah shield , Field documentation, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah shield | Unknown
3a Object Torah shield
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1819?(hallmark)
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Czech Republic | Jewish Museum in Prague (ŽMP)
| 20 (SZM 3.933)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Tablets of the Law
Moses and Aaron
Crown of Law (Crown of Torah)
Curtain |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S105562
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
14021
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
45746
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 45747 Torah shield , Field documentation, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 45747 Torah shield , Field documentation, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah shield | Unknown
3a Object Torah shield
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1819?(hallmark)
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Czech Republic | Jewish Museum in Prague (ŽMP)
| 20 (SZM 3.933)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Tablets of the Law
Moses and Aaron
Crown of Law (Crown of Torah)
Curtain |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S105563
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
14021
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
45747
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 45748 Torah shield , Field documentation, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 45748 Torah shield , Field documentation, Wien (Vienna), 1819?(hallmark) edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah shield | Unknown
3a Object Torah shield
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1819?(hallmark)
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Austria | Wien (Bundesland) | Wien (Vienna)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Czech Republic | Jewish Museum in Prague (ŽMP)
| 20 (SZM 3.933)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Tablets of the Law
Moses and Aaron
Crown of Law (Crown of Torah)
Curtain |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S105564
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
14021
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
45748
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a