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  (XI) Obj. ID: 2393 Shmirah,Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832. // Mordechai the scribe edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Printing plate for amulet
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 441-13
19 Remarks
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."



More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
2393
48 Temp: Addenda
batch=&batch_num=&OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

Less Details


Object's images (18 image(s))

     

(XXII) ID: 19909 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 19909 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Printing plate for amulet
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0116026
45 Temp: Batch Number
0116 | 026
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19909
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189164 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189164 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Printing plate for amulet
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 587-22
19a Scan No. S065695
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189164
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189165 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189165 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Description (Word)
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102006
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189165
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189166 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189166 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Description (Word)
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102007
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189166
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189167 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189167 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Description (Word)
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102008
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189167
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189168 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189168 Shmirah, Description (Word), Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Description (Word)
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102009
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189168
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189169 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189169 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Printing plate for amulet
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 587-27
19a Scan No. S065700
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189169
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189170 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189170 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Printing plate for amulet
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 587-28
19a Scan No. S065701
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189170
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189171 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189171 Shmirah, Printing plate for amulet, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Printing plate for amulet
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 587-29
19a Scan No. S065702
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189171
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189172 Shmirah, Hallmark, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189172 Shmirah, Hallmark, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Hallmark
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 588-1
19a Scan No. S065711
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189172
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189173 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189173 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102004
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189173
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189174 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189174 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102005
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189174
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189175 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189175 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102010
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189175
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 189176 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 189176 Shmirah, Field documentation, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Angel
Magen David
Eve, Lilith and Adam
Putto (Putti in Plural) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S102011
20 Description

The rectangular plate is a mold of an amulet dedicated to a birthing mother and her newborn infant. On the top of the plate are two winged angels (putti) flanking a central inscribed shield. In one hand they are holding a valance surmounted by the blessing "mazal  tov " (blessing for a good omen) and mounted above the shield, while in the other hand they point to the inscribed Psalm 20 ( fig. 1).

The name of Abraham, the patriarch of the nation is inscribed below the shield. His name is followed by other names of patriarchs and matriarchs of the nation, inscribed in two side columns, within an interlaced geometric frame. Beginning on the right, read from top to bottom: "Isaac, Adam, Moses, Aaron, David and Shlomo (shlm)," which appears on the second column (the name of Jacob is missing). It continues with the matriarchs on the left, read from bottom to top: "Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah." The names allude to the
"mi she'annah" prayer ("The One who replied to Abraham… He will respond to my prayer…"  Mishnah, Mo'ed, Ta'anit, 2:4). 
The names of Adam and Eve are below the angels, topping the amuletic formula (fig 2):

"אדם וחוה/ חוץ לילית חוה ראשונה/ סיניו וסינסניו וסמנגלוף"

 "Let Lilith, the first Eve, out (of this territory), (in the name of) Sinoy (Sanoy), Sinsnoy (Sansenoy), and Smangaluf."

This formula is based on several midrashic legends (Ozar Hamidrashim, p. 35), and is followed by a story that only appears on amulets, and its literary sources are still obscure (fig. 3):

"בשם ה' אלוהי ישראל יושב הכרובים אליהו הז"ל (הזכור לטוב) היה הלך בדרך/ ונגע בלילית הרשעה ובכל כיתה. אמר להם אן אתם/ הולכים ויענו ואמרו אנו הולכים לבית פ' ב' פ' (פלונית בת פלונית)להזיק אותה/ ואת הילד הנולד לה והחרים להם אליהו בחרם ואמרו לו/ למען השם תתרוני ועתה אשבענו לך באלוהי ישראל/ כשמזכירין אתם את שמותינו אין לנו שום כח להכנס/ לבית היולדת ומש' (ומשפחתה) להזיק ואלו שמותינו: לילית אביטו אביזו אמזרפו הקש/ אורם איקפודו איילו טטרוטה קליכט/ אבמקטה שטרעה זה תילתוי פירטשי"

"In the name of the Lord, God of Israel, who dwells between the cherubim: While Elijah, of blessed memorywas on his way, he met evil Lilith and all her group (of demons). He asked them: where are you going? And they answered: we are going to the house of so-and-so (female) to harm her and her newborn child. Then, Elijah excommunicated them and they pleaded with him and asked him to release them. Thus, (Elijah) made them swear in the name of God of Israel, that whenever the following names (would be mentioned) – not one of them would have the power to enter the house of the birthing mother, and to harm her or any of her family members. And these are the names (of Lilith): Lilith, Abitu, Obizo, Amzarpho Hakesh, Oram, Ikphudo, Ayelu, Tatruta, Klicht, Av'maktah, Shetra'kh, Za, Tiltui, Fitashi."

The different names of Lilith are set in bold and large letters below the legend.

The plate concludes with Psalm 121 set in two columns flanking a six-pointed amuletic star (known as the Star of David) formed of the verse: "The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads, and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth" (Gen. 48:16) enclosing Lord's name "Shaddai, God almighty."
Two rectangles are at the bottom of the plate, inscribed with an additional amuletic formula, in three different modes:

"מכשפה לא תחיה/ לא תחיה מכשפה/ תחיה מכשפה לא"

"The witch shall not live." 
The name of the scribe, the date and place of origin appear in the central bottom (fig 4), accompanied by his signature in Latin characters, signed in the outer borders (fig 5):

"מרדכי/ סופר סת"ם בק"ק (בקהל קדוש) נייטרא תקצ"ב"   

"Mordechai, a scribe of books, Tefillin and Mezuzot (in Hebrew initials SETAM), (who was active) in the Holy congregation of Nitra, (the year) (5)592 (1832)."


21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
189176
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 19913 Shmirah, Upper part, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 19913 Shmirah, Upper part, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Upper part
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0142048
45 Temp: Batch Number
0142 | 048
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19913
48 Temp: Addenda
:NNO :587-27

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 19912 Shmirah, Middle part, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 19912 Shmirah, Middle part, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Middle part
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0142047
45 Temp: Batch Number
0142 | 047
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19912
48 Temp: Addenda
:NNO :587-28

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 19911 Shmirah, Lower part, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 19911 Shmirah, Lower part, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Lower part
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0142046
45 Temp: Batch Number
0142 | 046
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19911
48 Temp: Addenda
:NNO :587-29

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a

(XXII) ID: 19910 Shmirah, Hallmark, Nitra, 1832 edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 19910 Shmirah, Hallmark, Nitra, 1832 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Shmirah | Unknown
3a Object Amulet
3b Object Detail Hallmark
4a Artist/ Maker Mordechai the scribe (Unknown)
5 Date 1832
6 Period Austria-Hungary/Habsburg Monarchy
7 Origin Slovakia | Nitra
|
8 Community Poland | Ranizowiz (near Rzeszów)
|
9 Collection Poland | Cracow (Kraków) | The National Museum in Kraków
| 230 (IV-M-2116)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 9.1990
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
The serious risks associated with childbirth and the dangers related to the first days of a newborn child and his birthmother, were the ambiance in which the folk belief in demons, who kill or steal babies developed. One of the leading demons considered to be the most dangerous creature for the mother and child, was Lilith – the first woman created with Adam (see: Subject document). In order to protect the birthing mother and the baby, various kinds of amulets were created. Our amulet printing plate is a typical example of the incantations against the evil creature and her group of demons, following the East European tradition. The amulet was placed near the mother's bed or around the walls.
The legend including Lilith as the former Eve and her flight from Adam is first mentioned in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, composed in Babylonia in the end of the ninth to the beginning of the tenth centuries. The story in Ben Sira also includes the three angels who excommunicated her after she refused to return to Adam. It seems that the legend appears in Ben Sira to explain the custom of writing amulets against Lilith, which most probably already existed then and was widespread.
The second version of the story, which includes Elijah and appears on our amulet, probably is derived from a different literary source and reflects another tradition. According to Prof. Gaster, a similar narrative of a Holy man, who meets a female demon that kills babies, and excommunicates her, is mentioned in the Manichean literary tradition. The story of Elijah and Lilith is included in the second edition of David's Lida's book Sod ha Shem (Berlin 1710, p. 20a). A female demon with a thousand names,active at night, harming newborn babies and their mothers, is also mentioned in the Testament of Solomon, a Greek work of the third century. In this composition, she is named Obizoth, similar to one of the names in our amulet (Gershom Shalom, Lilith, in Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 11, p. 246).
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Copper
25a Material Structure cast
25b Material Decoration etching
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription etching
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height 183 mm
26b Length
26c Width 125 mm
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program

Amuletic formulas adorned by two winged putti.

36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The plate was found in the synagogue of Ranizowiz, a small city near Rzeszow, in Poland. It was purchased by the Museum from Mr. Rabinowiz in 1938.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Intact
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Gaster, Moses. "Beitrage Zur Vergleichenden Sagen und Marchenkunde." MGWJ XXIX, (1880).
Montgomery, James. A. Aramaic Incantion Texts from Nippur. Philadelphia 1913.
Sabar, Shalom. In collaboration with Ella Arazu, Avriel Bar Levav, Roni Weinstein., The Life Cycle. Jerusalem, 2006.
Schrire, Theodore. Hebrew Amulets, Their Decipherment and Interpretation. London, 1966.
Shalom, Gershom. Lilith. In Encyclopedia Judaica 11. Jerusalem, pp. 245 - 249.
Yassif, Eli. The Tales of Ben Sira in the Middle Ages. Jerusalem, 1984.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0142045
45 Temp: Batch Number
0142 | 045
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19910
48 Temp: Addenda
:NNO :588-1

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Ruth Sudak 09.90 49a
50 Researcher Ariella Amar 12.92 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Ariella Amar 06.07 53a
54 Editor Judith Cardozo 06.07 54a
55 Donor UNESCO 55a