Mahzor in two volumes for the whole year with vocalisation. The Mahzor is mostly according to the western Ashkenazi rite but also includes a few sections following the eastern rite. The first volume includes the three Scrolls (Song of Songs, Ruth and Ecclesiastes) and Prayers for Special Sabbaths, Passover and Shavuot; the second volume includes the rest of the prayers for the New Year, Day of Atonement, Sukkot and Hanukkah.
Fol. 1-1v: Zulat for Shabbat Hagadol אומרת אני מעשי למלך by a later Hand l (see Scribes).
Fols. 2-14: Three Scrolls accentuated and vocalised, with massorah magna and parva: Song of Songs (fols. 2-5); Ruth (fols. 5-7v); Ecclesiastes (fols. 7v-14).
Fols. 14v-58: Special Sabbaths with piyyutim and some statutory prayers:
• Shabbat Shekalim (fols. 14v-22v): morning service (fols. 14v-20v): yozer (fol. 14v), qerovah (fol. 15v); musaf (fols. 20v-22v).
• Shabbat Zakhor (fols. 23-30v): morning service (fols. 23-24): yozer (fol. 23), qerovah (fol. 24); musaf (fols. 28v-30v).
• Purim (fols. 31-37): amidah and piyyutim for Purim.
• Shabbat Parah (fols. 37-44v): morning service (fols. 37-42v): yozer (fol. 37), qerovah (fol. 38); musaf (fols. 42v-44v).
• Shabbat Hahodesh (fols. 45-51v): morning service (fols. 45- 49v): yozer (fol. 45), qerovah (fol. 46); musaf (fols. 49v-51v).
• Shabbat Hagadol (fols. 52-58): morning service (fols. 52-55v): yozer (fol. 52), qerovah (fol. 53v); musaf (fols. 55v-58).
Fols. 58-122: Passover with prayers and piyyutim:
• First day: evening service (fols. 58-60); morning service (fols. 60-65): yozer (fol. 60); musaf (fols. 65v-72v).
• Second day: evening service (fols. 73-75v); morning service (fols. 75v-83): yozer (fol. 75v), amidah (fol. 79v).
• Shabbat Hol Hamoed: morning service (fols. 83-87v): yozer (fol. 83).
• Seventh day: morning service (fols. 87v-98v): yozer (fol. 87v), qerovah (fol. 89).
• Eighth day: morning service (fols. 98v-112): yozer (fol. 98v), another yozer by the later Hand 1 (fols. 99v-100), qerovah (fol. 103), reshut before reading the Targum of the Torah opening with אלו פומי נומי (fol. 112); and biblical readings in Aramaic (from fols. 112v-118).
• Seventh and Eighth days: evening service (fols. 118v-122).
Fols. 122v-181: Shavuot:
• First day: evening service (fols. 122v-123v); morning service (fols. 124-136v): yozer (fol. 124), qerovah (fol. 126v); musaf (fols. 136v-143v).
• Second day of Shavuot: evening service )fols. 143v-146v), another evening service (fols. 146v-148v); morning service (fols. 149-162v): yozer (fol. 149), qerovah (fol. 151v); musaf (fols. 162v-164v); akdamut millin (fols. 164v-166v); and other Aramaic piyyutim recited before each of the Ten Commandments (fols. 166v-178).
• Three Pilgrim Festivals: morning service (fols. 178-178v): qerovah (fol. 178); musaf (fols. 179-180); and an addition to the amidah for evening service when the Festival falls at the end of the Sabbath (fols. 180-181).
Fols. 1v-60v: New Year:
• First Day: morning service (fols. 1v-11): yozer (fol. 1v), qerovah (fol. 3), avinu malkenu (fol. 10); musaf )fols. 11-30).
• Second Day: morning service (fols. 30-45): yozer (fol. 30), qerovah (fol. 32), avinu malkenu (fol. 44v); musaf (fols. 45-60v).
Fols. 61-167v: Day of Atonement:
Kol nidrei (fol. 61); evening service (fols. 61-73v): avinu malkenu (fol. 73); morning service (fols. 73v-120v): yozer (fol. 74), qerovah (fol. 75), selihot (fols. 104v-113v), continues with the amidah (fols. 113v), avinu malkenu (fol. 120); musaf (fols. 121-152): selihot (fols. 140-148); afternoon service (fols. 152-161v): avinu malkenu (fol. 160v), neilah (fols. 161v-167v).
Fols. 168-178v: Sukkot:
• First Day: morning service (fols. 168-172): yozer (fol. 168), qerovah (fol. 169); musaf (fols. 172-172v).
• Second Day: morning service (fols. 172v-178v): yozer (fol. 172v), qerovah (fol. 174). (No Hoshanot).
Fols. 178v-187v: Shemini Azeret: morning service (fols. 178v-179v): yozer (fol. 178v); musaf (fols. 179v-
187v): prayer for rain (fol. 179v).
Fols. 187v-193: Simhat Torah: morning service (fols. 187v-193): yozer (fol. 178v), hakkafot (fol. 190),
reshut for hatan Torah (fol. 190v), and reshut for hatan Bereshit (fol. 191).
Fols. 193v-197v: Shabbat Hanukkah: morning service (fols. 193v-197v): yozer (fol. 193v).
||The main text is written by two scribes. Each scribe seems to have vocalised the text he copied. Scribe A: I:2-14, 22-98v, 101-181v, including the massorah for Song of Songs, Ruth and Ecclesiastes (I:2-14), and a marginal annotation to scribe B’s text (I:15). Scribe B: I:14v-21v (quire IV). Scribe B: II:1-116v (quires of 8 leaves). Scribe A: II:117-197v (quires of 10 leaves). Hand 1: I:1-1v, 99v-100v, added to the manuscript after it was completed (I:99 is blank). Two other hands completed the text of Hand 1 (I:1-1v). Hand 2: I:100v: list of selihot.
||The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. The small square script of the massorah for the three Scrolls (I:2-14) and of some marginal notes in both volumes (e.g. II:72v, 134) was apparently written by each of the scribes in turn.
||Number of Lines
||Vol. I: Scribes A and B: 24 lines. Added fol. 1: 22 lines; fols. 99v-100: 24 lines. Vol. II: Scribes A and B: 24 lines. The massorah magna for the three Scrolls (I:2-14): 2 lines in the upper margin and 3 in the lower, mostly cropped. The text is written mostly in one column; two columns (width of one: 50-60 mm.; 85-93 mm.) for the Scrolls (I:2-13v) and some piyyutim (e.g. I:124-125, 165-166v, II:89).
||Vols. I and II: by stylus on hair side: 25 horizontal lines mostly ruled across the whole page (though 2 top and 2 bottom lines are usual (e.g. II:90-103), and 1+1 or 1+2+1 vertical lines for two columns. Ruling for massorah (I:2-14): 3 lines in the upper and 4 lines in the lower margins mostly cropped. In vol. II there is additional vertical ruling in plummet within the text space for its special layout (e.g. II:6).
||Not noticeable, i.e. the inner margins were not pricked.
||Vol. I: 20 quires, mostly of 10 leaves each, except for: I1 (additional single leaf), II8, III4, IV8, XII10+2 (fols. 99, 100 are single leaves pasted on to fols. 98, 101), XX8. List of quires: I1 (1); II8 (2-9); III4 (10-13); IV8 (14-21); V10 (22-31); VI10 (32-41); VII10 (42-51); VIII10 (52-61); IX10 (62-71); X10 (72-81); XI10 (82-91); XII10+2 (92-103: fols. 99, 100 are single leaves pasted on to fols. 98, 101); XIII10 (104-113); XIV10 (114-123); XV10 (124-133); XVI10 (134-143); XVII10 (144-153); XVIII10 (154-163); XIX10 (164-173); XX8 (174-181). Vol. II: 22 quires. Quires I-XIV (fols. 1v-116v), which were written by Scribe B, are of 8 leaves each except for VII12-1 (quire VIII opens the Day of Atonement prayers). Quires XV-XXI (fols. 117-197), which were written by Scribe A, are of 10 leaves each except for XXII10+1 (single last leaf). Quires structure: I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-33: fol. 29 is numbered 30); V8 (34-41); VI8 (42-49); VII12-1 (50-60: the first leaf is single one with a stub); VIII8 (61-68); IX8 (69-76); X8 (77-84); XI8 (85-92); XII8 (93-100); XIII8 (101-108); XIV8 (109-116); XV10 (117-126); XVI10 (127-136); XVII10 (137-146); XVIII10 (147-156); XIX10 (157-166); XX10 (167-176); XXI10 (177-186); XXII10+1 (187-197: single last leaf).
||Catchwords: none, perhaps cropped.
||I:99; II:1 was originally blank
Parchment, vol. I: I + 181 + I leaves.
Vol. II: I + 197 + I leaves (fol. 29 is numbered 30 and followed by subsequent numbers).
Both sides of the parchment are similarly treated; hair sometimes visible.
Full page: Vol. I: (361-365) x (292-295) mm.; vol. II: (353-354) x (291-292) mm.
Text space: Vol. I: (291-298) x (185-188) mm.; vol. II: 289 x (185-189) mm.
The text is written mostly in one column; two columns (width of one: 50-60 mm.; 85-93 mm.) for the Scrolls (I:2-13v) and some piyyutim (e.g. I:124-125, 165-166v, II:89).
||Location of Torah Ark
||Location of Apse
||Location of Niche
||Location of Reader's Desk
||Location of Platform
||Temp: Architecture Axis
||Arrangement of Seats
||Location of Women's Section
||Direction Toward Jerusalem
The word Baruch (meaning: blessed) is marked by a foliate motif (I:6, Scribe A) and by dots (II:98, Scribe B), perhaps as a blessing formula.
Vol. II:28v, inscribed in semi-cursive script above the priestly blessings in the musaf prayer for New Year: where there is no cohen [priest] recite [the following text] with tears, where there is no cohen (priest) recite (the following text) with tears, במקום שאין שם כהן אמר אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו בדמע.
||Hallmark Group Classification
Both volumes have similar 16th-century bindings of off-white pigskin on wooden boards (380 x 298 mm.). Front and back covers are similar with blind-tooled floral scrolls and chains decorating a rectangular frame which encloses a double framed square with a central rhomboid and a flower.
On the back covers are the metal remnants of two clasps and on the front covers are corresponding traces.
The spine has four double cords with head and tail bands.
Watermarks of front and back flyleaves: a double pole with a round top and flag bearing the letters WA (?) or WL (?).
The manuscript was written and decorated by Scribes A and B. Each scribe wrote his own built-up letters in brown and red ink at the beginnings of main sections (6-12 lines high) and sub-sections (2-5 lines high). However, their elaborate decoration and the red wriggle work surrounding them, also in the sections of Scribe A, were done by Scribe B. Scribe B's built-up display letters of are more elegantly undulating and have more serifs than the straight square ones by Scribe A (cf. II:34v-35, 80-86 by Scribe B; and I:179v-181 by Scribe A). However, one should note that Scribe A can emulate the script of Scribe B when the hands change (cf. II:116v by Scribe B with II:117 by A).
I. Text illustrations by Scribe B: a red lion passant illustrating the word King (מלך II:38v) and a crowned blue rampant one illustrating the text: I shall crown (אכתיר II:168).
II. Decorated initial words:
1. Elaborate initial words: The built-up letters are by Scribe A; however, the decoration is by Scribe B. One initial word is decorated with dragons, animals and a hunting scene (אום, I:37); a second is surrounded by intertwined dragons, a knight confronting a lion, a dog and a griffin (מלך II:30; cf. II:31v, 168); and a third one is decorated with two facing dragons within the letter I:23 (זכור).
2. Initial words surrounded by wriggle work only:
• By Scribe A: I:75v (אפיק) surrounded by brown ink wriggle work similar to I:31 (ויאהב); I:45 (אות), I:60 (אור). It should be noted that the latter three initial words were executed on very thin parchment, covering up the same words which were originally written by Scribe A and decorated with red wriggle work by Scribe B.
• By Scribe A, with added red wriggle work by Scribe B: I:23 (זכור), I:124 (אדון); II:152v (איתן); II:161v (אב); II:178v (אום).
• By Scribe B: I:14v (אל) surrounded by red wriggle work.
3. Smaller built-up initial words by both scribes in the sections they wrote. The words are in
alternating red and dark brown ink, all decorated by Scribe B with wriggle work and foliage
extensions, some with dragons', knights' and animal heads (e.g. I:14v, 15, 105, 132v; II:43,
43v, 44, 50-51, 53-54, 56v-57, 96).
III. Other decorative elements:
1. By Scribe B: a small red lion in the margins enclosing the word "Our Lord" (אלהינו; II:43v) and another in brown ink above the word "To the holy" (לקדוש; II:129).
2. By Scribe B: vertical scrolls within the text space (II:31v, 38).
3. By Scribe A: vocalisation, and accent bars above syllables decorated with dragons' heads (I:98v, 124, 163; II:61, 121, 152v).
4. Each scribe emphasises important words, biblical verses and some letters in red (e.g. I:132-135v; II:39, 44v-47, 52-53, 58-59).
Decoration by later hands:
Vol. II:73v, a later hand crudely drew part of a gate for Gates of Mercy.
Vol. II:164, another later hand drew grotesque faces on ascenders.
Annotations in the margins by later hands:
• Inscribed next to many sections: cantor (חזן) or congregation (קהל), e.g. II:35v (חזן), 36v (קהל), 37v (חזן), 118 (חזן וקהל).
• Liturgical instructions for the recitation of certain passages, some for the cantor (e.g. I:42v, 52v, 55v, 89, 129-130, 149; II:5-5v, 9, 34v, 36v, 69, 74-75v, 167v).
• Alternative versions of the text following the eastern Ashkenazi rite rather than the western one (e.g. II:3 אין אומרים והחיות/ ואומרי' זה: והאופנים וחיות הקודש ברעש...).
• Some names of parashot (pericopes) and prayers written in the upper margins (e.g. I:14v, 37-40, 122v, 149).
Additions to prayers (e.g. I:14v, 38: II:1, 3, 18, 49v, 93-94, 128v, 131v).
Hand 1 in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink:
Vol. I:1-1v: zulat for Shabbat Hagadol אומרת אני מעשי למלך;
Two hands completed Hand 1's text: one wrote the last four lines of this piyyut in the lower margin and vocalised the text of Hand 1. The other wrote on fol. 52v: יש ספרי' כתוב כאן אומרת אני מעשי למלך referring to the zulat for Shabbat Hagadol (I:1-1v).
Vol. I:99v-100v: yozer for the last day of Passover אתה הארתה. On fol. 98v there is an explanation of this later addition, stating that “in this country” one should not recite the yozer ויושע אור written by the original scribe, but the yozer אתה הארתה which “you will find by turning the leaf (fol. 99v), and then continue with אי פתרוס" (fol. 102; see also fol. 88). According to Fraenkel reciting the yozer ויושע אור is the custom of only a few Ashkenazi communities, such as those in Worms or Cologne (Fraenkel 1993, p. 436) while the piyyut אתה הארת added later is the regular piyyut recited in most Ashkenazi communities (Fraenkel 1993, p. 423):
אין מנהג במדינה זו לאמור זה )ויושע אור) אלא אתה הארת עד ותקח מרים. הפוך דף אחר תמצא אז תתחיל איפסרוס אחר ותקח הפוך דף תמצא איפסרוס.
Hand 2 in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink:
Vol. I:100v: list of selihot according to the custom of Cologne and referred to in vol. II (in the Day of Atonement prayers): .זהו סדר קלוניא...מוסף... מנחה... זה הסליחו' תמצא ביוצר... וזה תמצא במוסף...
Vol. I:1v, lower right-hand corner:
ר"ך (?) לפרט קניתי זה המחזור נגד האלמנה גוטכין …/ חתמתי שמי עליו לעדות ולראי'(ה) נחמיה בר' יעקב הלוי/ וכב' יר' (?) שאזכ'(ה) להגו(ת) בו אני וזרע זרעי עד סוף כל הדורות/ ויבש (?) לוי שלי"ט/ נ'ב'י' לוי,
In 220? (=1460?) I bought this mahzor from the widow Gutchinb ... I, Nehemiah bar Yaakov HaLevi signed my name as witness (probably the same as the owner of Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek Cod. bibl. fol. 2, from Wiesberg (Jerusalem, IMHM F 2202).Vol. II:1, in the upper part of the page in semi-cursive scriptמרדכי בר בנימן שליט :, Mordechai bar Binyamin.
Vols. I and II, front pastedown: גרשון אופנה(יים)/אופנה(יימר)?, Gershon Oppenh(eim)/Oppenh(eimer)?
Vols. I and II, front pastedown: a short description of the contents in German, entitled cyclus precum, is written in plummet; and on the front and back pastedowns, written in the same hand, the library signature: Cod. Hebr. 4 (a 19th-century hand?).
Library signatures and stamps:
• On the front pastedown of vol. II, is written “23.a” in ink.
• The oval library stamp Bibliotheca/Regia/Monacensis (I:1, 181v; II:1, 197v).
• On the spine of each volume, in brown and black ink: מחזור חלק א – I 4; מחזור חלק ב – II 4;
and stickers with Cod. Hebr. 4; stickers also on the back pastedown of both volumes.
||Main Surveys & Excavations
Vol. II:84-89, the lower margins were cropped.
BL London, British Library
Bodl. Lib. Oxford, Bodleian Library
BSB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
CJA Jerusalem, Center for Jewish Art, The Hebrew Univeristy:
• Narkiss Archive
• Schubert Archive
• Sed-Rajna Archive
• CJA documentation
IMHM Jerusalem, Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts, at the National
Library of Israel
NLI (olim JNUL) Jerusalem, National Library of Israel
ÖNB Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
Beit-Arié 1981 M. Beit-Arié, Hebrew Codicolog: Tentative Typology of Technical Practices
Employed in Hebrew Dated Medieval Manuscripts, Jerusalem 1981.
Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985 M. Beit-Arié, ed. The Worms Mahzor: MS Jewish National and University
Library Heb. 4°781, Vaduz 1985.
Davidson 1924-1933 I. Davidson, Thesaurus of Medieval Hebrew Poetry, New York 1924–1933.
Fraenkel 1993 י. פרנקל, מחזור פסח לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1993 .
Fraenkel 2000 י. פרנקל, מחזור שבועות לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1993 .
Goldschmidt 1970 י. גולשמידט, מחזור לימים הנוראים לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1970 .
Goldschmidt-Fraenkel 1981 י. גולשמידט וי פרנקל, מחזור סוכות לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1993 .
Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek
in München, Munich 1895, No. 4.
||Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
||Michal Sternthal; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Ilona Steimann
||2008; 2009, 2011; 2009, 2010
||Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Michal Sternthal ;Yaffa Levy
||2009, 2013; 2009, 2013; 2010, 2013
||Michal Sternthal. Project head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin
||Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation