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Obj. ID: 2115
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Munich Ashkenazi Mahzor, Franconia?, late 13th century

© Bayerische Staatsbibliothek , Photographer: Unknown, 2008

15 image(s)

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Name/Title
Munich Ashkenazi Mahzor for the Whole Year | Unknown
Object Detail
Date
Late 13th century
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod. hebr. 4/I-II (Steinschneider 1895, No. 4)
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Parchment, vol. I: I + 181 + I leaves.
Vol. II: I + 197 + I leaves (fol. 29 is numbered 30 and followed by subsequent numbers).
Both sides of the parchment are similarly treated; hair sometimes visible.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Full page: Vol. I: (361-365) x (292-295) mm.; vol. II: (353-354) x (291-292) mm.
Text space: Vol. I: (291-298) x (185-188) mm.; vol. II: 289 x (185-189) mm.

Columns
The text is written mostly in one column; two columns (width of one: 50-60 mm.; 85-93 mm.) for the Scrolls (I:2-13v) and some piyyutim (e.g. I:124-125, 165-166v, II:89).

Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Vol. II:84-89, the lower margins were cropped.
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Mahzor in two volumes for the whole year with vocalisation. The Mahzor is mostly according to the western Ashkenazi rite but also includes a few sections following the eastern rite. The first volume includes the three Scrolls (Song of Songs, Ruth and Ecclesiastes) and Prayers for Special Sabbaths, Passover and Shavuot; the second volume includes the rest of the prayers for the New Year, Day of Atonement, Sukkot and Hanukkah. Vol. I: Fol. 1-1v: Zulat for Shabbat Hagadol אומרת אני מעשי למלך by a later Hand l (see Scribes). Fols. 2-14: Three Scrolls accentuated and vocalised, with massorah magna and parva: Song of Songs (fols. 2-5); Ruth (fols. 5-7v); Ecclesiastes (fols. 7v-14). Fols. 14v-58: Special Sabbaths with piyyutim and some statutory prayers: • Shabbat Shekalim (fols. 14v-22v): morning service (fols. 14v-20v): yozer (fol. 14v), qerovah (fol. 15v); musaf (fols. 20v-22v). • Shabbat Zakhor (fols. 23-30v): morning service (fols. 23-24): yozer (fol. 23), qerovah (fol. 24); musaf (fols. 28v-30v). • Purim (fols. 31-37): amidah and piyyutim for Purim. • Shabbat Parah (fols. 37-44v): morning service (fols. 37-42v): yozer (fol. 37), qerovah (fol. 38); musaf (fols. 42v-44v). • Shabbat Hahodesh (fols. 45-51v): morning service (fols. 45- 49v): yozer (fol. 45), qerovah (fol. 46); musaf (fols. 49v-51v). • Shabbat Hagadol (fols. 52-58): morning service (fols. 52-55v): yozer (fol. 52), qerovah (fol. 53v); musaf (fols. 55v-58). Fols. 58-122: Passover with prayers and piyyutim: • First day: evening service (fols. 58-60); morning service (fols. 60-65): yozer (fol. 60); musaf (fols. 65v-72v). • Second day: evening service (fols. 73-75v); morning service (fols. 75v-83): yozer (fol. 75v), amidah (fol. 79v). • Shabbat Hol Hamoed: morning service (fols. 83-87v): yozer (fol. 83). • Seventh-day: morning service (fols. 87v-98v): yozer (fol. 87v), qerovah (fol. 89). • Eighth day: morning service (fols. 98v-112): yozer (fol. 98v), another yozer by the later Hand 1 (fols. 99v-100), qerovah (fol. 103), reshut before reading the Targum of the Torah opening with אלו פומי נומי (fol. 112); and biblical readings in Aramaic (from fols. 112v-118). • Seventh and Eighth days: evening service (fols. 118v-122). Fols. 122v-181: Shavuot: • First day: evening service (fols. 122v-123v); morning service (fols. 124-136v): yozer (fol. 124), qerovah (fol. 126v); musaf (fols. 136v-143v). • Second day of Shavuot: evening service )fols. 143v-146v), another evening service (fols. 146v-148v); morning service (fols. 149-162v): yozer (fol. 149), qerovah (fol. 151v); musaf (fols. 162v-164v); akdamut millin (fols. 164v-166v); and other Aramaic piyyutim recited before each of the Ten Commandments (fols. 166v-178). • Three Pilgrim Festivals: morning service (fols. 178-178v): qerovah (fol. 178); musaf (fols. 179-180); and an addition to the amidah for evening service when the Festival falls at the end of the Sabbath (fols. 180-181). Vol. II: Fols. 1v-60v: New Year: • First Day: morning service (fols. 1v-11): yozer (fol. 1v), qerovah (fol. 3), avinu malkenu (fol. 10); musaf )fols. 11-30). • Second Day: morning service (fols. 30-45): yozer (fol. 30), qerovah (fol. 32), avinu malkenu (fol. 44v); musaf (fols. 45-60v). Fols. 61-167v: Day of Atonement: Kol nidrei (fol. 61); evening service (fols. 61-73v): avinu malkenu (fol. 73); morning service (fols. 73v-120v): yozer (fol. 74), qerovah (fol. 75), selihot (fols. 104v-113v), continues with the amidah (fols. 113v), avinu malkenu (fol. 120); musaf (fols. 121-152): selihot (fols. 140-148); afternoon service (fols. 152-161v): avinu malkenu (fol. 160v), neilah (fols. 161v-167v). Fols. 168-178v: Sukkot: • First Day: morning service (fols. 168-172): yozer (fol. 168), qerovah (fol. 169); musaf (fols. 172-172v). • Second Day: morning service (fols. 172v-178v): yozer (fol. 172v), qerovah (fol. 174). (No Hoshanot). Fols. 178v-187v: Shemini Azeret: morning service (fols. 178v-179v): yozer (fol. 178v); musaf (fols. 179v- 187v): prayer for rain (fol. 179v). Fols. 187v-193: Simhat Torah: morning service (fols. 187v-193): yozer (fol. 178v), hakkafot (fol. 190), reshut for hatan Torah (fol. 190v), and reshut for hatan Bereshit (fol. 191). Fols. 193v-197v: Shabbat Hanukkah: morning service (fols. 193v-197v): yozer (fol. 193v).
Codicology

Material

Parchment, vol. I: I + 181 + I leaves.

Vol. II: I + 197 + I leaves (fol. 29 is numbered 30 and followed by subsequent numbers).

Both sides of the parchment are similarly treated; hair sometimes visible.

Measurements

Full page:   Vol. I: (361-365) x (292-295) mm.; vol. II: (353-354) x (291-292) mm.

Text space: Vol. I: (291-298) x (185-188) mm.; vol. II: 289 x (185-189) mm.

Scribes

The main text is written by two scribes. Each scribe seems to have vocalised the text he copied.

Scribe A: I:2-14, 22-98v, 101-181v, including the massorah for Song of Songs, Ruth and Ecclesiastes (I:2-14), and a marginal annotation to scribe B’s text (I:15).

Scribe B: I:14v-21v (quire IV).

Scribe B: II:1-116v (quires of 8 leaves).

Scribe A: II:117-197v (quires of 10 leaves).

Hand 1: I:1-1v, 99v-100v, added to the manuscript after it was completed (I:99 is blank).

Two other hands completed the text of Hand 1 (I:1-1v).

Hand 2: I:100v: list of selihot.

Script

The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink.

The small square script of the massorah for the three Scrolls (I:2-14) and of some marginal notes in both volumes (e.g. II:72v, 134) was apparently written by each of the scribes in turn.

 

 

Columns

The text is written mostly in one column; two columns (width of one: 50-60 mm.; 85-93 mm.) for the Scrolls (I:2-13v) and some piyyutim (e.g. I:124-125, 165-166v, II:89).

Number of lines

Vol. I: Scribes A and B: 24 lines.

Added fol. 1: 22 lines; fols. 99v-100: 24 lines.

Vol. II: Scribes A and B: 24 lines.

The massorah magna for the three Scrolls (I:2-14): 2 lines in the upper margin and 3 in the lower, mostly cropped.

Ruling

Vols. I and II: by stylus on hair side: 25 horizontal lines mostly ruled across the whole page (though 2 top and 2 bottom lines are usual (e.g. II:90-103), and 1+1 or 1+2+1 vertical lines for two columns. Ruling for massorah (I:2-14): 3 lines in the upper and 4 lines in the lower margins mostly cropped.

In vol. II there is additional vertical ruling in plummet within the text space for its special layout (e.g. II:6).

Pricking

Not noticeable, i.e. the inner margins were not pricked.

Quires

Vol. I: 20 quires, mostly of 10 leaves each, except for: I1 (additional single leaf), II8,III4, IV8, XII10+2 (fols. 99, 100 are single leaves pasted on to fols. 98, 101), XX8.

List of quires: I1 (1); II8 (2-9); III4 (10-13); IV8 (14-21); V10 (22-31); VI10 (32-41); VII10 (42-51); VIII10 (52-61); IX10 (62-71); X10 (72-81); XI10 (82-91); XII10+2 (92-103: fols. 99, 100 are single leaves pasted on to fols. 98, 101); XIII10 (104-113); XIV10 (114-123); XV10 (124-133); XVI10 (134-143); XVII10 (144-153); XVIII10 (154-163); XIX10 (164-173); XX8 (174-181).

Vol. II: 22 quires. Quires I-XIV (fols. 1v-116v), which were written by Scribe B, are of 8 leaves each except for VII12-1 (quireVIII opens the Day of Atonement prayers). Quires XV-XXI (fols. 117-197), which were written by Scribe A, are of 10 leaves each except for XXII10+1 (single last leaf).

Quires structure: I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-33: fol. 29 is numbered 30); V8 (34-41); VI8 (42-49); VII12-1 (50-60: the first leaf is single one with a stub); VIII8 (61-68); IX8 (69-76); X8 (77-84); XI8 (85-92); XII8 (93-100); XIII8 (101-108); XIV8 (109-116); XV10 (117-126); XVI10 (127-136); XVII10 (137-146); XVIII10 (147-156); XIX10 (157-166); XX10 (167-176); XXI10 (177-186); XXII10+1 (187-197: single last leaf).

Catchwords

Catchwords: none, perhaps cropped.

Hebrew numeration

None

 

Blank leaves

I:99; II:1 was originally blank.

 

Scribes
The main text is written by two scribes. Each scribe seems to have vocalised the text he copied. Scribe A: I:2-14, 22-98v, 101-181v, including the massorah for Song of Songs, Ruth and Ecclesiastes (I:2-14), and a marginal annotation to scribe B’s text (I:15). Scribe B: I:14v-21v (quire IV). Scribe B: II:1-116v (quires of 8 leaves). Scribe A: II:117-197v (quires of 10 leaves). Hand 1: I:1-1v, 99v-100v, added to the manuscript after it was completed (I:99 is blank). Two other hands completed the text of Hand 1 (I:1-1v). Hand 2: I:100v: list of selihot.
Script
The text is written in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. The small square script of the massorah for the three Scrolls (I:2-14) and of some marginal notes in both volumes (e.g. II:72v, 134) was apparently written by each of the scribes in turn.
Number of Lines
Vol. I: Scribes A and B: 24 lines. Added fol. 1: 22 lines; fols. 99v-100: 24 lines. Vol. II: Scribes A and B: 24 lines. The massorah magna for the three Scrolls (I:2-14): 2 lines in the upper margin and 3 in the lower, mostly cropped. The text is written mostly in one column; two columns (width of one: 50-60 mm.; 85-93 mm.) for the Scrolls (I:2-13v) and some piyyutim (e.g. I:124-125, 165-166v, II:89).
Ruling
Vols. I and II: by stylus on hair side: 25 horizontal lines mostly ruled across the whole page (though 2 top and 2 bottom lines are usual (e.g. II:90-103), and 1+1 or 1+2+1 vertical lines for two columns. Ruling for massorah (I:2-14): 3 lines in the upper and 4 lines in the lower margins mostly cropped. In vol. II there is additional vertical ruling in plummet within the text space for its special layout (e.g. II:6).
Pricking
Not noticeable, i.e. the inner margins were not pricked.
Quires
Vol. I: 20 quires, mostly of 10 leaves each, except for: I1 (additional single leaf), II8, III4, IV8, XII10+2 (fols. 99, 100 are single leaves pasted on to fols. 98, 101), XX8. List of quires: I1 (1); II8 (2-9); III4 (10-13); IV8 (14-21); V10 (22-31); VI10 (32-41); VII10 (42-51); VIII10 (52-61); IX10 (62-71); X10 (72-81); XI10 (82-91); XII10+2 (92-103: fols. 99, 100 are single leaves pasted on to fols. 98, 101); XIII10 (104-113); XIV10 (114-123); XV10 (124-133); XVI10 (134-143); XVII10 (144-153); XVIII10 (154-163); XIX10 (164-173); XX8 (174-181). Vol. II: 22 quires. Quires I-XIV (fols. 1v-116v), which were written by Scribe B, are of 8 leaves each except for VII12-1 (quire VIII opens the Day of Atonement prayers). Quires XV-XXI (fols. 117-197), which were written by Scribe A, are of 10 leaves each except for XXII10+1 (single last leaf). Quires structure: I8 (1-8); II8 (9-16); III8 (17-24); IV8 (25-33: fol. 29 is numbered 30); V8 (34-41); VI8 (42-49); VII12-1 (50-60: the first leaf is single one with a stub); VIII8 (61-68); IX8 (69-76); X8 (77-84); XI8 (85-92); XII8 (93-100); XIII8 (101-108); XIV8 (109-116); XV10 (117-126); XVI10 (127-136); XVII10 (137-146); XVIII10 (147-156); XIX10 (157-166); XX10 (167-176); XXI10 (177-186); XXII10+1 (187-197: single last leaf).
Catchwords
Catchwords: none, perhaps cropped.
Hebrew Numeration
None.
Blank Leaves
I:99; II:1 was originally blank
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
None
Scribal Notes
The word Baruch (meaning: blessed) is marked by a foliate motif (I:6, Scribe A) and by dots (II:98, Scribe B), perhaps as a blessing formula. Vol. II:28v, inscribed in semi-cursive script above the priestly blessings in the musaf prayer for New Year: where there is no cohen [priest] recite [the following text] with tears, where there is no cohen (priest) recite (the following text) with tears, במקום שאין שם כהן אמר אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו בדמע.
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding
Both volumes have similar 16th-century bindings of off-white pigskin on wooden boards (380 x 298 mm.). Front and back covers are similar with blind-tooled floral scrolls and chains decorating a rectangular frame which encloses a double framed square with a central rhomboid and a flower. On the back covers are the metal remnants of two clasps and on the front covers are corresponding traces. The spine has four double cords with head and tail bands. Watermarks of front and back flyleaves: a double pole with a round top and flag bearing the letters WA (?) or WL (?).
Decoration Program

The manuscript was written and decorated by Scribes A and B. Each scribe wrote his own built-up letters in brown and red ink at the beginnings of main sections (6-12 lines high) and sub-sections (2-5 lines high).

However, their elaborate decoration and the red wriggle work surrounding them, also in the sections of Scribe A, were done by Scribe B. Scribe B's built-up display letters of are more elegantly undulating and have more serifs than the straight square ones by Scribe A (cf. II:34v-35, 80-86 by Scribe B; and I:179v-181 by Scribe A). However, one should note that Scribe A can emulate the script of Scribe B when the hands change (cf. II:116v by Scribe B with II:117 by A).

I. Text illustrations by Scribe B: a red lion passant illustrating the word King (מלך II:38v) and a crowned blue rampant one illustrating the text: I shall crown (אכתיר II:168). II.

Decorated initial words:

1. Elaborate initial words: The built-up letters are by Scribe A; however, the decoration is by Scribe B. One initial word is decorated with dragons, animals and a hunting scene (אום, I:37); a second is surrounded by intertwined dragons, a knight confronting a lion, a dog and a griffin (מלך II:30; cf. II:31v, 168); and a third one is decorated with two facing dragons within the letter I:23(זכור). 2

  1. Initial words surrounded by wriggle work only:
  • By Scribe A: I:75v (אפיק) surrounded by brown ink wriggle work similar to I:31 (ויאהב); I:45 (אות), I:60 (אור). It should be noted that the latter three initial words were executed on very thin parchment, covering up the same words which were originally written by Scribe A and decorated with red wriggle work by Scribe B.
  • By Scribe A, with added red wriggle work by Scribe B: I:23 (זכור), I:124 (אדון); II:152v (איתן); II:161v (אב); II:178v (אום).
  • By Scribe B: I:14v (אל) surrounded by red wriggle work.
  1. Smaller built-up initial words by both scribes in the sections they wrote. The words are in

alternating red and dark brown ink, all decorated by Scribe B with wriggle work and foliage

extensions, some with dragons', knights' and animal heads (e.g. I:14v, 15, 105, 132v; II:43,

43v, 44, 50-51, 53-54, 56v-57, 96).

III.       Other decorative elements:

  1. By Scribe B: a small red lion in the margins enclosing the word "Our Lord" (אלהינו; II:43v) and another in brown ink above the word "To the holy" (לקדוש; II:129).
  2. By Scribe B: vertical scrolls within the text space (II:31v, 38).
  3. By Scribe A: vocalization, and accent bars above syllables decorated with dragons' heads (I:98v, 124, 163; II:61, 121, 152v).
  4. Each scribe emphasizes important words, biblical verses and some letters in red (e.g.  I:132-135v; II:39, 44v-47, 52-53, 58-59).

 

 

Summary and Remarks

This Munich Mahzor is written in a large format in two volumes and includes the service for the Special Sabbaths and festivals for the whole year (except for the 9th Av and hoshanot). It also contains three of the Five Scrolls for readings on the festival days of Passover (Song of Songs), Shavuot (Ruth) and Sukkot (Ecclesiastes). The other two scrolls for Purim (Esther) and 9th Av (Lamentations) are not included here. The Mahzor was probably intended for a cantor in the synagogue and therefore includes mainly piyyutim and some abbreviated versions of the statutory prayers.

The prayers mainly follow the western Ashkenazi rite, for example in the version of avinu malkenu (II:10-11; 44v-45; 73-73v; 120-120v; 160v-161v; Goldschmidt 1970, I, pp. 131-2), and the inclusion of the Aramaic piyyut akdamut millin for Shavuot (Fraenkel 2000, p. 69).

On the other hand, some texts follow the eastern Ashkenaz rite, such as והחיות ישוררו (II:3, 32, 168v, 190) recited at New Year, Day of Atonement, Sukkot and Shemini Azeret, rather than the western Ashkenazi version of והאופנים וחיות הקודש (Goldschmidt 1970, I, p. 53; Goldschmidt-Fraenkel 1981, p. 367). This western version was added in the margin by a later hand on II:3 in semi-cursive script.

Texts usually appearing in medieval Ashkenazi mahzorim of this period are not included here: the ofan כבודו יתרומם ויתנשא for the Special Sabbaths, and שיר הכבוד ושיר הייחוד commonly recited in the Ashkenazi communities from the 13th century at the end of the evening prayer (Goldschmidt 1970, II, p. כט). The text of our two-volume Mahzor was divided equally between Scribes A (16 quires) and B (15 quires). The latter, however, predominated as illuminator, since he decorated his own text (e.g. II:30, 43, 44) as well as that copied by Scribe A (e.g. I:23, 52, 124; II:152v, 161v, 178). The decoration in our Mahzor is executed in brown, red and blue ink.

The style, motifs and technique of the decoration by both scribes are close to the scribal art of the Ashkenazi manuscripts produced from the last quarter of the 13th century to the first half of the 14th century in Franconia and the neighboring regions of south Germany. Some codicological features in our Mahzor, such as the ruling by stylus and barely unnoticeable pricking of the inner margins are typical of manuscripts produced before 1300 (Beit-Arié 1981, p. 84), suggesting this date for our Mahzor.

The dominant elements of the decoration program in our Mahzor are the large and small built-up initial words surrounded by wriggle work, a common feature in Ashkenazi manuscripts of this period. However, the inclusion of specific motifs into the wriggle work by Scribe B, such as human and animal heads, dragons and foliage extensions (e.g. figs. 1, 3, 5), is less widespread and appears in only a few Ashkenazi manuscripts, such as in the Worms Mahzor (fig. 2) and another Mahzor from Franconia of the first quarter of 14th century (fig. 4), where the wriggle work ends in grotesque heads; or in the Abraham's Ashkenazi Mahzor of the 13th-14th century, probably also from Franconia, in which grotesques are integrated into acanthus leaves (fig. 6). A special feature in our Mahzor (I:23 - fig. 7; II:32) and in the Worms Mahzor are the pen-drawn animals enclosed within the letters (fig. 8).  

   

Fig. 1: Inhabited initial word

Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, II:53v

 

 

Fig. 2: Inhabited initial word

Worms Mahzor, Würzburg 1272

Jerusalm, NLI Heb. 40781/1, fol. 11

(Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985)

(Cf. Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 5,  I:84, fig. 3)

   

Fig. 3: Inhabited initial word

Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, II:43

(Cf. Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 5, I:184, fig. 4)

Fig. 4: Inhabited initial word

Dragon’s Head Mahzor

Franconia (?), first quarter of the 14th century

London, BL Or. 42, fol. 10v

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

   

Fig. 5: Inhabited initial word

Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, II:44

 

Fig. 6: Inhabited initial word

Abraham's Ashkenazi Mahzor

Franconia (?), 13th-14th century

Modena, Estense Alpha. W. 8.5 (Or. 81), fol. 61v

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

   

Fig. 7: Inhabited initial word

Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, I:23

 

Fig. 8: Inhabited initial word

Worms Mahzor, Würzburg 1272

Jerusalem, NLI Heb. 40781, 1:66

(Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985)

 

Spared-ground inhabited letters are another type of decoration in our Mahzor (fig. 9).This type, by Scribe B, appears frequently in Ashkenazi manuscripts of the period, for example the David Siddur of 1308 from Franconia (fig. 10).

 

Fig. 9: Inhabited initial word

Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, I:37

(Cf. Munich, BSB Cod. hebr 5 I:184, fig. 7)

 

 

Fig. 10: Inhabited initial word

David Siddur

Franconia1308

London, BL Add. 26970, fol. 50

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

(Cf. Munich, BSB Cod. hebr 5,  I:184, fig. 5)

Indeed, the richest initial word decoration in our Mahzor is devoted to the yozer, which begins with the word "King" (מלך (אמון מאמרך for the second day of New Year (fig. 11). It is surrounded by foliage scrolls inhabited by full-figure creatures. A similar initial word adorns a yozer for the first day of New Year in a contemporary Days of Awe Mahzor, which begins with the word "King" (מלך (אזור גבורה (fig. 12).  

 

 

Fig. 12:London Days of Awe Mahzor

Franconia, first quarter of the 14th century

London, BL Add. 16916, fol. 1

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

Fig. 11: Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, II:30

 

 

Apart from a pair of dragons, which dominate in both initials, our foliate scrolls include several favourite motifs of this period such as a lion, dog, griffin and a knight (fig. 11). Of these motifs, the red lion passant is the only animal illustrating the initial word "King" (מלך). Similarly, another red lion in our manuscript is placed below such an initial word (II:38v - fig. 13) and resembles the red lion illustrating the word "King" in the contemporary Ashkenazi Mahzor (fig. 14).

 

Of these motifs, the red lion passant is the only animal illustrating the initial word "King" (מלך). Similarly, another red lion in our manuscript is placed below such an initial word (II:38v - fig. 13) and resembles the red lion illustrating the word "King" in the contemporary Ashkenazi Mahzor (fig. 14).

 

   

Fig. 13: Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, II:38v

 

Fig. 14: Ashkenazi Mahzor

South Germany, late 13th-early 14th century

Munich, BSB Cod. hebr. 86, fol. 57

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

Motifs unrelated to the text, which were popular in scribal art of the period, are chivalrous and courtly scenes (figs. 5 and 11), a bird of prey and a dog biting a stag (fig. 9). In the Michael Mahzor of 1258 from Regensburg for example, several initial word panels are decorated with knights fighting (e.g. Mich. 617, fols. 4v, 11 - fig. 15).

 

   

Fig. 15: Michael Mahzor

Regensburg 1258

Oxford, Bodl. Lib. Mich. 617, fol. 11

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

Fig. 11: Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, II:30

 

 
The vocalization and accentuation bars with dragon heads in our manuscript were used by Scribe A as decorative elements (figs. 16, 18). These also appear in an Ashkenazi Mahzor from the early 14th century, where the bars are composed of dragons, animals, flowers or a hunting scene (figs. 17, 19).
 
   

Fig. 16:Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, I:124

 

Fig. 17:ViennaHigh Holiday and Sukkot Mahzor

Early 14th century, 

South Germany 

Vienna, ÖNB Cod. hebr. 174, fol. fol. 176v

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)


 
   

Fig. 18:Munich, BSB Cod. Hebr. 4, I:163

 

Fig. 19:Vienna High Holiday and Sukkot Mahzor

Early 14th century,South Germany

Vienna, ÖNB Cod. hebr. 174, fol. fol. 176v

(Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)

 

To sum up, the decoration of our Mahzor points to Franconia's its place of production at the turn of the 13th century. Indeed, the text version of the Mahzor, which is basically western Ashkenazi prayers with later additions, suggests that the cantor served a community located in south-western Germany(Fraenkel 1993).

See below, "Additional Remarks"
Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Decoration by later hands: Vol. II:73v, a later hand crudely drew part of a gate for Gates of Mercy. Vol. II:164, another later hand drew grotesque faces on ascenders. Annotations in the margins by later hands: • Inscribed next to many sections: cantor (חזן) or congregation (קהל), e.g. II:35v (חזן), 36v (קהל), 37v (חזן), 118 (חזן וקהל). • Liturgical instructions for the recitation of certain passages, some for the cantor (e.g. I:42v, 52v, 55v, 89, 129-130, 149; II:5-5v, 9, 34v, 36v, 69, 74-75v, 167v). • Alternative versions of the text following the eastern Ashkenazi rite rather than the western one (e.g. II:3 אין אומרים והחיות/ ואומרי' זה: והאופנים וחיות הקודש ברעש...). • Some names of parashot (pericopes) and prayers written in the upper margins (e.g. I:14v, 37-40, 122v, 149). Additions to prayers (e.g. I:14v, 38: II:1, 3, 18, 49v, 93-94, 128v, 131v). Hand 1 in square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink: Vol. I:1-1v: zulat for Shabbat Hagadol אומרת אני מעשי למלך; Two hands completed Hand 1's text: one wrote the last four lines of this piyyut in the lower margin and vocalised the text of Hand 1. The other wrote on fol. 52v: יש ספרי' כתוב כאן אומרת אני מעשי למלך referring to the zulat for Shabbat Hagadol (I:1-1v). Vol. I:99v-100v: yozer for the last day of Passover אתה הארתה. On fol. 98v there is an explanation of this later addition, stating that “in this country” one should not recite the yozer ויושע אור written by the original scribe, but the yozer אתה הארתה which “you will find by turning the leaf (fol. 99v), and then continue with אי פתרוס" (fol. 102; see also fol. 88). According to Fraenkel reciting the yozer ויושע אור is the custom of only a few Ashkenazi communities, such as those in Worms or Cologne (Fraenkel 1993, p. 436) while the piyyut אתה הארת added later is the regular piyyut recited in most Ashkenazi communities (Fraenkel 1993, p. 423): אין מנהג במדינה זו לאמור זה )ויושע אור) אלא אתה הארת עד ותקח מרים. הפוך דף אחר תמצא אז תתחיל איפסרוס אחר ותקח הפוך דף תמצא איפסרוס. Hand 2 in semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink: Vol. I:100v: list of selihot according to the custom of Cologne and referred to in vol. II (in the Day of Atonement prayers): .זהו סדר קלוניא...מוסף... מנחה... זה הסליחו' תמצא ביוצר... וזה תמצא במוסף... Owners' inscriptions: Vol. I:1v, lower right-hand corner: ר"ך (?) לפרט קניתי זה המחזור נגד האלמנה גוטכין …/ חתמתי שמי עליו לעדות ולראי'(ה) נחמיה בר' יעקב הלוי/ וכב' יר' (?) שאזכ'(ה) להגו(ת) בו אני וזרע זרעי עד סוף כל הדורות/ ויבש (?) לוי שלי"ט/ נ'ב'י' לוי, In [5]220? (=1460?) I bought this mahzor from the widow Gutchinb ... I, Nehemiah bar Yaakov HaLevi signed my name as witness (probably the same as the owner of Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek Cod. bibl. fol. 2, from Wiesberg (Jerusalem, IMHM F 2202).Vol. II:1, in the upper part of the page in semi-cursive scriptמרדכי בר בנימן שליט :, Mordechai bar Binyamin. Vols. I and II, front pastedown: גרשון אופנה(יים)/אופנה(יימר)?, Gershon Oppenh(eim)/Oppenh(eimer)? Vols. I and II, front pastedown: a short description of the contents in German, entitled cyclus precum, is written in plummet; and on the front and back pastedowns, written in the same hand, the library signature: Cod. Hebr. 4 (a 19th-century hand?). Library signatures and stamps: • On the front pastedown of vol. II, is written “23.a” in ink. • The oval library stamp Bibliotheca/Regia/Monacensis (I:1, 181v; II:1, 197v). • On the spine of each volume, in brown and black ink: מחזור חלק א – I 4; מחזור חלק ב – II 4; and stickers with Cod. Hebr. 4; stickers also on the back pastedown of both volumes.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography

Abbreviations BL London, British Library

Bodl. Lib. Oxford, Bodleian Library

BSB Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek CJA Jerusalem, Center for Jewish Art, The Hebrew University:

• Narkiss Archive

• Schubert Archive

• Sed-Rajna Archive

• CJA documentation

IMHM Jerusalem, Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts, at the National Library of Israel

NLI (olim JNUL) Jerusalem, National Library of Israel

ÖNB Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

Bibliography Beit-Arié 1981 M. Beit-Arié, Hebrew Codicolog: Tentative Typology of Technical Practices Employed in Hebrew Dated Medieval Manuscripts, Jerusalem 1981.

Beit-Arié, facsimile 1985 M. Beit-Arié, ed. The Worms Mahzor: MS Jewish National and University Library Heb. 4°781, Vaduz 1985.

Davidson 1924-1933 I. Davidson, Thesaurus of Medieval Hebrew Poetry, New York 1924–1933.

Fraenkel 1993 י. פרנקל, מחזור פסח לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1993

 Fraenkel 2000 י. פרנקל, מחזור שבועות לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1993 . Goldschmidt 1970 י. גולשמידט, מחזור לימים הנוראים לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1970 . Goldschmidt-Fraenkel 1981 י. גולשמידט וי פרנקל, מחזור סוכות לפי מנהגי בני אשכנז לכל ענפיהם, ירושלים 1993

 Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895, No. 4.

Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Michal Sternthal; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Ilona Steimann | 2008; 2009, 2011; 2009, 2010
Author of description
Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Michal Sternthal ;Yaffa Levy | 2009, 2013; 2009, 2013; 2010, 2013
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconstruction
|
Section Head
Michal Sternthal. Project head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin |
Language Editor
Christine Evans | 2013
Donor
Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation |
Negative/Photo. No.