Home
    Under Reconstruction!
Object

Object

Object Alone
Show sub-set tree:
  (XI) Obj. ID: 19117 Volterra Annual Wall Calendar,, Reggio Emilia, 1536-1537. // Meshulam of Volterra son of Isaac of Reggio edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts


2 Name/Title Volterra Annual Wall Calendar | Unknown
3a Object Annual Calendar
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Meshulam of Volterra son of Isaac of Reggio (Scribe)
5 Date 1536-1537
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Italy | Emilia Romagna | Reggio Emilia
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 154 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 154)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No. digital
19 Remarks
20 Description

More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
Hebrew manuscript wall calendar for the year רצ"ז 5297 (1536-1537), entitledז'ש'ג' פשוטה . This abbreviation indicates the type of year (out of the 14 possible types), which is a Regular (פשוטה, Peshuta) as well as a Perfect Year (ש, Shelema) of 355 days. In this type of year the first day of New Year falls on the Sabbath (ז) and Passover on a Tuesday (ג). The calendar includes the non-Jewish counterparts, and consists of 13 horizontal sections, 12 for the months, staring with the month of Tishrei and its first day, the Jewish New Year, Rosh ha-Shanah, and one for the next New Year, and 6 vertical columns. The Jewish dates appear on the right; Christian dates are shown on the left.
The first and second columns on the right indicate the date of the new moons (moladot). The first column calculates the hour and its divisions ((דקים, either of the day or night of the new moons. The second column commencing with 'the real one' (והאמיתי), specifies the astronomical dates and zodiac signs, beginning with Libra for Tishrei. The third and wider column includes the name of the new Jewish month, the name of each week's Torah portions (according to the Italian rite), the holidays or fast days and the main ritual events in the Jewish year which occur during that month. The fourth column commencing with 'contrary to' (וניגודו) calculates the dates of the new moons in the Christian calendar in correlation with the Hebrew dates. The fifth column marking the new tekufot according to the 2nd-century Babylonian school of Mar Shmuel (ותקופתו כמר שמואל), and notes the proper day on which Jews begin to recite the prayer for rain (שאלת מטר). The final column on the left contains the Hebrew date of the beginning of the Christian months and the movable Easter feast in this year. The names of the Christian months are in Italian in Hebrew characters: Sitimri, Otobri (September, October), etc.
24 Codicology
24a Scribes Meshulam of Volterra son of Isaac of Reggio יצחק מארייו)).
24b Script Written in cursive Italian script in black ink, except for various titles in built-up square script.
24c Number of Lines 6 columns of varying widths. The 12 monthly sections are written in 4-5 lines; specifications on the year 1537 at the top and the 13th section at the bottom are in 6-7 lines.
24d Ruling Ruling in pencil: usually for the first horizontal line of each of the section; and 1+ 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 vertical lines.
24e Pricking Pricking is noticeable in the left, upper and lower margins in accordance with the ruled lines.
24f Quires None.
24g Catchwords None.
24h Hebrew Numeration None.
24i Blank Leaves The back of the sheet is blank.

25 Material/Technique
One single paper sheet.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
Full sheet 440 x 290 mm.
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
At the bottom of the page is the scribe's colophon: הצעיר משולם מוולטירה בכמ'ר' יצחק מארייו ז'צ'ל' (The young Meshulam of Volterra, son of Isaac of Reggio (יצחק מארייו), the righteous of blessed memory). The name of his father's town ארייו is identified by Steinschneider (Ibid.) as Arezzo and by Beit-Arié (2013:132) as
Reggio.
The date at the top of the sheet, the year 5297 (שנת רצ"ז) from the creation of the world (1536-1537), is followed by chronological dates from the creation to the destruction of the Temple.
31 Scribal Notes
None.
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding

The calendar is folded in 40 and kept within a sheet of folded blue paper (235 x185 mm).

 

36 Decoration Program

The scribal decoration at the top of the calendar consists of blessings and biblical quotations in dark brown built-up letters within red and blue frames. The initials and Christian months are marked in blue and red.

  1. Two text illustrations.
  2. Decorated initial word (שנת, The Year).
  3. Decorated frames.
36 Summary and Remarks

The wall calendar for the year 1536-1537 was written by the scribe Meshulam of Volterra son of Isaac of Reggio (משולם בן יצחק מארייו). It was produced inItalyand possibly meant to be hung in a synagogue. The calendar includes the relevant calendrical information for the Jewish observance and the correlative dates in the Christian calendar. The moon and a star on the right of the calendar and the sun with a face on the left and their inscriptions symbolise the solar and lunar cycles which are prominent in the Jewish calendar, since the months are lunar and the year is solar.

The necessity for both Hebrew and Christian calendars mirrors the close contact of the Jewish community with its surrounding culture and meets the immediate economic needs in matters of commerce and trade.

Calendrical material was usually included in prayer books such as mahzorim (prayer books for festivals), and sifrei minhagim (Books of Customs) and other compendia. In the early modern period this information was concentrated separately in Sifrei Evronot (Books of Intercalations); this text continued to be cultivated in manuscript while simultaneously emerging in print (Straus 2006, Introduction; Carlebach 2011:49).

In contrast to a relatively large number of print and manuscript versions of Evronot books, single-year calendars were fewer and printed mainly to be hung on synagogues' walls or posted in public spaces (Carlebach 2011:32).

Carlebach, however, points out that while printed calendars promoted uniformity in forms and texts, many errors plagued the texts during the printed process. Consequently, paying for a scribal copy may have been better alternative long into the age when print versions had become available (Ibid.:51-54, 59). In the case of our scribe Meshulam of Volterra, although it is hard to know the reason for copying by hand, the basic structure of his calendar follows certain conventions in form and material that have been formulated for printed wall calendars throughout the early modern period in Europe (Carlebach 2011:66-67, and

cf. figs. 1 and 2). However, whereas relatively many printed Hebrew calendars have survived (see Ibid.), manuscript calendars are rarely found. Our calendar survived only because it was kept within a book (Cod.hebr. 425; see History).

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
Annotations by Steinschneider in pencil:
In the upper margin, the year 1535-1536 (should be 1536-1537, see Colophon).
Next to the date of the calendar, numerical values for the years 5296 (should be 5297 for (שנת חמשת אלפים ורצ"ז and 1466 (for אלף תס"ו, underlined in pencil).
The Calendar is kept within a sheet of folded blue paper. In the upper left-hand corner in pencil and on sticker with the library shelf-mark: Cod.Hebr. 154.
In the centre is a German inscription: Wandkalender für das Jahr 5296 (1535) (Wall Calendar for the year 5296 (1535)), probably written by Steinschneider.
On the verso of the calendar is the former library shelf-mark in pencil: Zu Cod. hebr. 425. The number 425 has been crossed off and replaced by the present one 154.
Below is another inscription in pencil: Hebraeisch (?) als besond.(ere) N.(ummer) aufzustellen.
The Calendar reached the BSB in 1909 from Neuburg in the Pfalz. It was kept as a separate sheet in
Cod.hebr. 425, a miscellany including a Book of the Customs (ספר המידות), which belonged to the library of the elector Ottheinrich von der Pfalz (Róth 1965, Cat. 330).
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
Was folded in four; some stains and damaged edges, and a hole in the centre.
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
Beit-Arié 2012 M. Beit-Arié, Hebrew Codicology, Historical and Comparative Typology of Hebrew
Medieval Codices based on the Documentation of the Extant Dated Manuscripts in Quantitative
Approach, Pre-publication internet version 0.2 (2013).
Carlebach 2008 E. Carlebach, "Palaces of Time: Illustration of Sifre Evronot", Images 2 (2008):21-44.
Carlebach 2011 E. Carlebach, Palaces of Time: Jewish Calendar and Culture in Early Modern Europe,
London 2011.
Róth 1965 E. Róth, Hebräische Handschriften, part 2 (Verzechnis der Orientalischen Handschriften in
Deutschland vol. VI, 2, ed. H. Striedl), Wiesbaden 1965.
Steinschneider 1895 M. Steinschneider, Die Hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und
Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich 1895, No. 154.
Straus 2006 J. P. Straus, Calculating Celestial Cycles, Courses and Conjunctions: An Introduction to
Sifrei Evronot (Books of Intercalculation), unpublished thesis, Washington, University, Saint Louis
2006.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
19117
48 Temp: Addenda
OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3A%2Csubject_detail%3A%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3A%2Cphoto_date%3A%2Cphotographer_copyright%3A%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Chistorical_origin%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter Anna Nizza 2008 49a
50 Researcher Anna Nizza; Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin; Yaffa Levy 2009; 2009, 2013; 2009, 2013 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head Michal Sternthal; Project Head: Prof. Aliza Cohen-Mushlin 53a
54 Editor Christine Evans 2013 54a
55 Donor Supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation 55a

Less Details


Object's images (1 image(s))

     

(XXII) ID: 194287 Volterra Annual Wall Calendar, , Reggio Emilia, 1536-1537 edit
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
ID: 194287 Volterra Annual Wall Calendar, , Reggio Emilia, 1536-1537 edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Volterra Annual Wall Calendar | Unknown
3a Object Annual Calendar
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Meshulam of Volterra son of Isaac of Reggio (Scribe)
5 Date 1536-1537
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Italy | Emilia Romagna | Reggio Emilia
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 154 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 154)
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Moon
Sun
Star |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. M000016
20 Description

The initial word The Year (שנת) of the calendar is written in built-up brown ink and marked by a scroll and a pendant pineal motif in red and blue. Below it are the decorated initials denoting the type of the year

ז'ש'ג' פשוטה (see Contents). There are two red and blue cartouches with blessings flanking the date of the calendar. On the rightא'מ' (אבינו מלכנו) חדש עלינו שנה טובה  (Our father and king renew for us a good year); and on the left  א'מ' (אבינו מלכנו) כתבנו בספר החיים(Our father and king write us in the book of life).

Above the date is a tabula ansata framing the verse עם נושע ביי מגן עזרך (People saved by the Lord, the shield of thy help, Deut. 33:29; the last dotted word amounts to 227=1537). It is flanked by two text illustrations, a crescent moon with a five-pointed star next to the text עשה ירח למועדים (He appointed the moon for seasons, Ps. 104:19), referring to one component of the Hebrew calendar, the lunar cycle; on the left a sun with a face next to the continuation of the verse שמש ידע מב(ו)או (the sun knoweth his going down) refers to the other component, the solar cycle.

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Paper sheet, brown and red ink and blue tempera.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
194287
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a