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Obj. ID: 1521
Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts
  Shlomo Halevi Vienna Bible, Germany, 1344

© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

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Name/Title
Shlomo Halevi Vienna Bible | Unknown
Object Detail
Monument Setting
Unknown
Date
7 August, 1344
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
Height
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Iconographical Subject
Unknown |
Condition
Good. Only some pages are dirty e.g. fols. 245-288 .
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Bible vocalized and punctuated. Pentateuch (fols. 1v-134v): with masorah parva written at the outer and intercolumnar margins Genesis: (fols. 1v-33v) (missing text of Gen. 46:17-47:25; between fols. 31v-32.); Exodus: (fols.34-61v); Leviticus: (fols. 62- 81v); Numbers: (fols. 81v-110v); Deuteronomy (fosl.111-134v). Prophets (fols. 135v-349): Joshua: (fols. 135v-153);Judges: (fols. 153v-170v); Samuel: (fols. 171-211v); Kings: (fols. 212-254); Jeremiah: (fols. 254v-290v); Ezekiel: (fols. 291-321v); Isaiah: (fos. 321v-349 ). Twelve Minor Prophets (fols. 349-371v): Hosea: (fols. 349-352v ); Joel: (fols. 352v-354); Amos: (fols.354-357v); Obadiah: (fols. 357v-358); Jonah: (fols. 358-359); Micah: (fols. 359-361); Nahum: (fols.361- 362); Habakkuk: (fols. 362-363); Zephaniah: (fols.363-364v); Haggai: (fols.364v-365); Zechariah: (fols.365-370); Malachi: (fols. 370-371v). Hagiographa (fols. 372v- 508): Ruth: (fols. 372v-374v); Psalms: (fols. 374v-410; the psalms are numbered from ps. 6=fol. 375v; ps. 42 and ps. 43 on fol. 384, are numbered in the manuscript together as ps. 42 thus the numbering of the psalms in the manuscript from this point are one back; ps. 70-71 on fol. 390v, are numbered in the manuscript as ps. 69, thus the numbering is two numbers behind the standard counting; ps. 78 on fols. 392v-393 is divided into two in the manuscript and numbered ps. 76 and ps. 77 thus the numbering in the manuscript from here on is one behind; psalms 81 and 82 on fol. 394, are numbered in the manuscript as ps. 80, thus the numbering is two behind; psalms 94 and 95 are numbered in the manuscript as ps. 92 (fols. 397-397v), psalms 96 and 97 are numbered in the manuscript as ps. 93 (fol. 397v); psalms 103 and 104 are numbered in the manuscript as psalm 99 (fols. 398v-399v); ps. 107 numbered as ps. 102 in the manuscript and the next psalm, ps. 108 is numbered in the manuscript as ps. 106 thus the numbering is jumping from 102-106 but not the text ! (fols. 406v-407); ps. 119 is numbered in the manuscript as ps. 117-126 (fols.403-404. the psalms continue with no other numbering.); Song of Songs: (fols. 410-412); Lamentations: (fols.412- 414v); Job: (fols.414v-427v); Proverbs: (fols. 428-438v); Ecclesiastes: (fols. 438v-442v); Esther: (fols. 443-447v); Daniel: (fols.447v-456v); Ezra and Nehemiah : (fols 456v-470v); Chronicles: (fols.471-508
Codicology

Material:  Parchment, 508 leaves 

Hard to distinguish between hair to flesh sides.

 

Measurements

 

Full page: (472-479) x (352-355) mm

Text space: (313-322) x (233-234) mm

Column’s width: 62-67 mm

Intercolumnar space: 19-24 mm

 

Scribes

Single scribe.  

 

Script

Square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink.

 

Columns

Written in three columns except for Moses’ first song written in one column (written in a brickwork pattern) (fol. 43v-44)

 

Number of lines

Main text written:

In 31 lines per column

 

Ruling

Ruling by brown plummet (similar to ink on fols. 1-205v and 209-220v ) and gray plummet (fols. 206-208v, 221-508).

Horizontal lines:

  • Fols. 1-349v: 3 + 32 + 4 horizontal lines. ( The 3 ruled lines on top and 4 on bottom are probably for the massorah magna to the text which was never written (the pricking is also of  3  + 32 + 4 pricks).
    • Fols. 350-505v, 506v-508: 32 horizontal lines.
    • Fol. 506: 32 double horizontal lines.

    Vertical lines:

    • Fols. 1-414v, 439-end: 1 + 3 + 3 + 1+ 1 vertical lines on the recto sides and 1 + 1+ 3 + 3 + 1 vertical lines on the verso sides
    • Fol. 209v: 1 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 1 and Fol. 210:1 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 1 vertical lines (David's song Samuel II , 22)
    • Fol. 415v: 1 + 1 + 4 + 5 + 2 vertical lines.
    • Fols. 416-438v := Job 4:7-end of the book):On the rectos: 2 + 5 + 5 + 2 + 1 and on the verso side 1 + 2 + 5 + 5 + 1 ( the pricking on those pages are the same as the entire manuscript  Of  3 + 3 and not of  5 + 5. )

     

     

     

     

    Pricking

    Noticeable in all margins (e.g. fols 26, 11, 110, 146, 424, 499; two lines of pricking in the outer margin on fol. 183.)

     

    Quires

    64 quires of 8 leaves each except for:

     I 7 (3+4) (fol. 7 is a widow. A leaf is missing at the beginning of the quire before fol. 1); V 7 (3+4) (one leaf with text missing between fol. 31v to 32 of Gen. 46:17-  47:25); XVIII  7 (3+4) (fol. 141 is a widow, stub is discernible at the  beginning of the quire between fols.134v to 135. no text is missing); XLV 8-2 (3+3)  (no text is missing; each leaf is indicated by a  Hebrew letter in pencil at the lower left hand corner A-C (א-ג) and F-H (ו-ח) indicating them as the 1st to the 3rd leaf and the 6th to the 8th leaf of the quire); XLVIII 7 (3+4) (no text is missing; the first leaf of the quire is missing between fols. 371v – 372. 371v is the end of the Twelve Minor Prophets, fol. 372 is blank and 372v is Ruth. each leaf is indicated in a Hebrew letter in pencil at the lower left hand corner B-H (ב-ח) indicating them as the 2nd to the 8th  leaves of the quire.)LXIV 10 . 

     

    Catchwords

    Catchwords for the quires are written horizontally at the lower left hand corner of almost each quire (fols. 7v, 15v, 23v, 31v, 38v, 46v, 54v, 62v, 70v, 78v, 141v, 149v, 157v, 165v, 173v, 181v, 189v, 197v, 205v, 213v, 221v, 229v, 237v, 245v, 253v, 261v, 269v, 277v, 285v, 301v, 309v, 317v, 325v, 333v, 341v, 349v, 355v, 363v, 378v, 386v, 402v, 426v, 450, 458v, 466v, 474v, 482v, 490v, 498v).

    The catchwords are decorated on top by a triangle of strokes in brown ink (fols. 7v, 15v, 23v, 31v, 38v, 46v, 54v, 62v, 70v, 78v, 141v, 149v, 157v, 165v, 173v, 181v, 189v, 197v, 205v , 221v, 229v, 237v, 245v, 253v, 261v, 269v, 277v, 285v, 301v, 309v, 317v, 333v, 349v, 355v, 363v, 378v, 386v, 426v, 450v, 458v, 466v, 474v, 482v, 490v, 498v) by a chequred square on top (fol. 46v), or by circles creating a triangle on top (fol. 213v), other decoration of curved lines with dots between them on top of the catchword (fol. 325v, 341v). One is not decorated (fols. 402v).

     

    Hebrew numeration

     

    Hebrew numeration for quires above the catchword for the first two quires (they are marked a (א) (fol. 7v) and b (ב) (fol. 15v)) and for the first five quires after the Pentateuch (they are marked a (א) (fol. 141v), b (ב) (fol. 149v), c (ג) (fol. 157v), d (ד), and e (ה) (fol. 173v).

     

    Many quires contain a Hebrew foliation on each page from A-H (א-ח) (see: Quires above).

     

     

     

    Blank leaves

     

    Fols. 135 and 372

     

     

     

Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
• Fol. 508, at the end of the page is the scribe’s colophon: אני הסופר שלמה בר יצחק הלוי כתבתי הספר הזה לר' פעפרקורן בה" ר'/ שמריה באלף הששי שלמתי עשרים וארבעה ספרים בשנת קד לפרט / כ"ז לחדש אב יום א ותשלם כל המלאכה על כן יבא עלינו ברכה. I am the scribe, Shlomo bar (son) Isaac Halevi [I]completed these twenty-four books for R. Pfeffercorn ben (son of) R. Shemariah, on Sunday 27th of the month of Av, in 5104 (7.8.1344) (The day of the week should be Saturday and not Sunday as it is in the colophon; probably because nightfall Saturday is considered the beginning of Sunday.) • Fol. 134v, at the end of Deuteronomy, an erased colophon (but can still be read). The colophon is written in square Ashkenazi script. Text: חזק (?) ונתחזק/ שלמה הסופר לא/ יוזק לא היום ולא/ לעלם עד שיעלה/ החמור בסלם אשר/ יעקב חלם. Translation: Strengthen and be strong, the scribe Shlomo shall not be harmed today and never until a donkey climbs the ladder that Jacob dreamed.
Scribal Notes
Scibe’s name: • The name Levi is marked twice in the text by a trefoil leaf in a dark brown ink, at the beginning of the word on fols. 32v (in the middle column, 6 lines from the bottom) and 167 (in the middle column, 10 lines from the bottom). • The name Shlomo is marked many times in the text by floral decoration or strokes of ink in brown ink (fols. 196v, 201, 214v, 216v, 390v, 406, 410, 412, 428, 436, 472v, 486, 487, 487v, 490v, 492v.) Scribe’s blessing • Fol. 135v, at the beginning of the Prophets section, in the upper margin partially cut is an inscription probably by the hand of the scribe: מזל ? גדא. Translation: Good Luck. Completion of missing text, probably by the massorator • The massorator proofread the text and added in the margins a few missing verses in the main text, e.g.: Fol. 40v: In the outer margin inscribed in a small square script in dark brown ink, missing part of verse 26 of Exodus 10 in the main text: ואנחנו לא/ נדע מה/ נעבד את ה.' Translation: "and we know not with what we must serve the Lord." Fol. 110: In the intercolumnar space between cols. 1-2, inscribed in a small square script in dark brown ink (vocalized and punctuated) of the missing text in the main text of Num. 35: part of verse 33. אשר אתם/ בה כי הדם/ הוא יחניף/ את הארץ. Translation: "Wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land" Scibe’s name: • The name Levi is marked twice in the text by a trefoil leaf in a dark brown ink, at the beginning of the word on fols. 32v (in the middle column, 6 lines from the bottom) and 167 (in the middle column, 10 lines from the bottom). • The name Shlomo is marked many times in the text by floral decoration or strokes of ink in brown ink (fols. 196v, 201, 214v, 216v, 390v, 406, 410, 412, 428, 436, 472v, 486, 487, 487v, 490v, 492v.) Scribe’s blessing • Fol. 135v, at the beginning of the Prophets section, in the upper margin partially cut is an inscription probably by the hand of the scribe: מזל ? גדא. Translation: Good Luck. Completion of missing text, probably by the massorator • The massorator proofread the text and added in the margins a few missing verses in the main text, e.g.: Fol. 40v: In the outer margin inscribed in a small square script in dark brown ink, missing part of verse 26 of Exodus 10 in the main text: ואנחנו לא/ נדע מה/ נעבד את ה.' Translation: "and we know not with what we must serve the Lord." Fol. 110: In the intercolumnar space between cols. 1-2, inscribed in a small square script in dark brown ink (vocalized and punctuated) of the missing text in the main text of Num. 35: part of verse 33. אשר אתם/ בה כי הדם/ הוא יחניף/ את הארץ. Translation: "Wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land" Text זה עשרים וארבע שלי ר' עזר לי נתן? Translation: These twenty four (books of the Bible) are mine was given to me by R. Lezer. Owner inscriptions referring to the reading of the haftarah • A few inscriptions referring to the Haftarah in small semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink in the same hand who wrote the inscription on fol. 1 (dated 1419), e.g fols. 156, 242v, 319: Fol. 156: in the middle of the page in the intercolumnar space between cols. 1-2 Text: הפטר/ ויהי/ בשלח" Translation: Haftarah of Vayehi Beshalah Corrections to the main text by completing missing verses by the same hand in small square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink in the margins, e.g. fols. 156v, 185v, 186, 188v, 190, 196, 203, 227, 299. He also wrote the inscription on fol. Fol. 160v in a square and round Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink at the lower part of the page between the middle and left columns (Judges 9): Text: כאן לא היה לי תופס לפני. Translation: Here I did not have an exemplum in front of me. • Fol. 465, correction to the text by another hand in a semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. • Fol. 2v: In the inner margin at the upper part of the page is a Hebrew inscription in late round Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink completing the missing verse of Genesis 3:4. Various inscriptions by several hands: • Inscribed in a small semi-cursive Ashkenazi script the name of the book next to the initial word on fols 135v, 153v, 171, 212, 254v, 291, 321v, 349. • Fol. 1: In the upper part of the page in a square script in brown ink: Text: עשרים וארב ... (המשך הכתובת מחוקה) Translation: "Twenty-four" (The rest of the inscription is erased.)
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding

See document- Ask description from Fingernagel

Decoration Program

The decoration was done in one stage by the scribe.

 

 

  1. Decorated Initial word: Each initial word of the 24 books of the Bible is written in a displayed script decorated at the junctions of the letters with medallions enclosing rosettes in spared ground technique (fols. 1v, 34, 62, 81v, 111, 135v, 153v, 171, 212, 254v, 291, 321v, 349, 372v, 374v, 410, 412, 414v, 428, 438v, 443, 447v, 456v, 471).  Most of the letters are also outlined by a wriggly line (fol. 1v, 62, 81v, 111, 135v, 153v, 171, 212, 254v, 291). All executed in dark brown ink.
  2. Shaped text: the last text of Genesis (fol. 33v) Numbers (fol. 110v) Kings (fol. 254) Jeremiah (fol. 290v), Ezekiel (Fol. 321v), Malachi (fol. 371v), Ruth (fol. 374v), Psalms (fol. 410), Lamentations (fol. 414v), Job (fol. 427v), Ecclesiastes (fol. 442v), Esther (fol. 447v), Daniel (fol. 456v), Nehemiah (fol. 470v) and Chronicles (fol. 508) are written in a shaped text of various forms (mainly of a goblet).
  3. On fol.434 inthe lower margin is a stylus diagram with a faced moon.

 

Summary and Remarks

Remarks

This manuscript including the twenty-four books of the Bible was copied by the scribe Shlomo bar Isaac Halevi in Ashkenazi script. He concluded the manuscript with a colophon where he mentions his name, the name of the patron, R. Pfeffercorn, and gives the date of production as 7th of August, 1344.

 

This Bible is very large (ca. 475-354 mm; 508 leaves) and in that, it joins earlier giant Ashkenazi Bibles of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century, such as the "Ambrosiana Bible", Ulm?, 1236-1238 ( full size:453 x 434 mm; Milano, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Mss. B 30-32 INF;) and the Shneur ben Hayyim Bible, Germany, Franconia?, 1304 (full size: (445-450) x (320-330)mm; Paris, BN, Hebr. 8-10)[1]  As seen in these Ashkenazi Bibles and Pentateuchs, our manuscript is written in three columns vocalized and punctuated and include the massorah parva (see other large Bibles and Pentateuch of the Austrian National Library collection with the text written in three columns: Cod. Hebr. 5 and  Cod. Hebr. 9 (cat. XXX). The text of the massorah magna, which is traditionally written in a few lines above the main text and a few lines below it (usually 2+3 or 3+4 lines), is missing in our manuscript. However, since the manuscript includes ruling of 3 lines above the main text and 4 lines below we can deduce that originally it was planned to include the massorah magna which was never copied. The Targum, which commonly appears in the text of the Ashkenazi Bible and Pentateuch, is not included in our manuscript.

 

The manuscript is simply decorated by the scribe, mainly at the initial word of each of the 24 books of the Bible. The initial words are written in a display script decorated at the junctions of the letters with medallions enclosing rosettes in spared-ground technique. Similarly decorated many other Ashkenazi manuscripts of this period such as the Bible probably produced in Ulm?, in 1286 (Paris, BN, Hebr 1-3, Hebr. 1: fol. 73v; Hebr. 2: fol. 77v; Hebr. 3: fol. 1; see: Gabrielle Sed-Rajna, Les Manuscrits Hébreux, cat. 70, pp. 181-183.), or Shmuel of Schörndorf Pentateuch of the 14th century (ÖNB, Cod. Hebr. 9, e.g. fols. 41v, 80, 92v;  see Cat. XXX). It is also decorated with shaped text at the end of many books of the Bible.

 

In Elul 1419 the manuscript moved to the hands of Shlomo son-in-law of R. Eliezer (fol. 1; See: History). Later on it reached non-Jewish hands as is evident from the many Latin inscriptions (See: History). Later on it reached the Austrian National Library at ???.- Ask Fingernagel.  

 


[1] For the characteristic of the Ashkenazi Bible see: Sarit Shalev-Eyni, Jews among Christians, (forthcoming publication),

Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
Many Latin inscriptions: (e.g. fols. 1, 1v, 2, 3, 3v, 4, 8, 34, 35 (cross), 46v, 57v, 82v, 87, 89v, 234v, 322v, 324v, 325v, 326v, 340v, 343v, 346, 347, 354, 357, 369, 375- 410, 399v, 462v, 499, 508.- Ask Fingernagel to arrange them into groups: titles, chapter numbers etc..) Owner inscriptions: • Fol. 1, in the upper 3rd part of the page on the middle is an owner's inscription in Hebrew almost completely erased and only with an UV light can it be read. It is inscribed in a semi-cursive script in brown ink in three lines: Text: זה המקרא שלמה חתנו של הרר/ אליעזר ... ... אגהו כל שבוע לעד/ ג'פ ... ... אלול שנת קעט. Translation: This Bible Shlomo son in law of R. Eliezer… I will study from it every week three times forever, (5)179=1419, month of Elul. • Fol. 1, in the upper 3rd part of the page on the right side in a square script in brown ink: Text זה עשרים וארבע שלי ר' עזר לי נתן? Translation: These twenty four (books of the Bible) are mine was given to me by R. Lezer. Owner inscriptions referring to the reading of the haftarah • A few inscriptions referring to the Haftarah in small semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink in the same hand who wrote the inscription on fol. 1 (dated 1419), e.g fols. 156, 242v, 319: Fol. 156: in the middle of the page in the intercolumnar space between cols. 1-2 Text: הפטר/ ויהי/ בשלח" Translation: Haftarah of Vayehi Beshalah Corrections to the main text by completing missing verses by the same hand in small square Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink in the margins, e.g. fols. 156v, 185v, 186, 188v, 190, 196, 203, 227, 299. He also wrote the inscription on fol. Fol. 160v in a square and round Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink at the lower part of the page between the middle and left columns (Judges 9): Text: כאן לא היה לי תופס לפני. Translation: Here I did not have an exemplum in front of me. • Fol. 465, correction to the text by another hand in a semi-cursive Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink. • Fol. 2v: In the inner margin at the upper part of the page is a Hebrew inscription in late round Ashkenazi script in dark brown ink completing the missing verse of Genesis 3:4. Various inscriptions by several hands: • Inscribed in a small semi-cursive Ashkenazi script the name of the book next to the initial word on fols 135v, 153v, 171, 212, 254v, 291, 321v, 349. • Fol. 1: In the upper part of the page in a square script in brown ink: Text: עשרים וארב ... (המשך הכתובת מחוקה) Translation: "Twenty-four" (The rest of the inscription is erased.) Fol. 1: At the bottom of the page inscribed in a semi-cursive script in a brown ink: Text: חומש חמש מגילות. Translation: "Pentateuch and Five Scrolls". Marginal decorations on fol. 440v of a hand with a pointing finger depicted in the middle of the intercolumnar space of cols. 2 &3, executed in light brown ink. Another hand is depicted at the inner margin of fol. 139v. On fols. 144, 145, 146 a quatrefoil flower is drawn in light brown ink on the ruling in the intercolumnar space.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography
Gabrielle Sed-Rajna, Les Manuscrits Hébreux Enluminés des Bibliothèques de France, Leuven-Paris 1994, cat. 70, pp. 181-183. Sarit Shalev-Eyni, Jews Among Christians: A Hebrew School of Illumination of the Lake Constance Region, (forthcoming publication
Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Michal Sternthal Michal Sternthal- in Vienna | 31.10.2000 15.9.03; 28.12.05
Author of description
Michal Sternthal | August 2003 in Israel
Architectural Drawings
|
Computer Reconstruction
|
Section Head
Michal Sternthal |
Language Editor
Judith Cardozo | 26,5.05
Donor
|
Negative/Photo. No.