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  (XI) Obj. ID: 1304 Torah mantle,, Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925?. // Unknown edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects


2 Name/Title Torah mantle | *The Synagogue Objects | Torah mantle
3a Object Torah mantle
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1900-1925?
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Greece | Macedonia | Thessaloniki (Salonika)
|
8 Community Sephardi
|
9 Collection Poland | Warsaw | The Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (JHI)
| 51
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Local|
13 Iconographical Subject Magen David |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 671-13
19 Remarks
20 Description

The rectangular Torah mantle comprises a cloak attached to an oval top, and has a vertical back opening.

A central Star of David enclosing the Hebrew initials "כ ת" namely, "The crown of Torah" (Avot 4:13) is set on the front.

The oval top has two openings for the Torah staves. A fringed strip surrounds the top and the openings. 

Online collection of the ritual objects from the E. Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute is available here: http://cbj.jhi.pl/collections/964689


More Details...
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silk, cotton, metal threads
Additions: machine-made fringed band
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
1304
48 Temp: Addenda
batch=0070&batch_num=105&OVRPO=ntl%3Atrue%2Cntl_localname%3Atrue%2Csubject%3Atrue%2Csubject_detail%3Atrue%2Cobject%3Atrue%2Cobject_detail%3A%2Cmaker_profession%3Atrue%2Cmaker_name%3Atrue%2Cmaker_detail%3Atrue%2Cdate%3Atrue%2Cperiod%3Atrue%2Cperiod_detail%3Atrue%2Cphotographer%3Atrue%2Cphoto_date%3Atrue%2Corigin%3Atrue%2Corigin_detail%3Atrue%2Cschool%3Atrue%2Cschool_detail%3Atrue%2Ccommunity%3Atrue%2Ccommunity_detail%3Atrue%2Ccollection%3Atrue%2Ccollection_detail%3Atrue%2Ccopyright%3Atrue%2Csite%3Atrue%2Csite_detail%3Atrue%2Clocation%3Atrue%2Clocation_detail%3Atrue%2Cdescription%3A%2Cphotographer_copyright%3Atrue%2C&

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

Less Details


Object's images (6 image(s))

     

(XXII) ID: 12322 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 12322 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah mantle | *The Synagogue Objects | Torah mantle
3a Object Torah mantle
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1900-1925?
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Greece | Macedonia | Thessaloniki (Salonika)
|
8 Community Sephardi
|
9 Collection Poland | Warsaw | The Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (JHI)
| 51
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Local|
13 Iconographical Subject Magen David |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

The rectangular Torah mantle comprises a cloak attached to an oval top, and has a vertical back opening.

A central Star of David enclosing the Hebrew initials "כ ת" namely, "The crown of Torah" (Avot 4:13) is set on the front.

The oval top has two openings for the Torah staves. A fringed strip surrounds the top and the openings. 

Online collection of the ritual objects from the E. Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute is available here: http://cbj.jhi.pl/collections/964689

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silk, cotton, metal threads
Additions: machine-made fringed band
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0070104
45 Temp: Batch Number
0070 | 104
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12322
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 12323 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 12323 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah mantle | *The Synagogue Objects | Torah mantle
3a Object Torah mantle
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1900-1925?
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Greece | Macedonia | Thessaloniki (Salonika)
|
8 Community Sephardi
|
9 Collection Poland | Warsaw | The Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (JHI)
| 51
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Local|
13 Iconographical Subject Magen David |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

The rectangular Torah mantle comprises a cloak attached to an oval top, and has a vertical back opening.

A central Star of David enclosing the Hebrew initials "כ ת" namely, "The crown of Torah" (Avot 4:13) is set on the front.

The oval top has two openings for the Torah staves. A fringed strip surrounds the top and the openings. 

Online collection of the ritual objects from the E. Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute is available here: http://cbj.jhi.pl/collections/964689

21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silk, cotton, metal threads
Additions: machine-made fringed band
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
0070105
45 Temp: Batch Number
0070 | 105
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
12323
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 103866 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 103866 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah mantle | *The Synagogue Objects | Torah mantle
3a Object Torah mantle
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1900-1925?
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Greece | Macedonia | Thessaloniki (Salonika)
|
8 Community Sephardi
|
9 Collection Poland | Warsaw | The Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (JHI)
| 51
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Local|
13 Iconographical Subject Magen David |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No. S144070
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silk, cotton, metal threads
Additions: machine-made fringed band
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II. This mantle was transferred in 1948 to the museum directly from Auschwitz.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
103866
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 103867 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 103867 Torah mantle, , Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah mantle | *The Synagogue Objects | Torah mantle
3a Object Torah mantle
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1900-1925?
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Greece | Macedonia | Thessaloniki (Salonika)
|
8 Community Sephardi
|
9 Collection Poland | Warsaw | The Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (JHI)
| 51
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Local|
13 Iconographical Subject Magen David |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 671-13
19a Scan No. S144071
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silk, cotton, metal threads
Additions: machine-made fringed band
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II. This mantle was transferred in 1948 to the museum directly from Auschwitz.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
103867
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 103868 Torah mantle, Field documentation, Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 103868 Torah mantle, Field documentation, Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah mantle | *The Synagogue Objects | Torah mantle
3a Object Torah mantle
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1900-1925?
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Greece | Macedonia | Thessaloniki (Salonika)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Poland | Warsaw | The Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (JHI)
| 51
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 671-13
19a Scan No. S144072
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silk, cotton, metal threads
Additions: machine-made fringed band
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
103868
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a

(XXII) ID: 103869 Torah mantle, Field documentation, Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects
ID: 103869 Torah mantle, Field documentation, Thessaloniki (Salonika), 1900-1925? edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah mantle | *The Synagogue Objects | Torah mantle
3a Object Torah mantle
3b Object Detail Field documentation
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1900-1925?
6 Period Unknown
7 Origin Greece | Macedonia | Thessaloniki (Salonika)
|
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Poland | Warsaw | The Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (JHI)
| 51
10 Location Unknown |
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Unknown |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 671-13
19a Scan No. S144073
20 Description
21 Ornamentation
 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silk, cotton, metal threads
Additions: machine-made fringed band
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
The Torah mantle is part of a collection of ritual objects, which were confiscated from the Greek Jews, who were deported to Auschwitz during World War II.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
103869
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a