The synagogue in Hornburg was built in the years 1762 - 1763. The buliding stopped functioning as a synagogue in 1882, as there were fewer than ten Jewish adults in Hornburg. The death of the last Jew in Hornburg was in 1923. In 1924, the synagogue’s interior (the Torah ark, bimah, women's gallery, benches, wooden plaques, interior dome, etc.) and ritual objects were transferred to the Vaterländische Museum (located in the Aegidien church) in Braunschweig. The pieces of the synagogue were on show in the museum until 1945 when it was moved to storage. The exhibition was reinstalled in 1976 when the new building of the museum was built.
According to a color drawing made in 1924, the vaulted ceiling of the Hornburg synagogue was painted with images of the Sanctuary. The Tabernacle (shown as a tent)was on the eastern side, the Ark of Covenant on the western side, the Temple Menorah on the southern side, and the Showbread table on the northern side. In its center of the synagogue ceiling there was an interior dome, painted blue. The dome is the only part of the ceiling that was preserved in the museum. On the lower rim of the dome there is a painted balustrade. The four painted posts of the baulstrade support four vases of flowers.