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(VII) Img. ID: 515 En Gedi synagogue, Stratum II, Western aisle, En Gedi (Engaddi), End of 2nd century CE- Beginning of the 6th century CE edit  
Category: Ancient Jewish Art

General Document

2 Name/Title En Gedi synagogue, Stratum II | Unknown
3a Object Synagogue
Mosaic floor (Decoration)
3b Object Detail Western aisle
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date End of 2nd century CE- Beginning of the 6th century CE
5a Activity Dates
5b Reconstruction Dates
6 Period Late Roman (132-324)
6a Period Detail Byzantine (324-638)
7 Origin Israel/Eretz Israel | Palaestina Prima | En Gedi (Engaddi)
8 Community Unknown |
9 Collection Israel | National Parks Authority
9a Documentation / Research project Unknown
10 Location Israel | En-Gedi
11 Site En-Gedi
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Calendar, Hebrew |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description 1. דכירין לטב יוסה ועזרון וחיזקיו בנוה דחלפי 2. כל מן דיהיב פלגו בן גבר לחבריה הי אמר 3. לשן ביש על חבריה לעממיה הי גניב 4. צבותיה דחבריה הי מן דגלי רזה דקרתה 5. לעממיה דין דעינוה משוטטן בכל ארעה 6. וחמי סתירתה הוא יתן אפוא בגברה 7. ההו ובזרעוה ויעקור יתיה מן תחות שומיה 8. וימרון כל עמה אמן ואמן סלה The inscription was found in the mosaic pavement of the western aisle, and is the third (from the north) of five inscriptions. The inscription is written in Aramaic script in eight lines. According to Naveh the inscription reads as follows: The following translation is according to Levine: "1. May they be remembered for good: Yose and `Ezron and Hizziqiyu the sons of Hilfi 2. Anyone causing a controversy between a man and his friend, or whoever 3. slanders his friend before the Gentiles, or whoever steals 4. the property of his friend, or whoever reveals the secret of the town 5. to the Gentiles - He whose eyes range through the whole earth 6. and Who sees hidden things, He will set his face on that 7. man and on his seed and will uproot him from under the heavens. 8. And all the people said: Amen and Amen Selah." The inscription opens with a blessing for Yose, `Ezron (or Irun?) and Hizziqiyu, the sons of Hilfi. It then continues with warnings to those who commit the sins of causing dissension in the community, passing on malicious information to the Gentiles, or revealing the secrets of the town.
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors
25k Construction Material

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
030 | 004
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
48 Temp: Addenda
HS : The original inscription is located in Rockfeller museum.
MAT : Tesserae material: Limestone Tesserae arrangement: Outlines- Tesserae density (10sq. cm): Tesserae colors:
SIT : Israel:En Gedi
RG : H.B; L.T
CO : The inscription is well preserved.
BIB : א. דותן, הרז בכתובת בית הכנסת של עין גדי, לשוננו, ניסן-תמוז תשל"א, עמ' 112-712. י. נוה, על פסיפס ואבן, ספרית מעריב, תשל"ח, עמ' 501-901. א. מירסקי, גדי ודלי בכתובת עין גדי ובפיוטי קדמונים, תרביץ שנה מ' חוברת ג, ניסן, תשל"א, עמ' 673-483ץ א. ש. רוזנטל, צבו, תרביץ, שנה מ' חוברת א, תשרי תשל"א, עמ' 13-23. ד. בר"ג, לעניין 'קרתה' בכתובות מבית הכנסת בעין גדי, תרביץ, שנה מא חוברת ד, תמוז-אלול תל"ב, עמ' 354-454. ב. מזר, כתובת על רצפת בית כנסת בעין גדי, תרביץ, שנה מ' חוברת א, תשרי תשל"א, עמ' 81-03. מ. ויינפלד, הסוד של קהילת עין גדי, תרביץ, שנה נא, תשרי-כסלו תשמ"ב, עמ' י. פליקס, לעניין 'הי גניב צבותיה דחבריה' בפסיפס של עין גדי, תרביץ, שנה מ חוברת ב, טבת תשל"א, עמ' 652-752. מ"ב, לרנר, עוד לענין 'צבו', תרביץ, שנה מ' חוברת ב', טבת תשל"א, עמ' 752. י. קומולוש, הערות לכתובת של רצפת בית כנסת בעין גדי, בית מקרא, עמ' 965-075. B. Mazar and D. Barag, En Gedi, In: The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Vol. II, Jerusalem, 1993, pp. 399-409. I. L. Levine, The Inscriptions in the En Gedi Synagogue, In: Ancient Synagogue Revealed (I. L. Levine ed. ), The Israel Exploration Society Jerusalem, 1981, pp.
REM : According to Y. Felix, S. Lieberman, and I. L. Levine, the secret mentioned in the inscription refers to the growth and production of balsam, which was centered in En Gedi. A. A. Urbach rejects this idea, since the Romans knew the secret of balsam production long before the date of the inscription. Urbach suggests that the inscription is a typical example of a civic oath sworn by town residents. According to Weinfeld, the structure of the inscriptions, opening with the ancestors of the world and continuing with the zodaic signs, indicates that the inscription is an oath taken by members of a professional union. A. Dothan suggests that the events behind the inscription were religious and related to the restrictions imposed by Justinian on the reading of the Scriptures and the study of the Oral Law. Dothan suggests that the Jewish community hid their Torah scrolls, and that the inscription was a warning against revealing the "secret." Mazar interprets the secret of the town as relating to various political alliances. He suggests that the Persian-Byzantine conflict of 614 CE and after, gave rise to political controversy with some members of the community supporting the Persian cause, and others maintaining their allegiance to the Byzantine authorities. These conflicting loyalties gave rise to tensions within the community, including slander and the revelation of the town's secret, ie. the town's divided loyalties.

Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a