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© Center for Jewish Art, Photographer: Unknown,

Fol. 40: A pen-drawn illustration by Scribe A next to the musaf prayers for the first day of the New Year, namely

the blessings and instructions for blowing the shofar: a man blowing a horn with the help of his right hand while holding it in his left. The man is wearing a prayer shawl (tallith) and a pointed Jewish hat. His left foot rests on a stool with three pairs of legs, while his other is firmly on the ground, marked by a line. Small wavy lines rising up from the horn denote the sounds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 1: Blowing the shofar, Munich High Holidays and Sukkot Mahzor, Munich, BSB Cod.hebr. 86, fol. 40. 


Fig. 2: Blowing the shofar, Alliance Israélite Mahzor, Constance (?), first quarter of the 14th  century. Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Alliance Israélite Universelle' MS 24 H, fol. 84v. (Sed-Rajna 1994:211, 212) 



Fig. 3: Blowing the shofar, First Kaufmann Mahzor, Germany, c.1270-1290. Budapest, MTAK, A 388, fol. II:12v. (Jerusalem, CJA Documentation)



Fig. 4: Blowing the shofar, Vienna High Holidays and Sukkot Mahzor' Franconia, first-half of the 14th century. Vienna, Cod. hebr. 174, fol. 20v. (Jerusalem, CJA Documentetion)

Name/Title
Munich High Holidays and Sukkot Mahzor | Unknown
Object
Object Detail
Fol. 40
Settings
Unknown
Date
Late 13th - early 14th century
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Origin
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community type
Congregation
Unknown
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Unknown|
Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Collection
Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 86 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 86)
Documentation / Research project
Unknown
Material/Technique
Brown ink, pen-drawing.
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
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Condition
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
Languages of inscription
Unknown
Type of grave
Unknown
0
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
Codicology
Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
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Coin Ruler
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Denomination
Signature
Colophon
Scribal Notes
Watermark
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Group
Group
Group
Group
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Summary and Remarks

The image of a man blowing the horn appears in several other manuscripts produced in Germany in the second half of the 13thand the 14th centuries, such as in the Alliance Israélite Mahzor (fig. 2) from the third quarter of the 13th century (Sed-Rajna 1994:211, 212); and in the First Kaufmann Mahzor, produced in Germany,

1270-1290 (fig. 3; and fol. II:163v).

These mostly represent a three-legged stool, not one with three pairs of legs as in our manuscript. A four-legged stool appears in the Vienna High Holidays and Sukkot Mahzor (fig. 4). The custom of placing one foot on a stool while blowing the shofar was common inGermanyin the Middle Ages. It is mentioned in a book of customs written by Rabbi Isaac Tyrnau (1380/5-1450?), who describes the shofar blower placing one foot on a stool (Sperber 2003, VII:242-6). The reasons for this custom are unclear. Róth suggested that the purpose of raising the foot was to separate the man blowing the shofar from the ground he stands on, which is where Satan draws his power from (fig. 3; Róth 1962:4). Sperber argues that the custom is symbolic of the wish to project the sound of the shofar as high as possible in order to reach heaven. He refers to a similar symbolic custom of early German pagans in which, in a ceremony meant to help the harvest grow taller, a tall girl would stand with one foot on a bench while performing certain rituals without wobbling.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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