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© Dagmara Budzioch, Photographer: Budzioch, Dagmara, 29.04.2016

Frame 2: This frame depicts Queen Vashti's feast in the royal gardens. Vashti sits under a high canopy at a large round table ready for a feast. Six women accompany her at the table, three on each side. To the right, a group of servants enter the garden through a gate; the first of them appears to be addressing the queen. This most likely represents the servants informing Vashti of King Ahaseurus's order for her to appear before him and his guests at his feast (Es. 1:10-11). The additional scene on the left may depict the moment when Queen Vashti, after her refusal to appear at Ahaseurus's feast, is taken from the palace (alluding to Es. 1:19).

Name/Title
Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana Gaster II Type Esther scroll | Unknown
Object Detail
frame 2
Date
second half of the 17th century
Synagogue active dates
Reconstruction dates
Artist/ Maker
Unknown (Unknown)
Origin
Italy | Veneto | Venice
| (?)
Historical Origin
Unknown
Community
Unknown |
Location
Unknown |
Site
Unknown
School/Style
Gaster II scrolls|

The family of Italian Esther scrolls from the second half of the 17th century named by Mendel Metzger after Judaica collector, Moses Gaster (1856–1939), of whose collections an exemplar of this manuscript formed a part (see M. Metzger, “The Earliest Engraved Italian Megilloth”, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 48:2 (1966), 381‒432, esp. 390). It includes Esther scrolls produced in mixed technique in which decorative border is partly printed and colored by hand while the Hebrew text of the Book of Esther is inscribed by a scribe. Main part of the decorations consists of a series of arcades, under which the text of the Book of Esther was inscribed. The text panels are interspersed by columns whose bases are decorated with flowers that separate rectangular frames with figurative scenes chronicling the Book of Esther. Upper margins are filled with a balustrade on which are placed flower-filled vases and pairs of roosters and turkeys. These details are present in all exemplars of the scrolls, however, particular manuscripts differ in detail. The decorative scheme of Gaster II scrolls shows common features with Griselini scrolls.

Period
Unknown
Period Detail
Material/Technique
Ink and paints on parchment
Material Stucture
Material Decoration
Material Bonding
Material Inscription
Material Additions
Material Cloth
Material Lining
Tesserae Arrangement
Density
Colors
Construction material
Measurements
An average letter is 3 mm high, whereas the letters in col. 16 are 5 mm high.
The space between the lines in a typical text column is 3 mm.
The printed border is ca. 285 mm high.
The dimensions of the details:
- an opening decoration - 280 x ca. 150 mm;
- a final decoration - 100 x ca. 280 mm;
- a text panel (inside) - 150x90 mm;
- a typical frame with narrative scenes - ca. 30x85 mm;
- a section with a pair of roosters - 50 x ca. 95 mm;
- columns' bases - ca. 35x35 mm.
Height
ca. 300 mm
Length
Width
Depth
Circumference
Thickness
Diameter
Weight
Axis
Panel Measurements
Condition
The scroll is preserved in very good condition except for the opening part of the first membrane whose missing part must be supplemented with a piece of parchment on which decoration is painted. The first and second membranes are stitched in a rather non-aesthetic manner.
Extant
Documented by CJA
Surveyed by CJA
Present Usage
Present Usage Details
Condition of Building Fabric
Architectural Significance type
Historical significance: Event/Period
Historical significance: Collective Memory/Folklore
Historical significance: Person
Architectural Significance: Style
Architectural Significance: Artistic Decoration
Urban significance
Significance Rating
0–  Coordinates: 45.445393, 12.326778
Ornamentation
Custom
Contents
The Book of Esther in Hebrew
Codicology

The scroll if formed of 5 membranes on which 19 text columns are inscribed with 22 lines per column, except for col. 16 with 11 lines, divided into two parts.

The text is inscribed in black ink, in the Italian square script on the flash side of the parchment membranes.

The letters ח (Es. 1:6) and ת (Es. 9:29) are bolded and enlarged. Similarly, the traditional enlarged and smaller letters are included in the section of the IX chapter listing the names of Haman's sons (Es. 9:6-10 - col. 16).

The left margins of the text columns are not straight even if some letters are elongated or shortened.

The ruling is made by a stylus; both - horizontal and vertical lines - are visible.

The parchment is bright, smooth, and of medium thickness but it is not stiff.

Scribes
Script
Number of Lines
Ruling
Pricking
Quires
Catchwords
Hebrew Numeration
Blank Leaves
Direction/Location
Façade (main)
Endivances
Location of Torah Ark
Location of Apse
Location of Niche
Location of Reader's Desk
Location of Platform
Temp: Architecture Axis
Arrangement of Seats
Location of Women's Section
Direction Prayer
Direction Toward Jerusalem
Coin
Coin Series
Coin Ruler
Coin Year
Denomination
Signature
Colophon
None
Scribal Notes
Watermark
Hallmark
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Trade Mark
Binding
Decoration Program
Summary and Remarks

The name "Gaster II" was introduced by Mendel Metzger in an article entitled "The Earliest Engraved Italian Megilloth" published in the "Bulletin of the John Rylands Library" (48:2 (1966), 381‒432, esp. 390). The type was named after Moses Gaster (1856–1939), the rabbi, scholar, and Judaica collector of whose collections a scroll adorned with this pattern formed a part (at present this is the scroll Gaster Hebrew MS 711 stored in the John Rylands Library in Manchester that is the scroll under discussion). At least 8 manuscripts representing this type are known; they are preserved in private and institutional collections. For descriptions of other scrolls decorated with a similar pattern see IDs: 5203 and 36152.

The decorative scheme of Gaster II scrolls shows common features with the Griselini and Pseudo-Griselini scrolls (see "Griselini scrolls" and "Pseudo-Griselini scrolls" in the Index), whereas the narrative scenes are the same as in the scrolls representing Klagsbald type (see ID 31). The exception is frame no. 19 that in Gaster II scrolls joins the illustrations no. 19 and 20 from Klagsbald scrolls. 

The general layout of the decoration is the same in all exemplars of Gaster II scrolls, however, particular manuscripts differ in detail; especially their opening decorations vary.

Some frames containing the narrative scenes are not very well printed. 

The sequence of the illustrations on the second membrane - except for the frame no. 5 - is different than in other manuscripts representing this type and in Klagsbald scrolls (see IDs 31 and 34766) in which the same metal plates were used.

A field of the decorative cartouche placed in the center of the opening decoration could originally contain a text that was erased.

On the edges of the first membrane, a pricking is visible that suggests that a belt of fabric could be sewn underneath as it was customary in the Amsterdam Jewish communities.

In the cartouches flanked by pairs of birds, the Arabic numerals 1-20 are inscribed that mark the subsequent text panels.

Above every cartouche, a peacock is placed (they are rather sketchy and only their tails suggest that the birds represent peacocks). In other Gaster II scrolls, above some of the cartouches, double-headed eagles are also placed.

Some details in the ornamentation were originally painted gold; at present these parts are green. 

All green elements are visible on the blank (hair) side of the sheets.

The manuscript is stored unrolled, in a box.

Suggested Reconsdivuction
History/Provenance
The former number (No 305) is inscribed in pencil below the opening decoration.
Main Surveys & Excavations
Bibliography

The manuscript is listed in:

Hebrew and Judaic manuscripts in Amsterdam public collections Catalogue of the manuscripts of the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, University Library of Amsterdam eds. L. Fuks and R. G. Fuks-Mansfeld

Louis Hirschel, List of Unique and Rare Items from the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana

The scrolls representing the same or similar pattern are discussed in:

Mendel Metzger, "The Earliest Engraved Italian Megilloth", Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 48:2 (1966), 381‒432.

Dagmara Budzioch, The Decorated Esther Scrolls from the Museum of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw and the Tradition of Megillot Esther Decoration in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries – An Outline [Polish: Dekorowane zwoje Estery z Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego w Warszawie na tle tradycji dekorowania megillot Ester w XVII i XVIII wieku. Zarys problematyki], Warsaw 2019, 1:124-134, 322.

Dagmara Budzioch, "The Decorated Megillot Esther in the Moses Gaster Hebrew Manuscript Collection at the John Rylands Library: a comparative analysis with reference to Eighteenth-century Italian scrolls," Journal of Semitic Studies. Supplementary Series [in print].

Short Name
Full Name
Volume
Page
Type
Documenter
Dagmara Budzioch | 2020
Researcher
Dagmara Budzioch | 2020
Architectural Drawings
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Computer Reconsdivuction
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Section Head
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Language Editor
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Donor
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Negative/Photo. No.
M001287