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(VII) Img. ID: 25219 Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor , Former flyleaf woodcut in BSB Cod.hebr. 21, originally printed in Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer des Heils by S. Fridolin, Franconia, Third quarter of the 13th century edit  
Category: Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts

General Document


2 Name/Title Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor | Unknown
3a Object Mahzor
3b Object Detail Former flyleaf woodcut in BSB Cod.hebr. 21, originally printed in Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer des Heils by S. Fridolin
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date Third quarter of the 13th century
5a Activity Dates
5b Reconstruction Dates
6 Period Unknown
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Germany | Franconia
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Germany | Munich | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
| Cod.hebr. 21 (Steinschneider 1895, No. 21)
9a Documentation / Research project Unknown
10 Location Germany | Bayern (Bavaria) | München (Munich) | Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB)
|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Franconian scribal art of the 13th century|
13 Iconographical Subject Samson, carrying Gates of Gaza (Judg. 16:1-3)
Samson, slaying lion (Judg. 14:5-6)
Samson, slaying Philistines: Thousand men with jawbone of ass (Judg. 15:15-16) |
14 Category
17 Photographer Unknown
18 Photograph Date
19 Negative/ Photo. No.
19a Scan No.
20 Description

 

 

 

   

Fig. 1: Heroic deeds of Samson

Formerly the second front or first back flyleaf woodcut in the Hybrid Ashkenazi Mahzor (BSB Cod.hebr. 21)

Munich, SGS Inv. Nr. 171525

 

 

Fig. 2: Heroic deeds of Samson, woodcut

Stephan Fridolin, Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer

des Heils, fig. 64

Nuremberg, 1491

Munich, BSB Rar. 293, fol 55v

 

Formerly the second front or first back flyleaf of Cod.hebr. 21 (now SGS, Inv. Nr. 171525; Schreiber 1969, No. 5202; Stadler 1913:13: designer B (Wolgemut); Schramm 1934:380; Hernad 1990:232-233).

The woodcut depicts four heroic deeds of Samson (fig. 1). Samson, wearing a red garment and boots, is trampling a vanquished lion lying on its back. On his left shoulder he carries the double gates ofGaza, while he holds in his right hand the ass's jawbone with which he killed the Philistines to his left. Behind him is the yellow field of corn which he burnt by using three hundred foxes, and in the background is the city ofGaza(Judg.14-16).

Framing the depiction is an acanthus scroll inhabited by men with dogs hunting a bear, a deer and two monkeys.

 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Woodcut coloured with red, green, pink and yellow.
25a Material Structure
25b Material Decoration
25c Material Bonding
25d Material Inscription
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors
25k Construction Material

26 Measurements
26a Height
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements 328 x 235 mm; without border: 250 x 177 mm
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
Bull’s head with rod and cross (Piccard, No. 56637).
33 Hallmark
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks

This woodcut (fig. 1) originally appeared in Schatzbehalter der wahren Reichtümer des Heils, fig. 64 (Treasure Chest of  the True Riches of Salvation) written by the Franciscan preacher Stephan Fridolin (1430-1498) and published by Anton Korberger in Nuremberg in 1491 (fig. 2). It is a compendium of Catholic piety illustrated with 96 woodcuts from the workshop of Michael Wolgemut and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff. Fridolin's text relates to twin depictions, by giving them a typological interpretation with reference to other woodcuts.

This scene of Samson's heroic deeds (Judg. 14:5-6, 15:4-5, 15-16, 16:1-3) and its clarification by Fridolin (BSB, Rar. 293, fol. 55v) was entitled: No.5 Alle Wirdigkeit hat Cristum bedeut. It belongs to the first article of the fifteenth counter-design (Gegenwurf), dealing with Nazarite dignity, prefigured in Old Testament figures and incarnate in Christ. In the text to this image, Fridolin states that Samson was usually remembered for his heroic deeds, due to which he is a typological figure of Christ, but not for his ‘Nazarite’ quality, i.e.  consecration to God from birth making him a holy person and a particular prefiguration of Christ. Referring to Judg. 13:5: ‘… nazareus Dei ab infantia sua et ex matris utero’ (‘… for the child [Samson] shall be a Nazarite unto God from the womb’), Fridolin compares this quality of Samson to that of Christ, discussed previously. ‘Nazareus’ (or ‘Nazarenus’) in the Gospel’s case is thus a quality that describes Christ and establishes his connection to the Old Testament Nazarites, particularly to Samson, who like Christ was conceived by divine intervention, and who therefore was a holy person and a redeemer of his people (BSB, Rar. 293, fol. 57r. See also: Sanders, ‘Nαζωραίος in Matt 2:23’, 169-72). In this sense ‘Nazareus’ was interpreted by medieval theologians, for example by Remigius of Auxerre, who stated that ‘Nazareus’ means from the town of Nazareth, where Jesus was conceived, but also a holy person, devoted to God by a vow, particularly mentioning Samson (PL, 131, Cols. 899A-C: Remigius Antissiodorensis, Homiliae, Homilia VI).

 

38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
45 Temp: Batch Number
|
46 Temp: Aleph Number
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
25219
48 Temp: Addenda

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a