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(VII) Img. ID: 172 Torah Crown, , Zhytomyr (Zhitomir), 1875 edit  
Category: Sacred and Ritual Objects

General Document


2 Name/Title Torah Crown | Unknown
3a Object Torah crown
3b Object Detail
4a Artist/ Maker Unknown (Unknown)
5 Date 1875
5a Activity Dates
5b Reconstruction Dates
6 Period Russian Empire
6a Period Detail
7 Origin Ukraine | Zhytomyrs'ka obl. | Zhytomyr (Zhitomir)
|
8 Community Ashkenazi
|
9 Collection Ukraine | Kiev | Museum of Historical Treasures of Ukraine
| DM 2291
10 Location Unknown|
11 Site Unknown
12 School/Style Unknown|
13 Iconographical Subject Aquarius (Bucket), Zodiac Sign of Shevat |
14 Category
17 Photographer Radovan, Zev
18 Photograph Date 7.1992
19 Negative/ Photo. No. 595-(13-26), (hallmark 595-29,30)
19a Scan No.
20 Description

The three tiered Torah crown is comprised of of a main section, a crest and an apex. Each tier is comprised of a base and arms. The main section has a coronet like base, composed of a round band surmounted by flowers and leaves.

The band bears three cartouches depicting animals (8965) alternating with three plain medallions. Foliate scrolls decorate the band.

The band is surmounted by flowers from which foliate scrolls emerge. Six arms that widen in the centre, are attached to the main section between the flowers. Each arm is decorated with an undulating branch with flowers. The arms bear a rams face at the bottom and are topped by a bird with spread wings standing on a cut globe. A vine scroll, with clusters of grapes from which bells hang, is attached between the arms. The arms converge at the top under a cut-dome, which bears six medallions with the signs of the zodiac (9256) set between openworked scrolls. It is surmounted by a concave unit which bears a dedicatory inscription in square filled letters which reads: דוד בן יהושע הלוי מירל קרענו בת הינדע "David son of Joshua Ha-Levi, Mir'el Kreno daughter of Hinde" A two tiered crest is mounted over the unit. The coronet like base is composed of six medallions with the rest of the zodiac signs and foliate scrolls. Six arms in the shape of rampant regardant lions support a small upper crown.

The upper crown repeats the shape of the main section. Bells hang from between the arms of the second and third tiers. A bigger bell hangs from the centre of the upper crown.

The apex is a bird with spread wings holding a bell in its beak and standing on a floral circlet. 

 
21 Ornamentation
22 Custom
23 Contents
24 Codicology
24a Scribes
24b Script
24c Number of Lines
24d Ruling
24e Pricking
24f Quires
24g Catchwords
24h Hebrew Numeration
24i Blank Leaves

25 Material/Technique
Silver
25a Material Structure cut, hammered
25b Material Decoration repousse engraved, punched, cast, sawed
25c Material Bonding screwed, soldered, nailed
25d Material Inscription engraved
25e Material Additions
25f Material Cloth
25g Material Lining
25h Tesserae Arrangement
25i Density
25j Colors
25k Construction Material

26 Measurements
26a Height 600mm
26b Length
26c Width
26d Depth
26e Circumference
26f Thickness
26g Diameter 337mm
26h Weight
26i Axis
26j Panel Measurements
27 Direction/Location
27a Façade (main)
27b Entrances
27c Location of Torah Ark
27d Location of Apse
27e Location of Niche
27f Location of Reader's Desk
27g Location of Platform
27h Temp: Architecture Axis
27i< Arrangement of Seats
27j Location of Women's Section
27k Direction Prayer
27l Direction Toward Jerusalem

28 Coin
28a Coin Series
28b Coin Ruler
28c Coin Year
28d Denomination

29 Signature
30 Colophon
31 Scribal Notes
32 Watermark
33 Hallmark
Five hallmarks are stamped on the crown.## 1. The hallmark depicts a fortress with three towers, the central one is higher. It is framed by a cut-cornered rectangle.##This is the city hallmark of Zhitomir.
cf Postnikova Losseva, p.160, no. 424
2. The hallmark depicts the cyrillic letters "P.K" (in latin) above the date 1875, within a cut-angle rectangle. This is the hallmark of unknown assayer that was active between 1873-1876.
cf Postnikova Losseva, p.160, no. 431. ##3. The hallmark depicts the cypher: 84, within a cut-angled rectangle. This is a Russian quality mark used in the 18-19c. cf Postnikova Losseva, p.148, no 12
4. The hallmark depicts the cyrillic letters:"B.SH.SH" (in latin) within a rectangular frame. These initials indicate an unidentified artist.
5. The hallmark depicts the cyrillic initials "I.R.B" (in latin) within a rectangular frame. These initials indicate an unidentified artist.
33a Group
33b Subgroup
33c Hallmark Identification
33d Hallmark Group Classification
33e Hallmark Reference
34 Trade Mark
35 Binding
36 Decoration Program
36 Summary and Remarks
For similar Torah crown see Crown from Sanok museum IJA #7449.
38 Suggested Reconstruction
39 History/Provenance
From the Kiev collection.
40 Main Surveys & Excavations
41 Condition
42 Biography
43 Bibliography
cf. Wien, Kunsthis. Mus., Thora (Ukraine), p.94-95, no.15.
43a Short Name
43b Full Name
43c Volume
43d Page

44 Type
Original
41011
45 Temp: Batch Number
41 | 011
46 Temp: Aleph Number
0008691
47 Temp: Sys. Number / Doc. Name
172
48 Temp: Addenda
:NO : Sc.8691
:MED : Metal
:DER : 3003-I1
3003-II5a
3003-II6a
3003-II9ab
3003-IV1a
3003-IV3 ## Her
:LN : ENG

Registrar
Function: Name: Date:
49 Documenter P.F. (Michael Tal) 7.1992 49a
50 Researcher 50a
51 Architectural Drawings 51a
52 Computer Reconstruction 52a
53 Section Head 53a
54 Editor 54a
55 Donor 55a